Guide for Authors

  • Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
    Information for Authors

    INTRODUCTION
    Research Tools
    Nutrition Research Resources
    Peer Review Process

    ARTICLE CATEGORIES: RESEARCH
    Original Research
    Review
    Commentary
    Research Editorial

    ARTICLE CATEGORIES: PRACTICE APPLICATIONS
    Topics of Professional Interest
    Business of Dietetics
    Case Study
    Emerging Science and Translational Applications
    Letters to the Editor

    MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
    Cover Letter
    Author Page
    Abstract
    Manuscript Body
    References
    Tables and Figures
    Practice Implications
    Acknowledgements
    Copyright Transfer, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest
    Funding/Support Disclosure
    Conflict of Interest Disclosure

    AUTHOR RESPONSIBILITIES
    Permission to Reprint
    Plagiarism
    Open Access

    JOURNAL STYLE

    EDITORIAL PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION
    Embargo Policy/Articles in Press
    Translation Services
    Post-Production Services

    NEW INVESTIGATOR PUBLICATION INITIATIVE (NIPI)

    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    INTRODUCTION
    Submit to the Journal at http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl. See "MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION" section for details.

    The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the official research publication of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The purpose, expressed in the mission statement, is to be "the premier peer-reviewed journal in the field of food, nutrition, and dietetics." The Journal is published in both print and electronic formats and publishes Articles in Press (articles posted on the Journal's website before the print version).

    The Journal publishes manuscripts that advance knowledge across a wide range of research and practice issues in nutrition and dietetics. Evidence-based contributions of original research; focused meta-analyses of cohort and randomized clinical trials; systematic reviews; and innovative research applications are welcome. Topics include foods and nutrients and their implications in health and disease; dietary patterns and dietary interventions; nutritional science, nutrigenomics, and medical nutrition therapy; translational research; dietetics practice and public health; nutrition epidemiology and bio-statistical applications in nutrition research; food science and biotechnology; foodservice systems; leadership and management in food and nutrition systems and application to public policy; and medical nutrition and dietetics education. International contributions on global topics of nutrition interest are also welcome, providing there is relevance to the largely US readership and findings are placed within that context. Major trends that impact research and practice in the fields of food, nutrition, and dietetics may also be considered if placed in appropriate contexts for the Journal's readership (eg, population demographic transitions, environmental trends, health care advancements).

    The Journal does not publish market research studies; studies that lack testable hypotheses or measureable objectives; studies that use un-validated scientific methods; literature reviews or other sections from theses or dissertations unless systematic and rigorous in their design; pilot studies; animal models; or pseudoscience that lacks scientific rigor, quality control, has no control group, or generally offers random findings or author opinions. No papers are published without Institutional Review Board approval or note of authorized exemption. Abstracts that were presented at a scientific meeting do not preclude a manuscript from consideration for publication.

    Manuscripts reporting survey data should have sufficient response rates and appropriate characterization of non-responders to ensure that nonresponse bias does not threaten the validity of the findings. For most surveys, such as those conducted by telephone, personal interviews, mail, e-mail, or via the web, authors are encouraged to report the survey outcome rates using standard definitions and metrics, such as those proposed by the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Clinical trials should be registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov. It is strongly encouraged that behavioral studies include a behavioral theory/framework.

    Research Tools
    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics offers an online toolkit designed to help authors understand and embrace nutrition research. The toolkit helps the reader, and potentially a new investigator or budding author, learn how to evaluate and use published research; the basics of conducting a research project; and how to interpret research articles effectively. It includes several "how to" modules, reference articles, and more and is free to members of the Academy. The Journal's publisher, Elsevier, also offers information and a toolkit for authors on Ethics in Research and Publication.

    Nutrition Research Resources
    The following publications have been developed by the Journal's Board of Editors' Statistics Team to further support Journal readers and authors in nutrition research.

    • Sheean PM, Bruemmer B, Gleason P, Harris J, Boushey C, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of multivariate techniques-Part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(1):103-110.
    • Gleason PM, Harris JE, Sheean PM, Boushey CJ, Bruemmer B. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(3):409-419.
    • Bruemmer B, Harris J, Gleason P, et al. Publishing nutrition research: a review of epidemiologic methods. J Am Diet Assoc.2009;109(10):1728-1737.
    • Harris J, Gleason P, Sheean P, Boushey C, Beto J, Bruemmer B. An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(1):80-90.
    • Harris JE, Boushey C, Bruemmer B, Archer SL. Publishing nutrition research: a review of nonparametric methods, Part 3. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(9):1488-1496.
    • Boushey CJ, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL. Publishing nutrition research: a review of sampling, sample size, statistical analysis, and other key elements of manuscript preparation. Part 2. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(4):679-688.
    • Boushey C, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of study design, statistical analyses, and other key elements of manuscript preparation, Part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1):89-96.

