Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of Papers
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in Publishing
    • Policy and ethics
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    • Additional information
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Subdivision
    • Introduction
    • Experimental procedures
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusions
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Units
    • Nomenclature and units
    • Database linking
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Reference style
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • 3D neuroimaging
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Neuroscience publishes the results of original research on any aspect of the scientific study of the nervous system. Papers most suitable for publication are those that report new observations that directly contribute to our understanding of how the nervous system works. Any paper, however short, will be considered for publication provided that it reports significant, new and carefully confirmed findings with full experimental details.

    Neuroscience does not have page or figure restrictions, and authors are encouraged to write complete papers that contain all the data necessary to present their findings persuasively.

    Editorial Organisation
    The Chief and Associate Editors seek advice from Section Editors representing all major areas of research:

    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
    • Cognitive, Behavioral, and Systems Neuroscience
    • Neurodegeneration, Neuroprotection and Disease-Oriented Neuroscience
    • Pain Mechanisms and Sensory Neuroscience
    • Regeneration, Repair, and Developmental Neuroscience

    Section Editors suggest appropriate reviewers and also recommend an editorial decision based on the reviews.
    Each paper is typically evaluated by at least two Editors or ad hoc reviewers. Papers are accepted by the Chief and Associate Editors in consultation with the appropriate Section Editor.

    Stephen G. Lisberger, Dept. of Physiology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA; sgl@phy.ucsf.edu
    Etienne C. Hirsch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche S975, Paris, France; etienne.hirsch@upmc.fr

    Section Editors (and specialties)
    Yuri Bozzi (cellular and molecular neuroscience), Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, Trento, Italy

    Susan M. Carlton(pain mechanisms), Dept. of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas, Galvaston, TX, USA

    Maria Teresa Carri (cellular and molecular neuroscience), Dept. of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

    Eleanor Coffey (molecular neuroscience), Turku Centre for Biotechnology, Åbo Akademi University and University of Turku, Turku, Finland

    Julie Fudge (systems neuroscience, functional neuroanatomy), School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

    Liisa Galea (behavioral neuroendocrinology, cognition, stress, aging), Dept. of Psychology University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

    Robert F. Hevner (development, stem cells, repair), Dept. of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    Tadashi Isa (Systems neuroscience), Dept. Of Developmental Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan

    Lutz Jäncke (cognitive neuroscience, motor control), Institute of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

    Marlies Knipper (sensory neuroscience), Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tűbingen Hearing Research Centre, Tűbingen, Germany

    Heiko Luhman (cellular neuroscience), Inst. of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Mainz, Germany

    Stéphane Oliet (cellular neuroscience), Dept of Neuroscience, Institut Francois Magendie, Bordeaux, France

    Elizabeth M. Powell (behavioural neuroscience, learning and memory), Dept of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore,MD,USA

    Rainald Schmidt-Kastner (neuroprotection, cerebral ischemia), C.E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA

    Susan Sesack (pharmacology, drugs of abuse, behavior), Dept. of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA

    Günther Sperk (molecular/cellular approaches to systems and disease), Dept. Of Pharmacology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria


    The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Neuroscience is a member of the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC). The NPRC has been formed to reduce the time expended and, in particular, the duplication of effort by, and associated burden on reviewers involved in the peer review of original neuroscience research papers. It is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other Consortium journals. By reducing the number of times that a manuscript is reviewed, the Consortium will reduce the load on reviewers and Editors, and speed the publication of research results.

    If a manuscript has been rejected by another journal in the Consortium, authors can submit the manuscript to Neuroscience and indicate that the referees' reports from the first journal be made available to the Editors of Neuroscience.

    It is the authors' decision as to whether or not to indicate that a set of referee's reports should be forwarded from the first journal to Neuroscience . If an author does not wish for this to happen, the manuscript can be submitted to Neuroscience without reference to the previous submission. No information will be exchanged between journals except at the request of authors. However, if the original referees' reports suggested that the paper is of high quality, but not suitable for the first journal, then it will often be to an author's advantage to indicate that referees' reports should be made available.

    Authors should revise the original submission in accordance with the first journal's set of referee reports, reformat the paper to Neuroscience's specification and submit the paper to Neuroscience with a covering letter describing the changes that have been made, and informing the Editors that the authors will ask for the referee's reports to be forwarded from the first Consortium journal. The authors then must contact the first journal, and ask that reviews be forwarded, indicating they have submitted to Neuroscience, and providing the new manuscript ID number.

