Guide for Authors

Always check on-line for the latest version of the Guide for Authors for updates and for additional information regarding changing requirements for video submission. Go to and click on Guide for Authors.

The Journal of Veterinary Cardiology (JVC) publishes peer-reviewed articles of the highest quality involving research and clinical practice that promote greater understanding of cardiovascular disease, and enhance the health and well being of animals and humans. The JVC presents original contributions that cover the spectrum of cardiology including prospective and retrospective studies, clinical trials, epidemiology, observational studies, interventional imaging, cardiovascular techniques, and advances in applied and basic research in companion animals, non-companion species, and laboratory animals. In addition to scientific investigations we will publish manuscripts that will advance veterinary cardiology through exceptional illustrations of clinical and research endeavors that provide teaching of clinical material, descriptions of cardiovascular techniques/analysis, and application of fundamental knowledge to clinical understanding.

The JVC invites submission of original manuscript from clinicians and scientists. Specific content areas of interest include clinical cardiac disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, acquired and congenital heart disease, cardiovascular medicine and surgery, hypertension, health outcome research, diagnostic imaging, interventional and cardiovascular techniques, genetics, molecular cardiology, translational research, pharmacology, therapeutics, toxicology, and cardiovascular pathology.

A unique aspect of the JVC is the integration of multimedia and graphic files that add considerable value to manuscripts. The JVC accepts electronic video and sound files which permits the detailing of clinical procedures, diagnostics, and techniques. (See details under Videos).

Ethical Policy
Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all Authors and by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

Ethical Use of Animals
All studies involving the use of animals must contain a statement that animals have received humane care by following international, national, and/or institutional guidelines. Where national or institutional guidelines do not exist, international guidelines must be followed, e.g., National Institutes of Health (NIH) or (Euroguide). For prospective studies using client-owned animals, high standard (best practice) of veterinary care must have been conducted with informed written client consent.

Conflict of interest
At the end of the text, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. To assist authors with an understanding of the types of conflict of interests they are encouraged to review the Conflict of Interest statement prepared by the American Heart Association or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors To assist authors with an understanding of the types of conflict of interests they are encouraged to review the Conflict of Interest statement prepared by the American Heart Association (AHA) or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Editors of the JVC have a completed conflict of interest statement on file. The corresponding author accepts responsibility for all authors with regards to the ethics policy, ethical treatment of animals, and conflict of interest.

Guidelines of the World Association of Medical Editors regarding authorship ( are followed. For an individual to be included as an author of a paper, the individual should have made substantial contributions to the ideas, conception and design of the study and acquisition of data, and analysis and interpretation of data. In addition, the individual must have been involved in drafting and revising the manuscript and must have approved the final version. Authorship is not justified for editorial assistance or writing suggestions for the manuscript, acquisition of funding or collection of data only, routine patient care or enrollment of cases, or general supervision of the research group or clinic. The order of authorship and corresponding author will not be suggested or implemented by the editors but is solely decided by the authors.

Open access
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open Access
- Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
- An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
- Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
- No Open Access publication fee

All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, This ensures authors can comply with funding body Open Access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.

Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

The publication fee for this journal is $3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology must conform to the style and format of the JVC as provided below (How to Prepare a Manuscript). Manuscripts will be judged on the basis of scientific content, origi-nality, and suitability for the JVC and are peer reviewed. The JVC does not perform extensive editing and authors must obtain assistance if necessary to assure professional manuscript composition and English syntax before submission. Authors who submit manuscripts that include numerical data are responsible to assure that statistical analyses conform to current accepted statistical practices. Prior review of statistical methods and results is strongly suggested before submission. Manuscripts which contain faulty English composition will not be accepted. For guidance on language editing, including available Elsevier language editing services, please visit this SITE The Journal of Veterinary Cardiology will not accept manuscripts that contain poor quality images or illustrations. Manuscripts submitted by anyone who serves on the Editorial or Review Boards are handled in the same manner as all other submissions. These authors are blinded to all reviews and they do not have access except as an author to their submissions.

Peer Review
All manuscripts are examined by the editorial staff and if judged suitable, will be sent to be evaluated by expert reviewers selected by the editors or review board. Where appropriate, manuscripts will also be subject to statistical review. All comments provided by reviewers must be satisfactorily addressed by the authors in order for the manu-script to be accepted for publication. Reviewers must disclose any conflict of interest in the review of manuscripts as described under Conflict of Interest.