    Peer Review Process
    The Journal conforms to guidelines of peer review as promulgated by the International Committee on Medical Journal Editors. Peer review for all articles undergoing review is double-blinded and reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the Journal editors. The reviewers evaluate each manuscript on the basis of content, originality, scientific accuracy, clarity, and contribution to the field of nutrition and dietetics. The Journal's checklist system described in the article categories section will be used by peer reviewers to complete the review. Manuscripts are accepted at the discretion of the reviewers and the Journal editors. After peer review (usually 4 to 6 weeks after the date of submission), the corresponding author will be notified whether the manuscript has been accepted with revision or rejected.

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    ARTICLE CATEGORIES: RESEARCH

    The Journal accepts the following article categories which are determined by study design and methodology:

    Original Research
    Original Research articles are reports using one of the study designs listed below and are representative of a population of interest. Authors submitting to this category must select the appropriate study design and checklist. Links are provided below each study design and authors are strongly encouraged to review all the information provided in the corresponding link(s) prior to writing their manuscript. Authors will be required to upload a copy of the checklist found within the link with their submission, indicating where in the manuscript the elements requested are located. The checklists are part of publicly available websites and are not unique to the Journal. Peer reviewers will use the checklist as part of their review process. If elements from the checklist are missing or it is felt they are not applicable, a statement of explanation must accompany the manuscript regarding the reasons for the exclusion. Omission of the checklist may delay manuscript review.

    Original Research manuscripts should include:

    1. structured abstract;
    2. introduction stating the purpose and relevance of the study and the testable hypotheses underlying the study design;
    3. clear and full description of materials and methods, including criteria for participant selection, referenced measurement instruments and quality control measures and summary details of statistical methods;
    4. report of the results following the same order presented in the methods for clarity;
    5. discussion of the results should be compared with other published data of a similar nature using current literature along with implications of the results for further research or possible clinical application. For example, what do the results mean for the topic being investigated? In addition, a paragraph describing the strengths and limitations of the study should be included;
    6. conclusions should be succinctly stated and drawn only from reported results. They should not go beyond or overstate them. Implications for further research might be included;
    7. current and relevant peer-reviewed scientific references; and
    8. tables/figures with clearly written titles, headings, and footnotes that permit full interpretation without accompanying text.

    Original Research manuscripts, in general, will range between 3,500 and 5,000 words. Larger primary analysis studies may typically be about 4,000-5,000 words, while smaller studies of emergent topics or secondary analyses will typically be around 2,500-3,500 words, not including abstract, tables/figures, or references. Figures and tables range from two to six and should be limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicating findings in the text.

    Please select the appropriate study design and review the information in the link(s) provided. Checklists will need to be copied from the site, completed, and uploaded with the manuscript.

    Study Design and Checklists

    Review
    These articles are comprehensive systematic reviews on specific nutrition topics with public health, clinical, management, or educational relevance. Authors submitting to this category must select the appropriate study design and include the checklist from the link provided with their submission, indicating where in the manuscript the elements requested are located. Systematic review articles should address topics with an extensive body of primary source literature to provide a critical summary of the current evidence and applications using the appropriate software (eg Evidence Analysis Library, Cochrane, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis). In some cases, these articles may also address an emerging topic with limited literature to better demonstrate the need for more research. Systematic reviews that include meta-analyses are also encouraged. Review manuscripts should include:

    1. structured abstract;
    2. introduction and purpose;
    3. methods, including inclusion and exclusion criteria for study selection, referenced measurement instruments, and quality;
    4. results;
    5. discussion;
    6. conclusions;
    7. references, detailed and comprehensive; and
    8. table/figures
    Specific guidelines in writing a Systematic Review include:
    • Clearly define and clarify the topic being addressed.
    • When presenting studies, organize by conceptual subheadings and themes rather than discussing one after another.
    • Identify relations, contradictions, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature.
    • Include specific questions left to answer with future research.
    • Detail the process used in finding sources and screening the literature for the best studies.
    • Describe the process for grading the literature, prioritizing studies by rigor of the study design and methodology.
    • Present both pro and con sides of the literature base regarding a particular problem.
    • If possible, summarize results from large numbers of publications in a table.
    • Include practical recommendations for the practice of dietetics based on the reviewed literature.
    Systematic Review manuscripts, in general, will range between 4,000-5,000 words, not including abstract, tables/figures, or references. Figures and tables range from two to six and should be limited to those most pertinent to the review without duplicating information in the text.

    Please select the appropriate study design and review the information in the link(s) provided. Checklists will need to be copied from the site, completed, and uploaded with the manuscript.

    Study Design and Checklists

    Commentary
    Commentaries are scholarly papers that address topics of interest to the dietetics profession and often reflect matters of emerging importance or of a controversial nature that require additional research or policy development. Such topics may have been previously published in the Journal or foreshadow emerging science or practical applications. Commentaries may be invited or spontaneously submitted and should focus on matters of nutrition research, the practice of dietetics, or related areas with rigorous attention to matters of study design, the quality of existing data, and relevant limitations as well. Commentaries are approximately 2,500 words in length (excluding reference, tables/figures) and are expected to be balanced, unbiased, and well documented with quality references. Commentaries may include one or two tables or figures as appropriate, and should reflect a substantive area of concern. Subjective, anecdotal, or purely descriptive data are not publishable in this context. For an example of a Commentary, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(9):1330-1333.

