Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Section Scope Statements
    • Types of Papers
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Authorship
    • Changes to authorship
    • Clinical trial results
    • Registration of clinical trials
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Informed consent and patient details
    • Submission
    • Use of word processing software
    • LaTeX
    • Article structure
    • Essential Title Page Information
    • Abstract
    • Statement of Clinical Relevance
    • Methods
    • Acknowledgements
    • Units
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplementary Data
    • NEW! Virtual Microscope Feature
    • Letters to the Editor
    • Announcements
    • 3D radiological data
    • Submission Checklist
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs

    Section Scope Statements

    The Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Section aims to publish an extensive range of original articles that advances patient care through enhanced understanding of diagnosis, surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, and injuries and defects involving both the functional and esthetic aspects of the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions. The section also seeks research regarding both the basic science of and management of persons with oral and maxillofacial conditions. Articles presenting ethical, original, well-documented, and reproducible research are given preference.

    The Oral Medicine Section aims to publish a broad range of original articles that help clinicians understand more thoroughly the pathobiology, etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management of oral conditions related to underlying medical conditions, including diseases of the head, neck, and oral mucosal structures, orofacial pain conditions, salivary gland disorders, and taste disorders. The section also seeks research regarding the dental management of persons with medical problems and/or complicated medical conditions. The published findings must contribute substantively to the body of oral medicine literature and should lead to improved clinical decision-making and enhanced care of medically-related disorders or conditions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Articles presenting original, well-documented, and reproducible research are preferred.

    The Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Section encourages the submission of original articles of high scientific quality that investigate the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Submitted manuscripts may summarize findings from clinical, translational, or basic research in the broad field of oral and maxillofacial pathology but must contribute substantively to the body of knowledge in this field and should be of obvious clinical and/or diagnostic significance to the practicing oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Areas of focus may include the investigation of disease pathogenesis, the diagnosis of disease using microscopic, clinical, radiographic, biochemical, molecular, or other methods as well as the natural history and management of patients with various conditions of the head, neck, and oral mucosal structures. Articles presenting novel and reproducible research that introduce new knowledge and observations are especially encouraged. This section also welcomes the submission of topical review papers on relevant subjects.

    The Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Section publishes original peer-reviewed contributions to the advancement of diagnostic clinical oral and maxillofacial radiology and related imaging sciences. The section considers original clinical and experimental research papers, technological developments, extensive systematic reviews of the literature, comprehensive pictorial reviews, special reports, and invited papers on subjects that will appeal to clinicians involved in the diagnostic imaging of hard and soft tissue maxillofacial pathology, selection criteria, computer-assisted diagnosis, craniofacial analysis, image-guided surgical navigation, image processing, dosimetry, radiation physics, biology, and safety.
    The section also seeks extensive case series representing various expressions of particular conditions, descriptions of innovative imaging technique applications to these series, and description of novel imaging features to assist imaging specialists develop clinical protocols and interpretive knowledge based on multiple observations. Only papers contributing substantively to the body of knowledge in oral and maxillofacial imaging and performed with scientific rigor will be considered. These papers should assist clinicians in developing evidence-based practice and provide improved clinical decision-making regarding the performance of specific techniques and interpretation of resulting images affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Diagnostic accuracy studies should conform to the principles of the STARD document

    Types of Papers

    1. Original Research Article. Reports of original research (preclinical, clinical, or translational) that are well-documented, novel, and significant. Original research manuscripts will be organized into six parts: (1) Abstract; (2) Introduction; (3) Materials and methods; (4) Results; (5) Discussion; (6) References.

    2. Review article. Manuscripts that review the current status of a given topic, diagnosis, or treatment. These manuscripts should not be an exhaustive review of the literature but rather should be a review of contemporary thought with respect to the topic.

    3. Clinicopathologic Conference (CPC). Manuscripts that present interesting, challenging, or unusual cases. The presentation should simulate clinical work-up, including the formulation of a detailed and well thought out differential diagnosis. The complete diagnostic evaluation, management, and follow-up must be included. CPC articles must be organized into six parts: (1) Title: Provide a descriptive clinical title that does not reveal the final diagnosis. (2) Clinical presentation: Describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of the lesion. Use clinical photographs and radiographs as appropriate. (3) Differential diagnosis: List and discuss lesions to be considered as reasonable diagnostic possibilities. The authors are reminded that the most important part of the CPC manuscript is the clinical differential diagnosis, where the authors guide the readership through their own diagnostic thought process. This will require the formulation of a list of the most probable diagnostic possibilities (ideally at least 5-6 entities) based on the clinical presentation, medical history, and/or radiographic studies. (4) Diagnosis: Histopathologic findings illustrated with appropriate photomicrographs. (5) Management: Describe the treatment of the patient and response to treatment. (6) Discussion: Concentrate on the most interesting aspect(s) of the case. No abstract is needed for CPC manuscripts.