How to Prepare a Manuscript
The Journal of Veterinary Cardiology publishes several types of manuscripts under the following sections (a brief description follows). It is suggested that before submitting a paper to a specialty section that authors contact a Section Editor for further guidance when needed. Authors are advised to consult the most recently published issue for examples of formatting. Authors are encouraged to limit abbreviations to a number necessary to facilitate ease of reading. If more than two (2) abbreviations are used, the authors must include an abbreviations table with a title of "Abbreviations" on the bottom of the page with the Abstract.

Authors who are conducting clinical trials, observational studies, and association studies are encouraged to review the guidelines for such investigations. Manuscripts that detail these guidelines with appropriate checklist have been repeatedly published in numerous journals. Authors are encouraged to search under the following topics to obtain the latest published information: STREGA - guidelines for genetic association studies, STROBE - guidelines for observational studies, STARD - guidelines for studies evaluating diagnostic tests, history and physical examination, CONSORT - guidelines for randomized trials, and PRISMA - guidelines for systematic reviews.

Original Research and Clinical Studies
Original research and clinical studies of cardiovascular disease include: congenital and acquired heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, physiology, genetics, molecular cardiology, diagnostic imaging, epidemiology, clinical trials and outcomes research, hypertension, and cardiovascular surgery. We will publish normal values that provide valuable reference ranges for animals. Examples include breed or species specific echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, radiographic, and biochemical data. Authors of these manuscripts are requested to provide all raw data as a file to be available on-line in the supplemental data of the journal so that their data may be accessed by others. If others are to use these data, they must obtain permission. Reports of case series with 6 or more animals may be formatted as described for this section. If 5 or fewer animals are in the case series, papers should be submitted as Case Reports. Final decisions regarding placement of a paper are made by the editors. The following describes the sections for Original Research and Clinical Studies only and include: Abstract; Introduction; Animals, Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; and Conclusions. Please see below for formatting of all manuscripts submitted to other sections of the Journal.

Abstract. Each paper should have a structured abstract that includes the headings: Objectives, Animals, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should be limited to 250 words.

Introduction. The introduction should provide a brief and relevant literature overview, and a clear statement of hypothesis, study objectives and rationale. The introduction should not be a review of pathophysiology.

Animals, Materials and Methods. This section provides a concise description of the experimental and statistical methods and of the procedures in sufficient detail to allow other investigators to reproduce the study and results. In studies involving use of animals, authors must attest that the animals were treated humanely and specify approval for the study by their Institutional Review Board, or similar body (see Ethical Policy, above).

Results. State concisely, in logical sequence, the results of the study. Do not reproduce the same data in the text as is presented in the graphs, tables, and figures. If authors have large tables or raw data that they wish to include, such results can be included in the supplemental data on-line. Supplemental figures should be identified with Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, III) and supplemental tables identified with upper case letters (e.g. A, B, C). In the text of the manuscript, and placed in parentheses, a statement identifying the figure or table as being available in the on-line version should be made (e.g. data available in Supplemental Data on-line).

Discussion. Provide a concise discussion of the investigation. Emphasize new and important implications of the findings, how these observations relate to other relevant studies, and relevance to the literature. Limitations of the study must be mentioned.

Conclusions. List and briefly summarize the major conclusions of the investigation.

Cardiovascular Methods and Analysis
The purpose of this section is to provide an avenue for those with extensive experience in performing and analyzing cardiovascular diagnostics to share the knowledge of the methods for a singular procedure or the analysis of a particular component. Articles submitted for publication in the Cardiovascular Methods and Analysis section should use images and videos of the procedures and/or the generated data. (An example of a methodology paper would be one that details the description for the implantation of a VDD pacemaker, and an example of an analysis paper is one that details interpretation of sensing problems with pacemakers.) Manuscripts involving invasive procedures are particularly encouraged. Such papers should be the constellation of experience and not single case reports or reviews. Authors of potential manuscripts are strongly advised to consult with the Section Editors concerning topics. An unstructured abstract less than 250 words should be included.

Cardiovascular Images
The goal of this section is to provide readers with clinically relevant information relating to the practice of veterinary cardiology through excellent cardiovascular images. Images will be considered for publication from research studies that give insight into clinical medicine. Manuscripts should be concise and focused. Only high quality still and video images will be considered (Figures). Images may be of electrocardiograms (ECG), echocardiograms (including Doppler, tissue Doppler), electrophysiologic studies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), radiographs, pathology or others. It is not the purpose of this section to present case reports; but rather, it is to present the image and the diagnostic process of its interpretation.