    Research Editorial
    A Research Editorial is written in conjunction with an upcoming publication of an Original Research paper. Well-documented, evidence-based editorials on relevant subject matter of key interest to the readership are invited. Editorials are expected to contribute substantive evidence regarding the topic of specific interest, not simply descriptive or subjective material, nor a summary of the paper involved. These manuscripts average in length around 2,500 words (excluding references, tables and figures) and may include up to two tables and/or figures. For an example of a Research Editorial, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:1153-1154.

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    ARTICLE CATEGORIES: PRACTICE APPLICATIONS

    Topics of Professional Interest
    This section offers authors an opportunity to briefly summarize work regarding cutting-edge or emerging nutrition and research topics, nutrition- and scope of practice-related topics, emerging dietetics issues, current media topics, and prevalent client communication issues. Particular areas of interest include:

    • management in dietetics
    • informatics
    • operations in all areas of practice (eg, sustainability within operations, outcomes assessment)
    • media interest/what to tell patients/clients about hot topics (eg, allergies)
    • foodservice, retail food service, and food safety and biosecurity
    • standardized language
    • quality measures and outcomes (eg, customer satisfaction)
    • emerging areas of competency development (eg, cultural competency, leadership qualities/opportunities)
    • job/career satisfaction and career path research
    • human resource management in all areas of dietetics

    Articles are expected to keep the registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN)/dietetic technician, registered (DTR) informed on health issues in nutrition that are becoming increasingly important to the profession. These manuscripts may range in length from 1,000 to 3,500 words, including references and can include up to four tables and/or figures. For an example of a Topics of Professional Interest article, please refer to: J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(3):340-353.

    Business of Dietetics
    This section provides practical and how-to insights into the workings of the business field, such as resume writing, legal knowledge, career tips, professional economic issues, mentoring issues, and leadership training. These manuscripts average between 850 and 2,000 words and can include up to four tables and figures. For an example of a Business of Dietetics article, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(11):1718-1723.

    Case Study
    These articles focus on nutrition-related case studies and novel scientific or conceptual advancements within the field of dietetics that are vital to providing timely support for promising areas of future research and practice. Case studies should include: (1) an introduction and general description of the pathophysiology of the disease or disorder and its nutritional relevancy; (2) a brief but thorough description of the clinical case (eg, patient profile, presenting symptoms, relevant past medical/surgical history, hospital or treatment course, laboratory results, tests or procedures) with utilization of the Nutrition Care Process (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1113-1117) , International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(8):1287-1293), and using de-identified data to protect the patient or patients' right to privacy; (3) the interventions and medical nutrition therapies and evidence-based guidelines employed; and (4) a discussion and conclusion, which includes outcome data (if available), lessons learned for the subsequent management of similar cases and emphasis on future directions for applicable research. These manuscripts can have a word count up to 2,000. For an example of a Case Study article, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113(2):213-218.

    Emerging Science and Translational Applications
    These brief articles communicate novel scientific or conceptual advancements within the field of dietetics that are vital to providing timely support for promising areas of future research and practice. As formal research manuscripts or briefs may not yet be fully developed, progress reports reflecting emerging science and innovative findings specific to dietetics issues are welcome to help keep food and nutrition practitioners apprised of important new developments in the field. Brief summaries should be written in a narrative format with specified subheadings that progress in a logical order: (1) introduction (succinctly summarizing in a few sentences the relevant science and the novelty of this new emerging area: Why is this new or innovative? What gap in research or practice does this attempt to address?); (2) body (describe the concept, idea, or new area of interest and how it is being tested: What technique, methods, or approach to the problem is applied? Briefly, in a few sentences, summarize the developmental process and/or improvements to previous versions, practices, or techniques: What is the new area/item? How is it different? How does understanding the new area/item enhance nutrition and dietetics?); (3) conclusions (describe future research implications or direct applications to the field of nutrition and dietetics-in a few sentences, explore the potential impact this is likely to have and offer website or other access to ongoing progress reports: How does this change future research, practice, or educations efforts?). These brief reports are typically around 800-1,200 words with up to one table or figure (optional) and only key references. For an example of an Emerging Science and Translational Applications article, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(8):1134-1137.

    Letters to the Editor
    Letters to the Editor-in-Chief may be submitted for consideration regarding manuscripts published within the past 6 months. Letters should generate productive discussion with the authors by objectively addressing key scientific factors or controversies that add important, constructive, well-documented points to the topic. Letters should be succinct, non-pejorative and no more than 500 words and can contain up to 20 references. As with other submissions, Letters should be submitted online and include an author page, funding disclosure, conflict of interest disclosure, and signed copyright/authorship form. All letters will be subjected to editorial review and decision before acceptance and may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the editor. When appropriate, authors of original articles will be given an opportunity to respond, and if they chose not to respond, this will be noted, following the Letter to the Editor.

