Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of articles
    • Contact details for submission
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Structured abstract
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Units
    • Math formulae
    • Artwork
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    JAMDA is the premiere Journal for issues in post-acute and long-term care. Therefore, primary priority is given to submissions in these focus areas.

    Types of articles

    ORIGINAL STUDIES

    Please provide a structured abstract using the following headings: Objectives, Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention (if any), Measurements, Results, and Conclusion. The text portion should be approximately 7-8 double-spaced pages in length, using the following format:
    Introduction - should describe the question posed that the research was designed to answer.
    Methods - should describe the design, how it was carried out, selection and assignment of subjects, treatment, outcome measurements, and statistical methods.
    Results - should be listed in order of importance and include any adverse effects.
    Discussion - should provide a brief synopsis of the findings, limitations of the study, and a comparison with relevant findings from other studies.
    Conclusion - should provide a brief summary of the implications of the study findings.

    Meta-analyses will be considered original research.

    Brief Reports are a condensed version of Original Studies, limited to 6-8 double-spaced pages including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and figures. This category is ideal for reporting preliminary results of a study or reporting a small study.

    REVIEW ARTICLES

    A review article is a systematic, critical assessment of the literature and data sources relevant to clinical topics (including treatment) that are commonly encountered in long-term care settings. Authors should emphasize factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, or therapeutic intervention(s). All articles and date sources reviewed should include information about a specific type of study (eg, case study, double-blind, randomized trial), population, intervention, and outcomes. Articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. The selection process should be described in the paper. The typical length is 10-12 double-spaced pages, not including tables, figures, and references. Submission of a textbook replication is discouraged. The review section also includes Brief Reviews. These articles are narrow in scope, answering a single clinical question, such as: What is an effective intervention for prevention of injurious falls? All review articles should be formatted using the following headings: Objectives/Introduction; Methods (data sources, type of study); Results; Discussion; Conclusion. Review articles should have a brief abstract with or without subheadings.

    CONTROVERSIES IN LONG TERM CARE

    These articles will deal with behaviors or practices in long term care settings that lack an evidence base, but rather are guided by opinions of local leaders and/or regulations without a clearly tested process that leads to a beneficial outcome. The following structure should be used: Problem, Significance of the Problem, Discussion, Conclusion. These articles should include a brief abstract without subheadings. These should be no longer than 6-8 double-spaced pages.

    CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

    These articles should address the use of assessment and/or intervention methods in the long-term care setting (home, assisted living, and nursing facilities), which have the potential to improve quality of care or quality of life. Examples: Algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, the impact of regulatory requirements on practice or policy, and procedure implementation. These reports may describe a clinical experience or an investigation that is preliminary but that may be of clinical or scientific interest. The manuscript should include a short Introduction and Rationale, a Methods section to include subjects and approach, and an Outcomes or Results section. In the case results are not available, some mention should be made of methods to be employed to measure outcome of the work process. The reports are limited to 10 double-spaced narrative manuscript pages with 1-2 tables and/or figures, plus a brief, structured abstract using the headings above. Forms and checklists are welcome as tables or appendices.

    CASE REPORTS should be approximately 3-5 double-spaced, typewritten pages and contain instructional value, such as those of successful interventions in managing uncommon syndromes or unsuccessful ones where a diagnosis was made after the fact. These articles should include a brief abstract without subheadings.

    QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN LONG-TERM CARE

    These articles are case-based presentations of nursing home behavior/practice that led to an adverse regulatory or legal outcome. The discussant should review state-of-the-art practice/clinical guidelines that, if applied, would have resulted in a satisfactory conclusion. The format to use is: Case presentation, comments, recommendations. These articles should include a brief abstract without subheadings.

    LONG-TERM CARE AROUND THE GLOBE

    This section reports on long-term care services in different countries and health systems aimed to educate and exchange information. When feasible, these articles should include a brief structured abstract stating objectives, design, methods, results and conclusion.

    SPECIAL ARTICLES

    Special articles are usually solicited by the editor. Topics of interest to the readers, which do not easily fit into any of the regular categories, will appear in this section. These articles should include a brief abstract without subheadings.

    UPDATES FROM THE AMDA MEETING

    Topics for Updates articles come from lectures or workshops presented at the annual AMDA meeting. Examples of Updates articles are the Clinical Updates in Nursing Home Medicine by Messinger-Rapport et al published each fall beginning in the September 2008 issue. These should be discussed with and topics approved by the editor prior to submission.

    IN TOUCH

    This section affords authors the opportunity to share personal experiences with the readers. They are generally 3-5 double-spaced pages, non-clinical in nature, and should pertain, in some way, to long term care issues. Appropriate topics include: compassion, quality of life, human value, dignity of death and the sanctity of life. A short story format, fact or fiction, is acceptable.

    IN THE TRENCHES

    Debuted in the June 2008 issue, page 291 (T.R. Cote), this provides an opportunity for authors to share with other long-term care providers tools they have developed to advance better care for their patients. It can be a one-page "how-to" illustration or a two- to three-page description followed by a figure that illustrates the procedure or instrument.

    LETTERS

    Letters should be double-spaced and approximately 1-3 pages in length. Those referring to an article published in the journal should be submitted within 1 month of the article's appearance. The editor may send it to the author of the paper for a response. References and a small illustration are acceptable.

    Contact details for submission

    If you have questions for the editorial office, contact Valerie Tanner, Managing Editor; email: tannerv@slu.edu; phone: 11 314-977-8464 (US). If you need technical support while working in the online submission system, click the support link to send an e-mail, or call: for the Americas (toll-free for US & Canada) 11 888-834-7287; for Asia & Pacific 181 3 5561 5032; for Europe & the rest of the world 1353 61 709190.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open Access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No Open Access publication fee

    All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by the following Creative Commons user license:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body Open Access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3,000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/jamda/. Authors are encouraged to submit using Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or older versions of Internet Explorer (9 or 10).

    Submission items include a cover letter (save as a separate file for upload), suggested reviewers, title page (saved separately from the manuscript main text), the manuscript (including abstract, manuscript text, references, and table/figure legends, without any author identifiers). Revised manuscripts should also be accompanied by a unique file (separate from the covering letter) with responses to reviewers' comments. The preferred order of files is as follows: cover letter, response to reviewers (revised manuscripts only), title page, manuscript file(s), table(s), figure(s). Files should be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (e.g., Text.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc). Do not use an underscore (_) in the file name. Upload text, tables and graphics as separate files. Do not import figures or tables into the text document and do not upload your text as a PDF.

    COVER LETTER

    Briefly describe the contributions of each author. Financial disclosure and any information regarding conflict of interest should be addressed in the cover letter at the time of first submission. Authors should state that the manuscript, or parts of it, have not been and will not be submitted elsewhere for publication. Authors are highly encouraged to include a list of three or more potential reviewers for their manuscript, with email address, affiliation, city, state, and country.

    TITLE PAGE

    List all authors, indicating title and affiliation for each. Every individual who contributed to the article in any way should be acknowledged. Provide a mailing address and phone/fax/email information for the corresponding author and an alternate correspondent, if possible. Please provide 3-6 key words for indexing, and a running title of no more than 45 characters.

    TEXT

    The entire text should be free of any author identification. Please double-space the entire manuscript and number the pages. NOTE: It is important to submit a clean manuscript that does not have evidence of track changes or comments in the margins. Please turn those features off prior to submission.

    ASSURANCES

    Acknowledgment of support should be reported after the Conclusion section and before References. When human subjects are involved, the article should also include a statement that the research protocol was approved by the relevant institutional review boards or ethics committees and that written consent was obtained from all participants. Alternatively, author(s) should indicate when a waiver of consent was obtained from the IRB.

    REVIEW PROCESS

    Submissions are reviewed by the editor, and are usually sent to two external reviewers. The typical turnaround time from submission to authors receiving the reviewers' comments is less than 6 weeks; however, at times there are delays.

    CRITERIA

    Evaluation of an article's suitability for publication is based on: the originality of the material, the clarity of the writing, the appropriateness of the study methods, validity of the data, and how well the conclusions are supported by the data. The information must be important and of interest to long term care providers.

    PUBLISHING AN ONLINE-ONLY ARTICLE IN JAMDA

    If your article is rated by the reviewers and the editor as acceptable for publication, JAMDA may suggest publishing your article online only, depending upon the priority the reviewers assign to your article. When an article is published online only, it is still listed in the Table of Contents of the printed Journal, and a link is provided to the online publication on JAMDA's website. The abstract would also appear in the printed Journal. It would still be included in all the usual reporting websites such as PubMed, OVID (Medline), and the citation indices. If your article is selected for online only publication, you will be notified in the Editor's decision letter.

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - unnumbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Theory/calculation
    A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc. Tables and figures in appendices should be given separate numbering: Table A1; Fig. A1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Structured abstract

    A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the text. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with the following symbols, in order: *, †, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, **, ††, etc. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References should be cited in numerical order. Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web References
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

    Reference style
    Full references should be used. List the first four authors' last names and initials; if more than four, insert "et al." after the third name. References should be annotated in the text with superscript numbers and listed at the end of the article in the order in which they appear. Medline abbreviations should be used for journal titles. Style:
    Journal - Smith J, Jones A, Doe J, et al. Title of article. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2000;6:1-10.
    Book Chapter - Smith J. Title of Chapter. In: Jones A, Doe J, eds. Title of Book. 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2006.
    Book - Smith J, Jones A, Doe J. Title of Book. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2005.
    Website - http://www.websiteaddress. Accessed December 1, 2011.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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