Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Types of Contribution
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Ethics
    • Conflict of Interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Contributors
    • Changes to authorship
    • Clinical trial results
    • Reporting clinical trials
    • Registration of clinical trials
    • Copyright
    • Role of the Funding Source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access publication fee
    • Open access
    • Language services
    • Submission of Manuscripts
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • Preparation of Manuscripts
    • NEW SUBMISSIONS
    • References
    • Formatting requirements
    • REVISED SUBMISSIONS
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • AudioSlides
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Your Paper Your Way
    your paper your way

    Leukemia Research Reports is an open access, international journal which delivers timely information online to all health care professionals involved in basic and/or applied clinical research in leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and other hematologic malignancies. It does this by rapidly publishing a range of peer-reviewed short form papers, including brief communications, case reports, letters to the Editors, images, and debate articles.

    Leukemia Research Reports is indexed in PubMed Central, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar.

    The Editors encourage the submission of articles relevant to normal and leukemic hemopoiesis, biochemistry, cell biology, immunology and molecular biology as well as epidemiologic and clinical studies. Leukemia Research Reports' coverage encompasses the application of oncogenes, genomics (gene expression profiles, microRNAs), proteomics, growth factors, cell markers, cell cycle and differentiation agents, novel therapeutics and clinical trials in both the acute and chronic leukemias as well as the myelodysplastic syndromes. In addition articles are solicited on the rapidly growing specialty of marrow or stem cell reconstitution after high dose therapy with curative attempt in patients with a wide range of neoplasms.

    Types of Contribution

    All articles are limited by word count and the number of references. Word count limits do not include the abstract, references, acknowledgement, figures or tables, or their captions.

    Brief Communications include an abstract; the total word count should not exceed 1,200 words, a maximum of 10 references and up to 4 figures and/or tables.

    Case Reports include an abstract; they should not exceed 1,200 words, a maximum of 10 references and an optional 1-2 figures and/or tables.

    Letters to the Editor should clearly indicate the purpose of the letter by a brief striking title; they should include an abstract and should not exceed 1,200 words, up to 5 references and an optional 1-2 figures and/or tables.

    Debate & Controversies - the journal welcomes opinion pieces on research and clinical topics in leukemia. Debate & Controversies articles should include an abstract, should not exceed 1,200 words, plus a maximum of 5 references and 1 figure or table.

    Images - authors are encouraged to submit images for publication. These should be accompanied by a title and a caption that explains the significance of the image. In addition to "still life " images, authors may submit video files. For full details of artwork formats see below.

    Meeting Perspectives are reports on one or several sessions of Congress, Workshops or Symposia (also closed ones) Such papers should not exceed 1,200 words, 5 references and up to 2 figures and/or tables.

    Comments on Published Papers are comments on a prior published paper. Mention the title in both the Cover Letter and the References. This paper does not have an abstract and should not exceed 1,200 words; limit 3 references and optional 1-2 figures and/or tables. Comments that seek to address an error in a previous paper are exempt from the Article Processing Fee if accepted for publication.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Ethics

    Identifying information, including patients images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian or next of kin where applicable). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to Elsevier on request.

    Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

    If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Conflict of Interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. E.g. potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there no conflicts of interest exist this must be stated. Please see the Elsevier website for further information http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Contributors

    Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Clinical trial results

    In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

    Reporting clinical trials

    Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on http://www.consort-statement.org.

    Registration of clinical trials

    Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org) recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an Exclusive License Agreement where authors will retain copyright. (For more information on this see http://www.elsevier.com/authoragreement.)

    Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of one of the following creative commons user license:

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC-BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC-BY-NC-SA).

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    If you need to comply with your funding body policy you can apply for a CC-BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    Role of the Funding Source

    All sources of funding should be declared. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee of 600 USD, excluding taxes, which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, including Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access policies and may also be reimbursed for their publication fees. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases; contact Elseviers Rights Department, Philadelphia, PA, USA: Tel. (+1) 215 238 7869; e-mail healthpermissions@elsevier.com. Requests may also be completed online via the Elsevier homepage (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions).

    Open access

    This journal is fully open access; all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download upon publication. Permitted (re)use is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses (see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-policies/oa-license-policy):

    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as: open access publication fee) which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders. The open access fee is all inclusive, Elsevier will not add any additional charges. Depending on local regulations VAT can be charged by local authorities.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is 600USD, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language services

    Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission should visit http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices or our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com for more information.