    The Editors of Neuroscience will use forwarded referees' reports at their discretion. The Editors may use the reports directly to make a decision, or they may request further reviews if they feel such are necessary.

    Visit http://nprc.incf.org for a list of Consortium journals, as well as further information on the scheme.

    Types of Papers

    (a) Research papers. These are full-length papers describing original research. There are no specific page limits although authors are encouraged to be as concise as possible and to use as few, high quality illustrations as necessary to adequately document their findings. Former rapid reports that describe outstanding new discoveries fall under this category and should follow the same layout as research papers. All papers are handled rapidly.

    (b) Reviews (previously known as Commentaries). These are short articles (3,000 to 10,000 words in length), not exhaustive reviews, that are intended to either draw attention to developments in a specific area of research, to bring together observations that seem to point the field in a new direction, to give the author's personal views on a controversial topic, or to direct soundly based criticism at some widely held dogma or widely used technique in neuroscience. Reviews may also provide an historical perspective on an area of neuroscience research. Authors should make their Review understandable to a broad spectrum of neuroscientists. Potential authors are invited to submit a letter of interest to the Section Editor for Reviews and Special Issues or to the Chief or Associate Editors indicating the topic of a potential Review. Proposals for reviews or commentaries should also contain an outline of the contents, including an abstract ( 200 words), a list of 10 relevant articles including 5 from the proposer's own research, and a brief statement on why now is a good time to review the topic in question. Reviews will not be accepted for editorial processing unless pre-approved for submission.

    (c) Neuroscience Forefront Reviews. These are invited reviews from a select list of scientists who have introduced new concepts, models, or methods in neurobiology. Forefront Reviews enable the authors to express their own opinions in a rigorous way. There is no page limit and the author/authors may choose the focus of the review as long as it remains scientifically sound. The reviews will be promoted through IBRO's websites and publications, and will be highly visible in the scientific community.

    (d) Special Issues. These are published as separate volumes with prominent neuroscientists as guest editors. Special Issues are devoted to specific topics, preferably "emergent topics" that open new fields in neurobiological research. The Special Issues are used actively in the promotion of Neuroscience.

    A Special Issue is not a loose collection of topically related articles but a concerted attempt to provide an overview of the status of an emerging field. Cross references between the articles are strongly encouraged.

    A Special Issue should normally contain 20-25 articles, corresponding to 200-300 printed pages in total. The articles may include original data. At least one of the articles (typically signed by the guest editors) should provide a general discussion of the implications of the recent advances in the field, and should attempt to identify the directions and challenges of future research.

    Manuscripts are subjected to the review process according to the same high standards of quality as regular issues of Neuroscience. The Guest Editor(s) identify reviewers and take responsibility for the further editorial handling of the manuscripts, supported by the San Diego office. As for regular papers, the final decision on each article is taken by the Chief Editor.

    Suggestions for special issues should be sent to Prof. Stephen Lisberger, Editor-in-Chief, at sgl@phy.ucsf.edu. They should contain an outline of the contents, including an abstract ( 200 words), a list of articles with preliminary titles and contributors, and a brief statement on why now is a good time to review the topic in question.

    Ethics in Publishing

    For information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/ethicalguidelines

    All submissions to Neuroscience must contain experiments that conform to the ethical standards printed below. To confirm their agreement with this, authors are required to include the following statement in their cover letter indicating their agreement with these standards: "I have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience." A list of ethical standards is not required in the cover letter.

    Policy and ethics

    The authors declare that all experiments on human subjects were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html and that all procedures were carried out with the adequate understanding and written consent of the subjects.

    The authors also certify that formal approval to conduct the experiments described has been obtained from the human subjects review board of their institution and could be provided upon request.

    If the studies deal with animal experiments, the authors certify that they were carried out in accordance with the National Institute of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH Publications No. 80-23) revised 1996 or the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and associated guidelines, or the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC).

    The authors also certify that formal approval to conduct the experiments described has been obtained from the animal subjects review board of their institution and could be provided upon request.

    The authors further attest that all efforts were made to minimize the number of animals used and their suffering.

    If the ethical standard governing the reported research is different from those guidelines indicated above, the authors must provide information in the submission cover letter about which guidelines and oversight procedures were followed.

    The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts in which there is any question as to the appropriate and ethical use of human or animal subjects.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Contributors
    Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

    Addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include:

    • The reason the name should be added or removed or the author names rearranged.
    • Written confirmation (email, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

    Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that:

    • Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests.
    • Publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue
    Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for Open Access in this journal is $2,200, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submission address
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/nsc.

    Authors are strongly encouraged to use this Web-based submission system. However, for those who are unable to submit via the Web, please contact neuroscience@journal-office.com or Neuroscience Editorial Office, 525 B Street, Suite 1800, San Diego, CA 92101, USA; FAX: 619-699-6859.

    Referees

    It is in your best interest to suggest some suitable reviewers and we request that you do so. You may suggest up to 6 reviewers. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Additional information

    All manuscripts are subject to any modifications required by the Editorial Office to conform to Journal policy.

    Cover illustrations

    Authors are encouraged to submit visually and scientifically interesting figure(s) representative of their data, though not necessarily as they appear in the manuscript, for potential cover illustrations (see specific instructions for submission of cover art under PREPARATION / Color Artwork below). The use of illustrations for journal covers is at the discretion of the Editors; only those related to articles accepted for publication will be considered. At the end of each year, all published covers will automatically be considered in a competition for the year's best cover illustration, and will be judged on their aesthetic value and scientific interest. Submitted cover images not created by the author group must include the reprint permission and source. The author(s) of the winning image will receive US$ 500 from Elsevier.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Manuscripts should be written in English in a concise and understandable style. Technical jargon or "laboratory slang'' should not be used. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that the manuscript is written in a style that is grammatically correct and free of spelling or other typographical errors.

    All manuscripts must be typewritten with double-spacing throughout and with margins at least 2.5 cm wide. Pages should be numbered in succession, the title page being no. 1.

    The Editorial Office reserves the right to revise the wording of manuscripts accepted for publication in the journal.

    Subdivision

    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to "the text". Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Research papers should be organized in the following four main sections: Introduction, Experimental Procedures, Results, Discussion

    Reviews should have an introductory section, followed by several information presentation sections and then end with a conclusion section. Section headings should be used to organize the presentation of information.

    Introduction

    This should provide the scientific rationale for the research that is reported. No heading "Introduction" should be used, and no results should be presented.

    Experimental procedures

    Procedures used in the research should be described in sufficient detail to permit the replication of the work by others. Previously published procedures should be referenced and briefly summarized. The source of all materials, including animals and human tissue, must be provided. The location of each supplier should be detailed on first use in the text. The author(s) also agree(s) to make freely available to colleagues in academic research any clones of cells, nucleic acids, antibodies, etc. that were used in the research reported and that are not available from commercial suppliers. Authors must clearly describe all manipulations made to digital data that were collected as images, and images which have been scanned and printed for publication.

    Results

    This section presents findings without discussion of their significance. Subsections should be used in order to present results in an organized fashion.

    Discussion

    This section presents the authors' interpretations of their findings and an assessment of their significance in relation to previous work. Avoid repetition of material presented in the Results section. The Results and Discussion sections may not be combined.

    Conclusions

    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of the Discussion section.

    Glossary
    Please supply, as a separate list, the definitions of field-specific terms used in your article.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly (in less than 300 words) the purpose of the research and the principal results obtained. The abstract should conclude with a final statement summarizing the major conclusions in such a way that the implications of the work to the field would be clear to a general neuroscience reader. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights
    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 125 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    The excessive use of abbreviations in the text is strongly discouraged. In order to aid communication between scientists of different disciplines, authors should only use abbreviations sparingly and should always define the abbreviation when first used in the text by placing it in parentheses after the full term, e.g. acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The abbreviations should then be used consistently thereafter and appear at least twice in the text. A comprehensive list of the abbreviations used should be put on a separate page that follows the title page.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). It is the corresponding author's responsibility to insure that individuals who are acknowledged for assistance or for providing comments on the manuscript are agreeable to being acknowledged in this way.

    Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Nomenclature and units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUGS: Nomenclature for geological time scales/rock names: http://www.iugs.org/for further information.

