Guide for Authors

  • Submission of articles

    Electronic submissions only

    All manuscripts and any supplementary material should be submitted via the journal's online submission and peer-review systems at Please follow the instructions given on this site.

    IMPORTANT NOTE: In case you submit a special issue paper that will be handled by a designated Special Issue Guest Editor, please follow the instructions below:
    1. Author registers in EES (follow the instructions on the site
    2. Select: Submit Manuscript from Main Menu
    3. When choosing Article Type please select the title of the special issue you are submitting to

    From then on follow the steps as laid out in EES. The manuscript is submitted to the Editorial Office who then assigns it to the Guest Editor in charge of that specific special issue.

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all Authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection software iThenticate.
    See also

    NOTE: electronic articles submitted for the review process may need to be edited after acceptance to follow journal standards. For this an editable file format is necessary. See the section on "Electronic format requirements for accepted articles" and the further instructions on how to prepare your article below.

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a "Journal Publishing Agreement"'(for more information on this and copyright see Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail (or letter) will be sent to the corresponding author conforming receipt of the manuscript together with a "Journal Publishing Agreement" form.

    If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: contact Elsevier's Rights Department, Oxford, UK: phone (+44) 1865 843830, fax (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail Requests may also be completed online via the Elsevier homepage (

    Open Access

    This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research:

    Open Access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder

    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
    • No Open Access publication fee

    All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

    Creative Commons Attribution (CC–BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

    Creative Commons Attribution–Non Commercial–ShareAlike (CC BY–NC–SA): for non–commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY NC SA).

    Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial–NoDerivs (CC–BY–NC–ND): for non–commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.

    The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $USD 2400, excluding taxes.

    Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy

    Review process
    The objective is to provide detailed, constructive feedback on submitted papers and publish high quality papers within a very short period of time. The target for a first reply is three months. You may be requested by the Editor to submit a revision. Please assist us in achieving our ambitious goals for short publication times by submitting a revision at your earliest convenience.

    Electronic format requirements for accepted articles

    General points
    We accept most wordprocessing formats, but Word, WordPerfect or LaTeX is preferred. Always keep a backup copy of the electronic file for reference and safety. Save your files using the default extension of the program used.

    Wordprocessor documents
    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. Do not embed 'graphically designed' equations or tables, but prepare these using the wordprocessor's facility. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Author Gateway's Getting Published with Elsevier: Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. See also the section on Preparation of electronic illustrations.To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spellchecker' function of your wordprocessor.

    LaTeX documents
    If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier's document class "elsart" , or alternatively the standard document class "article".
    The Elsevier LaTeX package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from the Quickguide: or from the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN) in the directory /tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/supported/elsevier. It consists of the files: elsart.cls, guidelines for users of elsart, a template file for quick start, and the instruction booklet "Preparing articles with LaTeX".

    Submitting your illustrations, pictures, tables and other artwork in an electronic format helps us to produce your work to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail. For detailed guidelines on electronic figures, please refer to This site shows how to prepare your artwork for electronic submission and includes: common problems, suggestions on how to ensure the best results, and guidelines for popular applications.

    Presentation of manuscripts

    Please write your text in good English.

    Title page. The title page should contain the article title, author(s) names and affiliations, related footnotes, the text of the abstract and a list of keywords.

    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the correct e-mail address and the complete postal address.

    Keywords. Immediately after the abstract, provide 3-5 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of').

    Acknowledgements. Place acknowledgements before the references, in a separate section, and not as a footnote on the title page.

    References. See separate section below.

    Language Polishing Authors who require information about language editingand copyediting services pre-and post-submission please visit or contact for more infformation. Please note Elsevier never endorses nor takes responsibility for any product, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our Term and Conditions


    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume and issue/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
    List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Reference to a journal publication:
    [1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    [2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    [3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.

    One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author, to be checked for typesetting/editing. No changes in, or additions to, the accepted (and subsequently edited) manuscript will be allowed at this stage. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Elsevier will do everything possible to get your article corrected and published as quickly and accurately as possible. In order to do this we need your help. When you receive the (PDF) proof of your article for correction, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Subsequent corrections will not be possible, so please ensure your first sending is complete. Note that this does not mean you have any less time to make your corrections, just that only one set of corrections will be accepted.

    The Publisher reserves the right to proceed with publication if corrections are not communicated to the Publisher within the term requested with the proofs (within 48 hours). Should there be no corrections, please confirm this.

    Online proof correction
    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our ProofCentral system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.

    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Author enquiries
    For enquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available), please visit this journal's homepage at From here you can also track accepted articles ( and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an article's status has changed, as well as detailed artwork guidelines, copyright information, frequently asked questions and more.

    Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those related to proofs, are provided after registration of an article for publication.

    Author benefits
    • Free online reproduction of colour figures.

    • Online visibility within three weeks after acceptance through ScienceDirect ( Your article is immediatly linkable and citeable by using the Digital Object Identifier.

    • The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. The PDF file is a watermaked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.

    • Authors are entitled to a 30% discount on Elsevier books.

    • Page charges are not applicable.


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