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    MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
    Elsevier Editorial System (EES), the Web-based peer-review and article submission system for the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, is required for submission of manuscripts. Web-based peer review provides full electronic capabilities for submission, review, and status updates. Manuscripts must be submitted at: http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl. A Tutorial for Authors can also be found on the submission site to assist authors with the online submission process.. For problems or questions concerning submission, contact Lois Ahrens, RDN, LD, Associate Editor at 319-384-5044 or lois-ahrens@uiowa.edu.

    Use standard 12-point font and double-space type throughout, including the author page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, and tables and figures. Number each page of the manuscript consecutively and include continuous line numbers beginning with the abstract and continuing through the reference list. Delineate new paragraphs with an extra line space or indentation. Authors' names should appear only on the authors' page described below. Other pages should not contain any information identifying the authors. A description of the various components of a manuscript follows.

    Note: The manuscript should be formatted in Microsoft Word. Do not use the footnote function for references or the comments function. Include references at the end of the manuscript. DO NOT UPLOAD MANUSCRIPT TEXT FILES IN PDF FORMAT. Also, manuscripts must not be submitted with track changes.

    Manuscripts that do not comply with these specific guidelines will be returned to authors for revision prior to being sent out for review or evaluated by editors.

    Cover Letter
    A cover letter is required with each submission/round of revision and is an informal introduction to the paper citing any relevant information to the editors about the manuscript that is not included in the text.

    Author Page
    Authors' names or initials should not appear anywhere else within the manuscript or other documents. The author page should include:

    • title of the manuscript- this should be specific and informative, conveying the findings of the research (eg, "Dietary fiber lowers serum cholesterol" rather than "Effects of dietary fiber on serum cholesterol"). The manuscript title should appear on the abstract, the first page of the manuscript text, the authors' page, and all correspondence and disclosure statements;
    • five keywords or descriptive phrases-keywords appear alongside the article abstract and provide readers with a quick list of the main issues discussed in the article. When selecting keywords, take into consideration the overarching topic of your article as well as the specifics of the research;
    • word counts-for the abstract and the text (excluding references, tables, and figures);
    • author contact information-full names, academic degrees, and affiliations (position title, organization, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address) for all authors both at the time the work was completed and at present, if affiliations have changed since the work was completed. Type authors' names in the order they should appear in the published article-refer to the subsection titled "Credentials" in the section titled "JOURNAL STYLE" for more information about listing degrees and credentials on the authors' page;
    • identification of the corresponding author; and
    • reprint contact-name and address of author who will handle reader requests for reprints, if this is different from the corresponding author.

    Abstract
    Abstracts are only required for Original Research and Review manuscripts. Authors will be prompted to copy the abstract into a separate text box for use by reviewers. Authors should prepare a structured abstract per checklist guidelines. Abstracts should be written in complete sentences and for a general journal readership, include P values, if appropriate, and be understandable without reference to the main text. A general description of a structured abstract is as follows:

    Structured Abstract
    Structured abstracts provide a focused overview of a study's design and outcomes by organizing information with descriptive headings. Suggested headings, and the information that should be provided for each, are described below. Structured abstracts should not exceed 300 words.

    • Background. Briefly explain the context of the study or summarize the relevant problem addressed by the study. The statement should clearly state the rationale for investigating the research question.
    • Objective. Describe the question or problem addressed and the testable hypotheses involved.
    • Design. Identify the design of the study (eg, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, randomized controlled trial, cross-over design, qualitative, or cost-effectiveness analysis). Define the duration of follow-up, if applicable. Describe the criterion standard used for comparison. Define and describe methodology used to collect data.
    • Participants/setting. Describe eligibility criteria used to select participants, the number of participants involved in the analysis (may not be the number recruited), and the attrition rate. Describe where and when the study was conducted and how the setting might relate to the selection of participants (eg, community-based or hospitalized participants) or the study's applicability to a specialty practice situation.
    • Intervention. Describe the essential features of the treatment or intervention in studies that use an experimental design.
    • Main outcome measures. Note the primary outcome measure as planned before data collection began; if the hypothesis being reported was formulated during or after data collection, this information should be clearly stated.
    • Statistical analyses performed. Indicate statistical tests used in data analyses (eg, X2, analysis of variance, or confidence intervals). Note procedures used to adjust for confounding factors, such as age and sex.
    • Results. Identify study results related to the a priori hypothesis and clearly label findings from post hoc analyses. Describe relevant findings of the study including numerical values.
    • Conclusions. Offer key conclusions on the basis of evidence provided by the study.