    Symbols for physical units should be restricted to the Systems Internationale (S.I.) Units. Drug names should be the official or approved names; trade names or common names may be given in brackets where the drug is first mentioned. The manufacturer's name must be given. The doses of the drugs should be given as unit weight/unit body weight, e.g. mmol/kg or mg/kg.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
    • Submit each figure as a separate file.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
    TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
    • Do not supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
    • Do not supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
    • Do not supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Do not submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Cover art
    Illustrations to be considered for the cover should be related to the authors' submittedC article and be representative of their data, but need not necessarily be as they appear in the manuscript. Cover art should be formatted to occupy the entire 8.5 X 11 inch cover and should be submitted in digital format (TIFF, Photoshop, JPEG or Powerpoint) with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Please also include a descriptive text with your cover art submission. The files should be uploaded to a specified FTP site. Please contact the Editorial Office at neuroscience@journal-office.com for instructions. For authors who wish to postal mail a CD with the cover art, please send it to: Neuroscience Editorial Office, 525 B Street, Suite 1700, San Diego, CA 92101, U.S.A. Please ensure that the manuscript reference number is included on all materials.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Text graphics
    Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. See further under Electronic artwork.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    The reference list should be included at the end of the main text. A paper which has been accepted for publication but which has not appeared may be cited in the reference list with the abbreviated name of the journal followed by the words "in press". See Reference Style below.

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Personal Communications may be used only when written authorization from the communicator is submitted with the original manuscript; they may be mentioned only in the text and in the following form: (G.H. Orwell, Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, personal communication). Unpublished or submitted experiments by one of the authors may be mentioned only in the text, not in the References. Initials, as well as surnames, must be given for authors whose unpublished experiments are quoted: (M.L. King, unpublished observations).

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference to arXiv
    As with unpublished results and personal communications, references to arXiv documents are not recommended in the reference list. Please make every effort to obtain the full reference of the published version of an arXiv document. If a reference to an arXiv document must be included in the references list it should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the volume and page numbers with 'arXiv:YYMM.NNNN' or 'arXiv:arch-ive/YYMMNNN' for articles submitted to arXiv before April 2007.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference style

    In the text, references should be quoted as the name of the first author and year in chronological order. Multiple authors are indicated by "et al.", except when there are only two authors, in which case both names are written. For example, The pattern of the pathology instead represents a synaptically connected network of neurons (Braak and Braak, 1991; Morris, 1997). This hypothesis was recently proposed by Nagy et al. (1997).

    The reference list should be on a separate page at the end of the manuscript, in alphabetical order and arranged as follows: authors' names and initials, year, title of the article, abbreviated title of the journal, volume, first and last page numbers. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the rules adopted in the fourth edition of the World List of Scientific Periodicals (Butterworths, 1965). Note that first and last pages are given in full. For example, Nagy ZA, Esiri MM, Cato A-M, Smith AD (1997), Cell cycle markers in the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropath 94:6-15.

    References to books should include the authors' names and initials, year, title of book, volume, publisher, place of publication and page numbers. Where relevant, the title of a paper within a book, and the editor's name(s) should be given. For example, Morris JH (1997) Alzheimer's disease. In: The neuropathology of dementia, vol. 2 (Esiri MM, Morris JH, eds), pp 70-121. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Neuroscience accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, sound clips, videos, and other formats that cannot yet be embedded in our standard PDF files Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    For Neuroscience, authors are allowed to post supplementary material for review, but for publication supplementary material will be restricted to formats that cannot be published in the standard form of a PDF, such as movies.

    3D neuroimaging

    You can enrich your online articles by providing 3D neuroimaging data in NIfTI format. This will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article, and will enable them to: browse through available neuroimaging datasets; zoom, rotate and pan the 3D brain reconstruction; cut through the volume; change opacity and color mapping; switch between 3D and 2D projected views; and download the data. The viewer supports both single (.nii) and dual (.hdr and .img) NIfTI file formats. Recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 100 MB or less. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to be zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the '3D neuroimaging data' submission category. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading a dataset. Note: all datasets will be available for downloading from the online article on ScienceDirect. If you have concerns about your data being downloadable, please provide a video instead. For more information see: http://www.elsevier.com/3DNeuroimaging.

    Submission checklist
    It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal's Editor for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One Author designated as corresponding Author:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone and fax numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked"
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Cover letter includes your agreement to the ethical standards: "I have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience," as well as the other statement that all authors have approved the final article.
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://epsupport.elsevier.com.

    See also the IBRO Website http://www.ibro.org

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. For an extra charge, more paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

    See also the IBRO Website www.ibro.org



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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