The text (excluding figure legends and references) should be limited to 1500 words. Submissions to this section should begin with a very brief description of the case when appropriate, followed by the headings "Image Interpretation" and "Discussion". The discussion should focus on the assessment of the image and its meaning. Inclusion of videos is encouraged (Videos). Authors must read thoroughly the requirements for still images and the videos as addressed in the on-line Guide for Authors. An unstructured abstract comprising 100 words or less should be included. Please view recent published manuscripts in this section for examples.

Invited Reviews
Invited Reviews will be sought by the Editorial Board for comprehensive review of a specific cardiovascular topic, clinical disease, fundamental science subject, or translational focus. For all reviews, the primary or senior author must be published in the area about which the authors write. Literature reviews by authors without a publication record in the specific field will be rejected. Translational science manuscripts should relate (i.e., translate) the application of basic science to the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, or treatment of cardiovascular disease in clinical medicine. Papers should be clearly understandable by clinical as well as basic scientists. Supporting graphics and videos are encouraged. An unstructured abstract of 250 words or less should be included. Outlines should be submitted early in the preparation of the review to determine the suitability of the manuscript for the aims of the journal. All reviews will undergo a comprehensive review process. Invitation to submit a review does not guarantee acceptance and publication.

Case Reports
Case reports will be considered for publication if they contain information not previously reported, if they have sufficient merit to spark future studies or expand the understanding of disease, or provide insights to more effective therapies. Alternatively, case reports will be considered that contain supporting graphic or video images that are exceptionally insightful, cutting-edge, or offer a new perspective regarding disease pathophysiology or management. Case series comprising 5 animals or fewer can be considered as case reports. An unstructured abstract comprising 250 words or less should be included. The entire report must not exceed 2500 words (excluding references, which are limited to 25 or less). All graphics must be of excellent quality and clarity (Figures, Videos). The manuscript should be formatted where the manuscript begins with a description of the case followed by a section titled Discussion that contains a concise review of the pertinent literature and clinical impact of the case.

Submission of Manuscripts
Submissions to the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology are processed via the Elsevier Editorial System will guide the authors on the process for uploading the manuscript and illustration files. Authors must select a classification that most closely fits their submission, from a given list that is made available during this process, and the related category designation (e.g. Cardiovascular Images, Original Research and Clinical Studies). Electronic PDF proofs will be automatically generated from uploaded files, and used for subsequent reviewing.

Authors may send queries concerning the submission process or procedures to: Authors can check the status of their manuscript within the review procedure using Elsevier Editorial System.

Submission of an article is understood to imply that the article is original and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Submission also implies that all authors have approved the paper for release and are in agreement with its content. Upon acceptance of the article by the journal, the author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the Publisher. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. Special arrangements can be made with the publisher on a case by case basis concerning original artwork.

General Manuscript Preparation
Manuscripts must be double-spaced with margins of 2.5 cm (1 in.) and numbered lines. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced when processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, and superscripts. Do not embed "graphically designed" equations or tables, but prepare these using the word processor's facility. Pages are to be numbered consecutively in the lower center, beginning with the title page. Use the line numbering feature from the beginning of the title page.

Format manuscripts and tables in Microsoft Word (use Office 2003 for Windows, Mac, or more current versions). Always keep a backup copy of the electronic file for reference and safety. Save your files using the default extension of the program used.

Present Tables and Figure Captions on separate pages at the end of the manuscript.

All figures must be submitted as separate files (do not imbed any figures into the manuscript). Information concerning the preparation of figures can be found at Formatting of figures can also be found in the Figures section below.

Title Page
The first page should include the title of the manuscript, the first and last names of the authors, their highest degrees, institutions or affiliations, and a short title for use as running head. Diplomat status should not be included. Following the list of authors, present the addresses of the authors' affiliations (i.e., where the actual work was done). Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name. Corresponding author: Specify the name of the author who will handle correspondence at all stages of peer review, publication, and post-publication. Include e-mail address.

Abstract and Key Words
For the abstract see specific instructions under the appropriate manuscript category.

Key words: provide 3 to 5 key words that are not in the manuscript title which will assist indexers in cross-indexing your article.
On this page place the 'Abbreviation table' if necessary.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Cite footnotes by superscript, lowercase letters in the order in which they appear in the text. Indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves on a separate sheet at the end of the article, listing footnotes alphabetically. Footnotes begin with the institutional association of each author such that additional footnotes begin with the next letter. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. For products and equipment, provide complete information in the footnote, including manufacturer's name and location (i.e., city, state, and country). Footnotes are not necessary for drugs that are available in generic form. Abstracts and personal communications should also be cited as footnotes.

Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text.

List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. References must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. Please ensure that every reference that is cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished observations, personal communications, and submitted papers not yet accepted may not appear in the reference section; they should be included as footnotes. Abstracts may be cited only if they are the sole source of information. "In press" citations must have been accepted for publication and must include the name of the journal. All authors must be listed for each reference. Please follow the formatting guidelines below carefully.

Journal article- example
Santilli RA, Spadacini G, Moretti P, Perego M, Perini A, Tarducci A, Crosara S, Salerno-Uriarte JA. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of concealed accessory pathways in two dogs with symptomatic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. J Vet Cardiol 2006;8:157-165.

Chapter in a Book- example
Sisson D. Medical management of refractory congestive heart failure in dogs. In: Bonagura JD, editor. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIII. Philadelphia, WB Saunders; 2000. p. 752-756.


• Tables prepared with Excel are not accepted.
• Use the same style font (at least 10 point) that is used in the text.
• All abbreviations used in a table must be defined by footnote.
• When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.
• Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body. Indicate table footnotes with lower case letters: a, b, c, etc. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Additional tabulated data can be presented in the Supplemental Data on-line. See above under 'Results' for numbering information.

Figure Captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions on a separate page, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) followed by a description of the illustration. Figure captions for on-line images should be included separately but in a similar format and numbered as described above under 'Results'. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Conflict of Interest
Authors must state that there is no conflict of interest or if one exists, it should be stated. Examples of a conflict of interest could include, but not be limited to, paid consultant status, research funding directly related to the content of the manuscript within the past 5 years.

Specify all sources of research support and list all individuals who made meaningful contributions to the manuscript.


• Authors should visit the Elsevier website
( Figures must be of high quality in order to meet publication standards. It is emphasized that figures of inadequate resolution will NOT be published. Each figure should be provided as a separate file. Number the figures according to their sequence in the text. Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats. (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/ halftone combinations given below.):

EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: Color or grey scale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grey scale): use a minimum of 500 dpi.

• Do not supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG, PPT); the resolution of these files are too low.
• Heading information should appear only in the figure legend.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or combine text layer with image into one combined layer. Font size must be 10 point or greater. Be sure that text on the illustrations is of adequate size and quality to be seen. Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
• Do not include hair lines in line art.
• All symbols and abbreviations must be defined in the figure or its legend.

Preparation of supplementary data: Elsevier now accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, videos, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. The videos should be submitted as either high quality .mov or .avi files.

The following are the guidelines for the inclusion of videos in manuscripts.

1.All videos (regardless of the number) should be included in a summary Table of Videos. This Table will appear in the published manuscript. The video number, brief video title, and brief description should be included in the 3 column table. Videos should be labeled as Video 1, Video 2 etc. See the most recent issues of the JVC for examples of the video table.
2. Videos will become part of a Video Library of the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology. They will be available on-line and searchable by topic and author.

A unique aspect of the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology is the emphasis of additional web-based images permitting the detailing of procedures and diagnostics. These images can be viewed (by those readers with subscription access) by going to The issue to be viewed is clicked and the available PDF and image downloading is available via the Summary Plus link. The supplementary material for a given article appears at the end of the page. Downloading the videos may take several minutes. Readers will require at least Quicktime 7 (available free at to enjoy the content. Another means to view the material is to go to science/journal/17602734 and enter the doi number unique to this paper which is indicated at the end of the manuscript.

1. The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (
2. UNESCO coupons are acceptable in payment of extra paper offprints. A total of 25 free offprints of each paper will be made available to its author(s). Additional copies can be ordered at proof stage when a scale of costs will be supplied.

Copyright statement
Upon acceptance of an article, Authors will be asked to transfer copyright (for more information on copyright, see This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. A letter will be sent to the corresponding Author confirming receipt of the manuscript. A form facilitating transfer of copyright will be provided. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the Author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by Authors in these cases: contact Elsevier's Rights Department, Philadelphia, PA, USA: phone (+1) 215 239 3804, fax (+1) 215 239 3805, E-mail: Requests may also be completed on-line via the Elsevier homepage ( Special arrangements can be made regarding original artwork.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors who publish in Elsevier journals to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit