Guide for Authors

  • Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that their contents, all or in part, have not been published and will not be published elsewhere, except in the Abstract form or with the consent of the Editor. Material received for consideration will be acknowledged. Manuscripts will be initially reviewed by the Editor for suitability for formal review and would then be reviewed by peer Reviewers on originality, methodology, scientific content and quality, clinical importance and overall suitability for publication. Reviewer comments will be sent to the corresponding author for response, revision and resubmission within a specified timeframe. Manuscripts accepted for publication are edited for grammar, punctuation and format. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for corrections and resubmission by email.

    Articles once rejected will not be entertained for reconsideration. The decision of the Editorial Board will be considered final for all purposes.

    Articles resubmitted after the stipulated period has lapsed will be treated as new submissions and may be freshly registered at the discretion of the Editorial Board.


    All individuals designated as authors should qualify for authorship.

    An 'author' is considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. An author must take responsibility for at least one component of the work, should be able to identify who is responsible for each component, and should ideally be confident of their co-authors' ability and integrity.

    Authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet all the above conditions.

    Participation solely in the acquisition of funding, for the collection of data or data entry, and general routine supervision does not justify authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of all the co-authors. Once submitted, the order will not be changed without written consent of all the co-authors.

    Intellectual contribution

    The contribution of each author is to be mentioned, on the Title Page only, in all multi-author research papers (Original Articles only) under the following headings: Study Concept, Drafting & Manuscript Revision, Statistical Analysis, Study Supervision.

    Conflicts of Interest

    Authors should submit a conflict of interest statement which will be published with every article. The purpose of the statement is to ensure that any factors —personal relationships, financial connections (e.g. AFMRC Projects, ICMR Projects), sponsorships— that might bias the author of an article, are declared so that readers are aware of the potential conflict of interest and can include that knowledge in the assessment of information. Stating a conflict of interest does not disqualify an author from publication.


    Contents of the MJAFI are covered by copyright. MJAFI does not accept any responsibility for the statements made by the authors. The Editorial Board has the right to introduce such changes in the articles as may be considered necessary for effectiveness of communication.


    Plagiarism is the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one's own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas of another. Plagiarism is considered by the MJAFI as scientific or professional misconduct and authors and reviewers are advised to be careful to maintain high ethical standards. Please view

    Submission of Manuscript

    All new manuscripts must be submitted through Medical Journal Armed Forces India web site ( Hard copy submissions are no longer accepted and will be returned to authors at their cost. Please follow the following steps to submit your manuscript:

    1. At the Journal's website, register yourself and create a user profile with a 'user name' and other mandatory details. On submission of this information, you will receive an email confirming your registration along with the 'Password' which can be changed by you subsequently.
    2. Enter your username and password in the appropriate fields and click "Author Login" which will take you to the "Author Main Menu".

    Note: Please note that the username and password combination required for Elsevier Editorial System maybe different from your username and password combination used to "Track your paper" on the Elsevier "Authors' Home" website.

    By submitting a manuscript online, the author agrees to the following:

    1. The work is original and free from plagiarism.
    2. It has not been submitted for publication/is not under consideration for publication at another Journal.
    3. All authors are aware of the order of authorship. The submitting author shall be solely responsible in case disputes arise.
    4. Once published, copyright of manuscript shall stand transferred to the Journal.
    5. 'Conflict of interest' if any, must be explicitly stated at the end of the manuscript.

    The Guidelines for Authors are in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" as published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors at


    The manuscript should be typed in single space throughout on A4 paper setting. Font size should be of UK English Arial 12 points. The identity of the author or institute should not be revealed in the manuscript, except on the title page. (For example, do not mention name of institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs etc).

    The manuscript comprises (1) Certificates, (2) Title page, (3) Abstract and keywords, (4) Text, (5) References, (6) Tables, (7) Legends for illustrations and (8) Illustrations. All these must be uploaded separately in the same order.

    (1) Certificates: It is mandatory to upload a scanned copy of the following ink signed certificates as per prescribed format available online at
    Please scan and save as PDF file for easier uploading.

    (a) Certificate from Authors, (Proforma encl)
    (b) Certificate from Head of the Institution where study has been carried out, (Proforma encl)
    (c) Sanction accorded by Office of DGAFMS for publication of articles based on AFMRC projects.

    Additional Certificates: Conflict of interest certificate, Source of support (if any), Registration number (in case of a clinical trial)

    (2) Title page - gives the title of the article, a short title, type of article (original article, case report etc), name(s) of the author(s), affiliations of author(s), place of work, names and addresses of the authors, word count (excluding abstract and references),number of figures, tables, photos and references. Identify one author as corresponding author and give his/her postal address, direct telephone or mobile number and email address. The title should not exceed 60 characters. It should have no abbreviations. Names of all the authors with highest academic degree must be typed one below the other with proper footnote marks after the name. Affiliations (with corresponding footnote marks at the beginning) and addresses of authors should be typed as footnotes only. The following footnote marks should be used in the order a,b,c,d,e,f. Acknowledgements, if any, may be mentioned on this page.
    See also the title page template,

    (3) Abstract and Keywords - The abstract is a synopsis of the main article in about 200 words and gives an opportunity to the author to induce the reader to go through the article. It should be structured into the headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion, giving facts and not descriptions. Avoid abbreviations. No abstract is required for Case Reports or Letters to the Editor. Give not more than 6 keywords using terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus.

    (4) Text - The text should be divided into sections, e.g. Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion. Each should have its individuality and must not be mixed with others. Ensure that all references, tables and figures are cited in the text. Only authorized, internationally accepted abbreviations should be used. First time use of an abbreviation must always be preceded by its full form except for standard units of measurement. Abbreviations are to be avoided in title, abstract and keywords.

    (5) References - Responsibility of accuracy of the references lies entirely with the authors. The authors are encouraged to use the facility available for checking the correctness of references online. References should be in the style described in examples. References should be listed in the order in which they are cited in the text. Only relevant and recent references are encouraged. They should be indicated in the text by Arabic numerals superscripted with word or punctuation. Ensure that all the references cited in the text are included in the list and vice versa. List all authors, surname followed by initials when six or less; when seven or more, give only first three and add et al. Do not use full stops in abbreviations of journal names.

    Representative examples, based on formats used by NLM in Index Medicus are given below. Please refer to ICMJE guidelines for other types of references.

    Examples of Reference Formats

    i) Standard Journal Articles -

    a) Single author:
    Masic I. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles. Acta Inform Med 2013;21(3):148-155.

    b) Upto six authors:
    Chio A, Pagani M, Agosta F, Calvo A, Cistaro A, Filippi M. Neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights into structural and functional changes. Lancet Neurol 2014;13(12):1228-1240.

    c) More than six authors:
    Lord JM, Midwinter MJ, Chen YF, et al. The systemic immune response to trauma: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment. Lancet 2014;384(9952):1455-1465.

    ii) Research group/Organization as Author -

    a) Look AHEAD Research Group. Effect of a longterm behavioural weight loss intervention on nephropathy in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD randomised clinical trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol.2014;(10):801-809.

    b) Parkinson Study Group. A controlled, randomized, delayed-start study of rasagiline in early Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(4):561-566.

    iii) No Author Given -

    Evidence and doubt in the translation of research into care. Lancet. 2014; 384 (9944):638.

    iv) Volume with Supplement -

    Lenzo NP, Anderson J, Campbell A, Morandeau L, De Grado TR. Fluoromethylcholine PET in recurrent multifocal hepatoma. Australas Radiol. 2007;51 Suppl:B299-302.

    v) Issue with supplement -

    GCrawford M, Mullan J, Vanderveen T. Technology and safe medication administration. J Infus Nurs. 2005;28(2 Suppl):37-41.

    vi) Epub ahead of print with DOI -

    ItoD, Hata S, Seiichiro S, Kobayashi K, Teruya M, Kaminishi M. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2014;5(12):1054-1057. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.10.035.

    vii) Epub ahead of print with pii & DOI -

    Arnold M, Pandeya N, Byrnes G, et al. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2014. pii: S1470-2045(14)71123-4. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71123-4.

    viii) Type of article indicated as needed -

    Zaidi HA, Russin JJ, Spetzler RF. Conservative management vs intervention for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (Comment). JAMA. 2014;312(10):1058.

    Books and Other Monographs

    ix) Personal Authors - Hofman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz Ji, Anastasi J, editors. Hematology: basic principles and practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2013. p. 361-365.

    x) Editor(s), compiler as Author - Dausset J, Colombani J, editors. Histocompatibility testing 1972. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1973.

    xi) Chapter in a Book - David WB. The safety and quality of health care. In: Dan LL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Proessions; 2011. p. 85-92.

    xii) Conference Papers - Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In: Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea: Lewis, 1985: 69-78.

    xiii) Conference proceedings - Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: A medical community response. Proceedings of the First AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect; 1984 Mar 30-31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1985.

    xiv) Scientific or technical report - Akutsu T. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No. : NIH-NHLI-69-2185-4.

    xv) Dissertation or Thesis - Mohamed S. A study of lipid profile in young smokers [dissertation]. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka: 2006.

    xvi) Newspaper Articles - Rensberger B, Specter B, CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. The Washington Post 1989 Aug 7; Sect. A: 2 (col. 5).

    xvii) Magazine Articles - Roueche B. Annals of medicine: the Santa Claus Culture. The New Yorker 1971 Sep 4; 66-81.

    xviii) Journal article on the internet - Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs (serial on the internet). 2002 Jun (cited 2002 Aug 12); 102 (6): (about 3 p). Available from Wawatch.htm. Accessed on mm/yy.

    (6) Tables - are to be typed on separate pages. They should be serially numbered in arabic numerals (Table 1, Table 2) and a short title should specify the contents. Horizontal lines in the body of the table except between a column heading and its sub-headings should be avoided. The vertical lines separating the columns should be totally omitted. A table should not exceed a page in length, and should not contain less than four lines of data. Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate the data in the text.

    (7) Figures/Illustrations/Photographs: Illustrations should be clear enough and should have at least 300 x300 dpi resolutions. Color image may be uploaded only when essential for the manuscript. Line art drawing must have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi. Photographs/ illustrations may be submitted as 'JPEG', or 'TIFF' files. In clinical photographs, identity of the subjects should be suitably masked. In case this is not possible, a written permission from the concerned person should accompany the manuscript. Permission to reproduce any borrowed illustration must be obtained from the copy write holder.

    (8) Legends to Figures: The Figure number (numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals), title and explanations of the Figures should appear in the legend (not on the Figure). Type the legends on a separate page. Enough information should be included to interpret the Figure without reference to the text.

    (9) Units: All measurements must be in metric units, preferably with corresponding SI units in parentheses. No periods, no plural form (eg. '10 cm' not '10 cms.').


    Use 'radiograph', 'radiographic' and 'radiographical' not 'X-ray'. 'Significant' should be reserved for use in the statistical sense. Avoid duplication and repetition of material in Results and Discussion, in Tables and Text, and in Text and Legends.


    Do not use names and initials of the patients or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When informed consent for the same has been taken from the subject, it should be mentioned in the manuscript. Any report of experimental investigation on human subjects must contain evidence of informed consent by the subjects and of approval by the institutional ethics committee. Authors are encouraged to visit the following links on ethics.

    Manuscript for various types of articles

    Original Articles: These are scientific communications from research workers engaged in the field of medicine and include randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, outcome studies, cost effective analyses, case control studies and surveys with high response rate. Articles pertaining to the field of military medicine and those of general interest are published on priority.
    The guidelines for specific study designs are CONSORT, STARD, QUOROM, STROBE and MOOSE. All clinical trials need to be registered with the ICMR Registry.
    Format - Abstract (Structured) & Keywords; Introduction; Material & Methods; Results; Discussion.

    Review Article, Update Article: These are invited from experts in the field who have published quality original research articles in the same field. Prospective authors are requested to consult the Editor in- Chief for prior approval of their topic.

    Contemporary Issue: These are articles of topics of current interest, authored preferably by experienced practitioners.

    Short Communication: This article describes briefly a research study or a case series to highlight specific or peculiar aspects.

    Methods in Medicine (including Drug and Equipment Update): These are brief descriptions of a specific technique or procedure, modification of a technique, or equipment of interest and should be supported by relevant diagrams and results of clinical and/or field trials.