    Manuscript Body
    Typically the manuscript body will include: 1) introduction/background; 2)materials and methods; 3) results; 4) discussion including strength and limitations, 5) conclusions including, if appropriate, applications and implications for further research, 6) references and 7) tables/figures.

    Documentation of Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval is mandatory and should be included in the methods section of the manuscript. Guidelines are as follows:

    • State explicitly that human subject review was approved and how informed consent or assent was obtained.
    • If protocol is exempt from IRB approval, then indicate as such.
    • Examples of IRB approval statements are as follows:
      •The (insert name of institution) Institutional Review Board approved the study protocol and all participants provided written informed consent (and child assent, if appropriate). If the name of the institution will reveal the authors, blind the name and it will be unblinded prior to publication.
      •This study was deemed exempt by (insert name of institution) Institutional Review Board. This study was deemed exempt under federal regulation 45 46.101 (b) CFR. Reference: www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.html
    • For questions regarding IRB, please see the Office for Human Research Protections IRB Guidebook.

    References
    The Journal follows the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed, for references and citations. Number references consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text. References should be cited in text, tables, and figures with superscript Arabic numerals. References cited only in a table or figure are acceptable if they are in sequence with references cited in the text. References should be typed double space on pages separate from the manuscript's main text. Reference management software, such as EndNote, or Reference Manager, is accepted. Note: Do not use the footnote function in Microsoft Word for references. Include references at the end of the manuscript.

    Authors should use relevant, current citations from scientific peer reviewed literature. Peer reviewed scientific papers are papers published after they have been reviewed by other scientists, knowledgeable in the field of inquiry, to determine whether the studies they describe are of reasonable quality and the conclusions reported are supported by the evidence. References from nonscholarly publications are not acceptable; however, exceptions may be made based on the context in which the reference is included. Updated references (including access dates for website sources) are expected for manuscripts that have undergone a long turn-around time for review and/or revision. No matter how well known a book or source material (eg, Dietary Reference Intakes, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPlate), it must be included in the list of references if it is mentioned in the manuscript. Avoid using abstracts or presentations as references; full reports, either published or in press, are preferred. Personal communications may not be cited as references but may be noted parenthetically in the text. All personal communications should be dated, and authors must secure the approval of the person quoted. Unpublished data, such as an article submitted for publication but not yet accepted, should be cited parenthetically in the text with a date and the notation "unpublished data." Articles accepted for publication but not yet published can be included in the list of references with the notation "In press." Inclusive page numbers must be provided for all periodical articles cited. Page numbers are not required when an entire book is cited, but specific page numbers are needed when only a chapter or section of a book is cited. Provide a page number for all material quoted directly from any source. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and adequacy of all references cited in their manuscript.

    Example of Periodical Reference:
    King DE, Mainous AG,3rd, Lambourne CA. Trends in dietary fiber intake in the United States, 1999-2008. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(5):642-648.

    Example of Web Site Reference:
    US Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS Report 1040. Women in the labor force: A databook. US Bureau of Labor Statistics website. http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook-2012.pdf. Published February 2013. Revised March 26, 2013. Accessed November 14, 2013.

    Tables and Figures
    Tables and figures should be limited to those required to clarify an article. Each table or figure should be understandable by itself and not require the reader to refer to the text. Present data only once, either in tabular or graphic form or in the text. Each table and figure, with table/figure number and title/legend included, should be submitted on a separate attached page with the manuscript. Acceptable file types for tables and figures are: TIFF, EPS, PDF, and Microsoft Office files (Word, PowerPoint, Excel). The preferred font type for tables and figures is Helvetica Condensed; however, any font type in the Helvetica family is acceptable.

    Tables
    Tables should be double spaced and limited to one per page. Number tables consecutively (according to the order they are cited in the text) with Arabic numbers. Table titles should be detailed enough to stand alone from the manuscript text. For example, a table titled "Demographic characteristics of focus group participants" is not detailed enough to be understood apart from the text of the manuscript. A more descriptive title that would stand alone from the text would be "Demographics of a cohort of 35 African American women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in focus group data collection on initiative eating practices."

    Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the column headings or table title. Be sure to include the unit of measure (eg, "No.," "%," "g," or "year") under the appropriate column heading. Use Conventional Units with conversion formulas for Systeme International (SI) values as a footnote. Tables may not contain more than 14 columns. Do not put more than one unit of information in a single cell of the table.

    For numerals less than 1.00, insert a zero to the left of the decimal point (eg, 0.95). Use a hyphen to indicate ranges (eg, 75-100). Identify statistical measures of variations (eg, standard deviation or standard error of the mean). When the designation line at the left-hand side of a table (stub) requires two lines, values in that horizontal row should align with the second line of the designation. Align columns vertically on decimal points, hyphens, or "±". Use superscript letters to indicate footnotes (eg, a,b,c); however, use the standard * for P < 0.05, ** for P < 0.01, and *** for P < 0.001. Footnote order is determined by the first appearance of footnoted material in a horizontal row.