    4. Medical Management and Pharmacology Update (MMPU). This section is intended to provide concise, current reviews of medical problems and how they relate to dentistry. Manuscripts should include a good review of the clinical aspects of the disease, stressing the impact of the disease on the dental management and dental treatment of the patient. Emphasis should be placed on new developments, new research, or new approaches to therapy or management. Manuscripts should not be an exhaustive review of the literature but rather a review of contemporary thought with respect to the topic. Likewise, the bibliography need not be all inclusive but rather should include only seminal, contemporary references deemed by the author to be most pertinent. The desired format for manuscripts submitted for the MMPU section includes: (1) abstract; (2) topic introduction/overview; (3) epidemiology/demographics; (4) etiology and pathogenesis; (5) clinical presentation/physical findings; (6) diagnosis (laboratory tests, diagnostic imaging, etc.); (7) medical management and treatment; (8) complications; (9) prognosis; oral manifestations/dental implications and significance; and (10) dental management (of patients with the disease). Manuscripts should not exceed 12 pages in 12-point, double-spaced Times New Roman (tables and figures count toward the 12-page limit).

    5. Pharmacology Update is a component of the MMPU section that offers the reader the opportunity to obtain concise information regarding drugs used in the practice of medicine, clinical dentistry, and dental specialties. Manuscripts should present clearly and concisely the background information regarding the disease or condition that is managed, the indications, rationale for and approved uses of the specific drugs or class of drugs, the advantages and benefits of the drug or drug class over previous drugs, mechanism of action, criteria for selection, usual dosage, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, drug interactions, and oral health and dental management considerations. Emphasis should be placed on new developments, effectiveness in clinical trials, therapeutic outcomes, and safety. Manuscripts should reflect contemporary thought with respect to the topic. Use of figures to illustrate the mechanism of action and tables to present therapeutic outcomes, drug interactions, and adverse effects are encouraged. Manuscripts should utilize the MMPU categories for formatting the paper. Text should not exceed 3,000 words. Font should be 12-point, double-spaced Times New Roman. A maximum of 50 references is recommended.

    6. Case Reports. These types of publications often add little to the scientific knowledge base. However, excellent case reports may be published as online only papers if they meet certain criteria, such as: (1) rare or unusual lesions/conditions that need documentation, (2) well-documented cases showing unusual or "atypical" clinical or microscopic features or behavior, or (3) cases showing good long-term follow-up information, particularly in areas in which good statistics on results of treatment are needed.

    General inquiries and communications regarding editorial management should be addressed to Alice M. Landwehr, Managing Editor:
    General correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief, Mark W. Lingen, DDS, PhD:
    Publisher-specific inquiries should be addressed to: Jane Ryley, Elsevier Inc., 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043; e-mail:
    Issue Manager, Jill Shepherd. Telephone: (352) 483-8113; fax: (352) 483-3417; e-mail:

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.


    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Clinical trial results

    In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

    Registration of clinical trials

    Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.


    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see
    Open access articles please see

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3,000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


    Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.


    You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class elsarticle.cls ( to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX ( to generate your bibliography.
    For detailed submission instructions, templates and other information on LaTeX, see

    Article structure

    Subdivision - unnumbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Results should be clear and concise.

    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential Title Page Information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names, academic degrees, positions, and institutional affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
    Disclosures must appear on the title page (see “Conflict of Interest” above).


    Statement of Clinical Relevance

    For Original research, Review, and MMPU manuscripts, please provide a brief statement of no more than 40 words that succinctly summarizes the clinical relevance of the findings described in your manuscript.


    As relevant, the Methods section should describe in adequate detail the experimental subjects, their important characteristics, and the methods, apparatus, and procedures used so that other researchers can reproduce the experiment. When the paper reports experiments on human subjects, the methods section must indicate that the protocol was reviewed by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB), is in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and that each subject in the project signed a detailed informed consent form.