    Military Medicine: Highlight the experience, innovations and achievements of doctors in the practice of military medicine and other such issues affecting health of troops in operational conditions. No objection certificate from the head of the institution is a must. Such articles (as deemed appropriate by the editorial team) may require administrative clearance and approval from appropriate higher authorities before final acceptance/ publication.

    Perspective: These are basically opinion pieces written by senior faculty/scientists, experts in the field and policy makers.

    Student Research: This aims towards encouraging the undergraduate students for their participation in medical research and publication. Any fresh findings/research or research done by students as part of ICMR may be considered.

    [Format for the entire above category except for Original articles - Key words; unstructured abstract; Introduction; Results (if applicable); Discussion.]

    Case Reports: A case report should communicate a message regarding diagnosis/management of a new and emerging disease, an unexpected association between disease or symptoms, a rare feature of a disease or unique therapeutic approach, an unexpected event while observing or treating a patient. Only rarity of particular case does not merit publication of the case report. As a routine, maximum of four authors are permitted for a case report.

    Format - Keywords; unstructured abstract; Introduction; Case Report; Discussion.

    Discussion should highlight unusual features of the report and briefly discuss pertinent literature.

    Images in Medicine: This consists of an interesting clinical or radiological image which is typical and diagnostic of the described condition. Maximum word limit is 1000 words.

    'Letter to the Editor' and replies: These should be brief with objective and constructive criticism of published articles. A short pertinent title accompanied by a covering letter should be given. The recent past or current issue publications based Letter to Editor should be given. Current interesting medical topics/anomalies can also be considered for Letter to Editor.

    Book Review: Title of the book; name of the editor/authors; name and address of the publisher; year of publication; number of pages; number of illustrations; hard bound or soft bound; price, ISBN number, text of review. As a policy we do not encourage submission of reviews of books that are more than a year old.

    Journal Scan: Reference to the Journal in Vancouver style; an introduction to the article, relevance of the study and its conclusions to our day to day practice; strong points and lacunae of the study; previously published contrary views; and recommendation if any.

    Events Calendar: Dates, nature of the event, place and venue, name and address of the contact person(s).

    Others: These include Editorials, Guest Editorials and Symposia, which are solicited by the Editorial Board.

    Size of Text

    The Table below provides guidelines regarding maximum permissible size of text as well as number of Tables, Figures and References. Articles not adhering to the above specifications are likely to be rejected.

    Type of ArticleText (in words)Tables and figuresReferences
    Original Article3000830
    Contemporary Issue2000410
    Short Communication1500210
    Case Report1000410
    Methods in medicine100045
    Letter to Editor50023



    1. Certified that I / we have not used any information or material from official documents graded 'Restricted' and above or any 'Classified' information obtained in my /our official capacity in the preparation of the article titled.

    2. Certified that this manuscript contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful, or invades individual privacy or infringes on any proprietary rights.

    3. Certified that we have made substantive and intellectual contribution to the article and assume public responsibility for its content. It is also certified that none of the material in this manuscript has been published previously or is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

    4. Intellectual contribution of authors: All authors certify that they have made substantial contributions to the concept or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work. All authors have been involved in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors have a role in final approval of the version to be published.

    Study concept / design :

    Conduct of Study :

    Statistical analysis :

    Drafting and manuscript revision :

    Final Approval of published version :

    5. All authors are in agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    6. The copyrights of article are hereby transferred to MJAFI.

    7. Certified that this article is not based on an AFMRC project.

    First Author Second Author Other Authors


    Note: Clause 7 to be modified as "Certified that this article is based on AFMRC project No.___" for all articles based on AFMRC projects.


    Certified that I have no objection to the publication of the article titled "_____" in Medical Journal Armed Forces India written by "_____"(names of authors) for which research / study has been carried out in this institution / at ______ (specify location) (strike out portion not applicable).

    Station: (Head of the Institution)

    Date: Signature with Official Stamp

    Note: Applicable for all types of Manuscripts except for Letter to Editor.

    Address for correspondence:

    Technical team: techteammjafi

    Technical Editor: techeditormjafi

    Executive Editor: execeditormjafi

    Editor-in-Chief: chiefeditormjafi


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