    Authors who incorporate data from another published or unpublished source in a table must cite the original source in a reference or footnote. If a table is reproduced in its entirety, revised, modified, or adapted from another published source authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder of the table and indicate in a table footnote the source of the original table.

    Figures
    Authors should submit figures as separate attached documents when submitting a manuscript online. Bar graphs are used to show proportions or percents within categories, and line graphs are used to show data that are related such as serial observations. Three-dimensional figures are appropriate for simultaneous display of three but not two proportions or percents within categories (eg, height, weight, and percent body weight). Number figures consecutively (according to the order they are cited in the text) with Arabic numbers and supply a brief legend for each.

    Figures can be color or gray scale, and should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. If submitting a color figure, try to avoid the use of the color yellow, which may not translate well to print. Figures that are line art should have a resolution of 1,200 dpi. If using gray scale, use shades of gray that can be easily distinguished from one another. Combinations of gray-scale and line art should be at least 1,200 dpi. It is important to keep in mind that figures may be reduced to fit allotted space on a Journal page.

    A figure legend should be brief yet make an illustration fully intelligible by itself. Cite and define all acronyms or abbreviations used in the figure in the legend as superscript footnotes (eg, a, b, c).

    If a figure is reproduced in its entirety, revised, modified, or adapted from another published source, the authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder of the figure and indicate in the figure legend the source of the original figure.

    Practice Implications
    Including Practice Implications with a manuscript submission is voluntary. Practice Implications is designed for authors to convey the core findings of their research and the potential bridge it provides to dietetics practice. Authors should briefly answer the following three questions for Practice Implications:

    • What is the current knowledge on this topic?
    • How does this research add to knowledge on this topic?
    • How might this knowledge impact current dietetics practice?
    The answer to each question should be no more than 200 characters. Authors should submit Practice Implications as a separate file in EES, with "Practice Implications" in the file name and included in the document.

    Acknowledgements
    Authors may acknowledge persons other than coauthors who have made substantial contributions to the development of their study or manuscript. Permission from all persons named in the acknowledgments must be obtained prior to submission to the Journal and authors must inform the Editor-in-Chief in writing that such permission has been obtained. This statement can be included in the "Comments" section in EES when submitting a manuscript. A statement in the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form verifies that written consent was obtained from those acknowledged. Any personal acknowledgments should also be submitted as a separate attached page with the manuscript.

    Copyright Transfer, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest
    The Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form can be downloaded from the Journal's submission website.

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics holds the copyright on all material published in the Journal or on the Journal's website. All authors must sign and date this statement that transfers their article's copyright to the Academy and submit it with their manuscript. (Electronic signatures and signatures reproduced by photocopy or fax are acceptable and legally binding.) Manuscripts submitted by authors who were employees of the US federal government at the time their work was conducted and written are not subject to the Copyright Act; therefore, these authors do not have to transfer copyright but instead must indicate their status as federal employees in the appropriate section on the copyright form. Authors who transfer their copyright will not lose the right to reprint material from their articles but will be required to acknowledge and credit the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in all reprints. If a manuscript is not accepted, or is withdrawn before publication, transfer of copyright is null and void. The Journal adheres to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy concerning manuscripts funded by the NIH and a statement is located on the copyright form.

    All persons designated as authors must meet the criteria for authorship detailed in the Authorship Agreement. The Journal follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. An explanation for the addition or removal of an author must be provided with direct verification from the added/removed author. See "Acknowledgments" and "Funding/Support Disclosure" sections for guidelines on how to recognize other contributors to the work.

    Authors must inform the Journal in writing of any financial arrangements, organizational affiliations, or other relationships that may constitute a conflict of interest regarding the subject matter of the manuscript. See "Conflict of Interest Disclosure" section for more details.

    Authors' rights are explicitly detailed on the copyright form and on the Author Rights section of Elsevier's website.

    The Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form can be submitted via EES, emailed to lois-ahrens@uiowa.edu, or sent via mail to Lois Ahrens RDN, LD, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive E257 GH, Iowa City, IA 52242.

    Funding/Support Disclosure
    In addition to the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form, all financial and material support for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified and submitted in EES as a separate attached page with the manuscript. If there is no funding or support, a page should be attached stating as such. Inclusion of an external Data Safety and Monitoring Board is strongly recommended for all industry-sponsored research.

    Conflict of Interest Disclosure
    A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author's decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the author page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. Authors should err on the side of full disclosure and should contact the editorial office if they have questions or concerns.

    In addition to the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form, all such disclosures must be submitted in EES as a separate, unsigned, attached page with the manuscript. Authors without conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject of their manuscript, should include an unsigned statement of no such interests along with their manuscript. Failure to include this information in the manuscript may delay the review of the manuscript.

    Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts within the past 5 years and for the foreseeable future (including, but not limited to employment/ affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria, speakers' bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, or patents filed, received, pending, or in preparation), particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation), that represent potential future financial gain. Although many universities and other institutions have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest, the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics requires complete disclosure of all relevant financial relationships and potential financial conflicts of interest, regardless of amount or value. If authors are uncertain about what constitutes a relevant financial interest or relationship, they should contact the editorial office.