    Submission of Manuscripts

    All Manuscripts and Material should be submitted on-line via EES - http://www.evise.com/evise/faces/pages/navigation/NavController.jspx?JRNL_ACR=LRR.

    Please refer to the 'Tutorial for Authors' located on the EES site for guidance on the electronic submission process.

    All published papers containing research data are subject to peer-review. Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

    These guidelines generally follow the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals". The complete document appears at http://www.icmje.org.

    Submitting an Article Articles should be submitted online at http://ees.elsevier.com/lrr and the instructions on the site should be closely followed. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress to final decision

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Preparation of Manuscripts

    1. Covering letter. This is a letter stating that you wish to submit your paper to Leukemia Research Reports. Please include the title, and signature of corresponding author. Also include details of any previous version.

    2. Manuscripts submitted for publication should be written concisely and clearly. Manuscripts will only be accepted when they are written in an acceptable standard of English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts be checked by an English-speaking colleague prior to submission or to submit them for language editing (see below for more details). Either the Concise Oxford Dictionary or Webster's New International Dictionary may be used as a standard for English spelling.

    3. The manuscript should be organized in the following sequence: All manuscripts must have a title page which is Page 1 of your manuscript. Note the Title should be clear, descriptive and less than 20 words long.

    Role of Corresponding Author
    Please note there is only one corresponding author of the manuscript. The corresponding author is the one that submits the manuscript and is displayed on the Title Page of the manuscript. They have the duty to ensure that all of the named authors have seen and approved the original manuscript and subsequent revisions. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. The corresponding author should also ensure that those who have contributed to the research are acknowledged appropriately either as a co-author or in the Acknowledgements. In addition, the corresponding author has the prime responsibility for ensuring the paper is correctly prepared according to the Guide for Authors. Submitted manuscripts not complying with the Guide for Authors may be returned to the authors for revision.

    Word Count - does not include the references, acknowledgement, figures and tables.

    Abstract - The abstract should be clear, descriptive and less than 100 words.

    Keywords - Keywords are index terms or descriptions for information retrieval systems,and a maximum of five should be provided. Words selected should reflect the essential topics of the article and may be taken from both the title and the text.

    Abbreviations and units - Generally, avoid abbreviations in the Title and abbreviating single words. Otherwise explain all abbreviations at first mention in the abstract and text, except for: DNA, RNA, AIDS, and HIV. Standard SI abbreviations for units do not need to be spelled out.

    Brief Communications should include an Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion sections. Case Reports and Letters to the Editor do not need to include these divisions.

    Introduction - This should give the reasons for doing the work. As this is a specialist journal a detailed review of the literature is not necessary. The introduction should preferably conclude with a final paragraph stating concisely and clearly the aims and objectives of the investigation.

    Materials and Methods - A full technical description of a method should be given in detail only when the method is new.

    Results - This need only report results of representative experiments illustrated by tables and figures. Use well-known statistical tests in preference to obscure ones. Consult a statistician or a statistics text for detailed advice.

    Discussion (including Conclusions) -This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    References - References are numbered. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. In the text refer to references by a number in square brackets on the line (e.g. Since Peterson[1]), and the full reference should be given in a numerical list at the end of the paper. References should be given in the following form:

    1. Latagliata R, Concetta Petti M, Mandelli F. Acute myeloid leukemia in the elderly: 'per aspera ad astra'? Leukemia Res 1999;23:603-613. 2. Alfrey V. The isolation of subcellular components. In: Brachet J, Mirsky AE, editors. The cell, biochemistry, physiology, morphology I. New York: Academic Press, 1959. p. 200.

    4. Acknowledgments should be organized in the following sequence:

    Acknowledgements - All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. E.g. those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair that provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    Authors' Contributions - All authors should have made substantial contributions to the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. For authors we use initials and if there is more than one author that does the same function put them together. Note: If there is more than one author that contributed equally to the work it goes in this section not on the title page.

    4. Figures and Figure Legends

    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    5. Table and Table Legends

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements

    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
    If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
    Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    Figures and tables embedded in text
    Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Use of word processing software
    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Embedded math equations
    If you are submitting an article prepared with Microsoft Word containing embedded math equations then please read this related support information (http://support.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/302/).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides . Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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