    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Submit color illustrations as original photographs, high-quality computer prints or transparencies, close to the size expected in publication, or as 35 mm slides. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
    Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale'(for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference Style
    Text: Indicate references by superscript number(s) in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    Example: '..... as demonstrated.3,6 Barnaby and Jones8 obtained a different result ....'
    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Reference to a journal publication:
    1. J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    2. W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary Data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

    Upload material, figures, and tables for online publication under the submission item "Supplementary Material" through the EES system. Be sure to change the description of the Supplementary Material to reflect the content; for example, Supplementary Detailed Methodology, Supplementary Figure Sx, Supplementary Table Sx.

    Please order material such as Figures and Supplemental Figures separately in order of the callouts/first mentions in the text. For example: Figure 1, Figure 2; Supplemental Figure S1, Supplemental Figure S2, etc.

    In the text be sure that you add behind the reference to the supplemental material "(Supplemental Table Sx; available at [URL/link*])." *To be provided by the production department.

    NEW! Virtual Microscope Feature

    After submission of your paper, if it contains conventional slide images, you will receive an invitation to complement the low resolution slide images with high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope. After accepting the invitation, you will have the opportunity to upload the high resolution slide images using the Virtual Microscope authoring system and will receive instructions on how to include references to the high resolution slides in your manuscript. Readers of your final, published paper will be able to see the slides at their highest resolution using the Virtual Microscope and can link from the article straight to the slides. For more information about the Virtual Microscope:

    For uploading of the slide images or for support, please contact

    Letters to the Editor

    Letters to the Editor should be a succinct comment pertaining to a paper(s) published in the Journal within the past year or to related topics. Provide a unique title for the Letter on the title page with complete contact information for the author(s). Double-space the text of the Letter. References, including reference to the pertinent article(s) in the Journal, should conform to style for manuscripts (see References). If accepted, the author(s) of the pertinent article(s) may be contacted to prepare a response to the comment.


    Announcements must be received by the Editorial Office at least 10 weeks before the desired month of publication. Items published at no charge include those received from a sponsoring society of the Journal; courses and conferences sponsored by state, regional, or national dental organizations; and programs for the dental profession sponsored by government agencies. All other announcements selected for publication by the Editor carry a charge of $60 US, and the fee must accompany the request to publish.

    3D radiological data

    You can enrich your online article by providing 3D radiological data in DICOM format. Radiological data will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article, and will enable them to: browse through available radiological datasets; explore radiological data as 2D series, 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D volume rendering and 3D MIP; zoom, rotate and pan 3D reconstructions; cut through the volume; change opacity and threshold level; and download the data. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to be zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the '3D radiological data' submission category. The recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 200 MB or less. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading each ZIP file. Note: all datasets will be available for download from the online article on ScienceDirect. So please ensure that all DICOM files are anonymized prior to submission. For more information see:

    Submission Checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    __ Letter of submission, to include disclosure of any previous publications or submissions with any overlapping information
    __ Statement of clinical relevance (uploaded separately)
    __ Title page
    __ Title of article
    __ Full names(s), academic degree(s), affiliation(s) and titles of author(s)
    __ Author to whom correspondence, proof, and reprint requests are to be sent, including address and business and home telephone numbers, fax number, and e-mail address
    __ Any conflict of interest statement(s), disclosure(s), and/or financial support information, including donations
    __ Word count for the abstract (if relevant to article type), a complete manuscript word count (to include body text and figure legends), number of references, and number of figures/tables
    __ Structured abstract (double-spaced as part of manuscript file), as relevant to article type
    __ Article proper (double-spaced)
    __ Statement of IRB review and compliance with Helsinki Declaration (stated in Methods section of manuscript, as relevant)
    __ References (double-spaced on a separate page of the manuscript file)
    __ Figure legends (double-spaced, on a separate page of the manuscript file)
    __ Tables (double-spaced, uploaded separately as word processing [eg, .doc] files)
    __ Illustrations, properly formatted (uploaded as separate files)
    __ Video/computer graphics, properly formatted (uploaded as separate files)
    __ Signed permission to reproduce any previously published material, in all forms and media (scanned in as a file and uploaded as Permission)
    __ Signed permission to publish photographs of identifiable persons from the individual or legal guardian specifying permission in all forms and media (scanned in as a file and uploaded as Permission)
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via


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