    For all accepted manuscripts, each author's disclosures of conflicts of interest and relevant financial interests and affiliations and declarations of no such interests will be published. Decisions about whether such information provided by authors should be published, and thereby disclosed to readers, are usually straightforward. Although editors are willing to discuss disclosure of specific conflicts of interest with authors, the Journal's policy is one of complete disclosure of all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the author page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. If an author's disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to rectify the original published disclosure statement, and additional action may be taken as necessary, as outlined by and in compliance with the Committee on Publication Ethics.

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    AUTHOR RESPONSIBILITIES
    Manuscript content and accuracy are the authors' responsibility.

    Manuscripts must be submitted solely to the Journal. A manuscript is considered for publication with the understanding that it has not been published in its entirety or any portion thereof (this includes tables and figures) previously in print or electronic form (except as a preprint, including prior version as a thesis) and is not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Findings previously presented in an oral report or in an abstract in conjunction with a scientific or professional conference may be submitted for consideration. However, the author(s) must inform the Journal, via EES, (either in the cover letter or comments to editor) of any previous disclosure of information contained in a submitted manuscript, including the aforementioned or other reports of the information in technical papers or newsletters.

    Permission to Reprint
    Any direct quotations, figures, or tables that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author, along with full source information. Images of brand name products must have written consent from the manufacturer to be reproduced. Any photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by signed releases showing informed consent. Since articles appear in both the print and online versions of the Journal, the permission must specify "permission to publish in all forms and media." Failure to obtain print and electronic permission may result in the image or information not appearing in the print and/or online version.

    Plagiarism
    In instances where plagiarism is suspected, the Journal follows the protocol set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    Open Access
    The Journal does not ordinarily have publication charges for authors. However, authors can opt to make articles open access for a fee of $2,500 payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication, unless otherwise specified by our publisher's agreement with your funding body. For information about funding body agreements and policies or other mandates that may apply visit the Funding Body Agreements section of Elsevier's website. Authors will be prompted to indicate whether they intend to publish as open access upon submission of their manuscripts. Authors' publication choice has no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of manuscripts.

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    JOURNAL STYLE

    For authoritative guidance on style, usage, and spelling, the Journal uses the following resources: AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed; Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 30th ed; and Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. Other resources for laboratory values, race and ethnicity, and Dietary Reference Intakes are listed under those sections.

    Software Citations
    Software developers are cited parenthetically in the text after the first mention of a software package. Software citations should include the name, version number, and release date of the software as well as the name of the software developer. [Example: All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS (version 9.1.3, 2006, SAS Institute Inc).] If software incorporates a nutrient database, provide information in the text about the database. This should include the release date for the database, a description of substantial modifications made to the database, and an explanation of how missing nutrient data for foods were handled (ie, indicate whether values were extrapolated and evaluate the effect of any missing values on dietary totals for the nutrients of interest). Do not include information about software or databases in the list of references or the abstract.

    Footnotes in Text
    Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and indicated consecutively, with superscript symbols (*, †, ‡, §, etc), throughout the text. Double space footnotes on a separate sheet of paper. Footnote citations should read from top left to bottom right. All text in the footnote section of a table should be properly cited in the table. All abbreviations and acronyms in a table or figure must also be footnoted with the correct expansion.

    Use of NCP and IDNT
    For topics that are addressing dietetics and nutrition care provided by dietetics practitioners, authors should use the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) as a framework for describing the nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnoses, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring/evaluation that was included in the research and use the International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) to describe the aspects of care within each of the above steps. Additional information on the NCP and IDNT is available under "Resources for Health Practitioners" on the Academy's website.

    Credentials
    Bylines are a general indicator for indexing purposes of authors' contribution to the published work. Journal style is to list the highest academic degree(s) of each author followed by any/all credentials and certifications from the Commission on Dietetic Registration (eg, RD, RDN, DTR, CSP, CSR, CSG, CSO, CSSD, FAND); and if desired by the author, state licensure (LD, LDN, or CDN) and fellowships. If an author has a doctorate, master's level degrees should not be included unless the master's degree is in a different or specialized field. Academic degrees below the master's level are omitted unless they are the highest obtained degree. For credentials issued outside the United States, indicate the country of origin in a footnote.

    Note: For articles that relate to specialist or advanced practice credentials, which appear in the "From the Academy" section, some author credentials may relate to specialist or advanced practice credentials obtained from another organization, and these can be included in the author byline. Non-CDR credentials received by the RDN/DTR author in these "From the Academy" articles will be verified by the Quality Management Team (for SOP/SOPP in focused areas of practice) or the HOD Governance Team (for Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position or practice papers). These credentials include: CDE, BC-ADM, CNSS/CNSD, CHES, CLC, SNS, and others, which authors may inquire about at the time of submission. Authors from other fields such as nursing, medicine, surgery, etc., are asked to provide verification at the time of submission regarding their advanced practice credentials (these include, but are not limited to APRN-BC, CIC, NP, OCN, RM(C), RPh-BC-ADM).

    Numbers
    Numbers below 10 are spelled out unless followed by a unit of measure or a percentage. Express all numbers larger than 10 as Arabic numerals. Numbers that begin a sentence are always spelled out. The number of significant digits reported should be realistic and supported by the original data (eg, 2,125 kcal, not 2,124.8 kcal; 105 lb, not 105.734 lb). For sample sizes smaller than 100, frequency must be given (eg, two of seven, not 29%); percent may also be provided if necessary. Also, do not include a decimal and zero after a whole percent number (Correct: 72%, Incorrect: 72.0%).

    Abbreviations and Acronyms
    Abbreviate units of measure when used with numerals (5 g, 1,000 kcal). Chemical formulas should be written out, unless they are used to economize space in the column headings of a table; however, the formulas should be expanded in the footnotes. Always provide the complete form of an acronym the first time it is mentioned in the text (note that if an abbreviation has been spelled out in the abstract, it still must be spelled out in the text on first-time use). An acronym or abbreviation is permitted if it is used three or more times within the manuscript text. Avoid excessive use of acronyms and abbreviations. Avoid author-invented abbreviations and acronyms.

    Laboratory Values
    All clinical laboratory values must be expressed in Conventional Units, (eg, lipids should be expressed in mg/dL) with Système International (SI) units in parentheses in the manuscript text, for example: triglycerides 100 mg/dL (1.13 mmol/L). Authors must provide the conversion factor to SI units as a footnote in tables and figures. The exception to this is the use of kilocalories; the Journal will continue to use kilocalories instead of kilojoules. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. A table of normal values in both Conventional and SI units and the appropriate conversion factors appears on Oxford University Press website. Authors should refer to this table when converting data and use it as a guide for choosing the appropriate number of significant digits.

    Trade Names
    When specific products used in the research are referred to by a trade name, give the manufacturer's name parenthetically after the first mention. When possible use generic names for food and drugs. Registration or trademarks are not required.

    Dietary Reference Intakes
    Authors must use the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), not the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Information on the DRIs can be found through the Institute of Medicine. If for any reason an author wishes to report nutrient intakes without using the stated DRIs, intakes may be reported, but adequacy should not be assessed.

    Personal Pronouns
    Use of personal pronouns (eg, I, our, we) should be used sparingly, if at all, in Journal submissions except Letters to the Editor.

    Race and Ethnicity
    The Journal follows the guidelines set forth by the National Institutes of Health.

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    EDITORIAL PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION
    Article content is the authors' responsibility. Accepted manuscripts are copyedited to conform to Journal style and to meet space limitations. Authors should note that the editing process is separate from and occurs after the peer-review process. The corresponding author will receive an electronic proof of the article and have an opportunity to review editorial changes and to double-check accuracy of content, tables, and statistics before publication. However, a change made by copyeditors for style, grammar, and readability should not be altered by authors unless a scientific error has been introduced. Authors will be expected to review galleys promptly (within 4 business days of receipt). If the corresponding author is not available to receive or review proofs at any given time, a back-up should be identified and contact information provided to the editors.

    Information regarding reprint orders will be sent along with author proofs from the Journal's publisher.

    Embargo Policy/Articles in Press
    For the protection of each author's work, the Journal does not allow the unauthorized pre-publication of any materials slated for publication. All articles accepted for publication are posted online in their corrected format as Articles in Press, and are subject to embargo until such date the articles are available online. The timetable for online publication is approximately 8 weeks from acceptance.

    Authors may track the status of their articles and sign up for Article in Press alerts on the Journal's website.

    Authors wanting to coordinate press activity with their institutions should consult the contact provided in their proof communication to confirm embargo information.

    Translation Services
    Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit Elsevier's Author Services or Elsevier's customer support site for more information. Please note the Journal and Elsevier neither endorse nor take responsibility for any products, goods, or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to Elsevier's Terms & Conditions.

    Post-Production Services
    A number of post-publication services, including copies of the issue in which your published article appears, a poster of that issue's cover, a poster of your article, offprints, or a certification of publication can be arranged through Elsevier's WebShop.

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    NEW INVESTIGATOR PUBLICATION INITIATIVE (NIPI)
    This unique Journal program is offered to help qualified individuals pursue the publication of a high-quality Original Research manuscript. Eligible participants should have presented an abstract at the Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo and have no previous published manuscripts in any peer-review journal as the first author. Interested authors should review the NIPI FAQ to learn more about this program. Information on a toolkit designed to help authors learn how to evaluate and use published research is located in the introduction of the Information for Authors and within the NIPI FAQ.

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    AUTHOR INQUIRIES
    For inquiries regarding the Information for Authors, please refer to the Journal's contact information.

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