Guide for Authors
Submit to the Journal at http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl. See "HOW TO SUBMIT A MANUSCRIPT" section for details.
The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the official research publication of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Its purpose, expressed in its mission statement, is to be "the premier peer-reviewed journal in the field of food, nutrition, and dietetics" and to embody the mission of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Journal is published in both print and electronic formats and publishes Articles in Press (articles posted on the Journal's website before the print version).
The Journal publishes manuscripts that advance knowledge across a wide range of research and practice issues in nutrition and dietetics and that support the professional growth of Academy members. Evidence-based contributions of original research; focused, meta analyses of cohort and randomized clinical trials; systematic reviews; and innovative research applications are welcome. Topics include foods and nutrients and their implications in health and disease; dietary patterns and dietary interventions; nutritional science, nutrigenomics, and medical nutrition therapy; translational research; dietetics practice and public health; nutrition epidemiology and biostatistical applications in nutrition research; food science and biotechnology; foodservice systems; leadership and management in food and nutrition systems and application of public policy; and medical nutrition and dietetics education. International contributions on global topics of nutrition interest are also welcome, providing there is relevance to the largely US readership and findings are placed within that context. Major trends that impact research and practice in the fields of food, nutrition, and dietetics may also be considered if placed in appropriate contexts for the Journal's readership (eg, population demographic transitions, environmental trends, health care reform).
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics offers an online toolkit designed to help registered dietitians understand and embrace nutrition research. This toolkit helps the reader, and potentially a new investigator or budding author, learn how to evaluate and use published research; the basics of conducting a research project; and how to interpret research articles effectively. It includes several "how to" modules, reference articles, and more and is free to members of the Academy: https://www.andevidencelibrary.com/store.cfm?category=13.ARTICLE CATEGORIES
The Journal accepts unsolicited manuscripts in 13 peer-reviewed categories that comprise either the Research section or the Practice Applications section. Research categories are: Original Research; Reviews; Qualitative Research; Research and Professional Briefs; Research and Practice Innovations; Practical Clinical Solutions; Research Editorial; Commentary; Emerging Science & Translational Applications; and the New Investigator Program Initiative. Practice Applications categories are: Topics of Professional Interest; Business of Dietetics; and Letters to the Editor.
The Journal conforms to guidelines of peer review as promulgated by the International Committee on Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). Peer review for all articles undergoing review is double-blinded and reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the Journal editors. A full list of reviewers is published annually.The Journal does not publish market research studies; studies that lack testable hypotheses or validated scientific methods; literature reviews or other sections from theses or dissertations unless systematic and rigorous in their design; pilot studies with very small sample sizes that do not conform to scientific design or utilize uncontrolled electronic surveys; or animal models; or pseudoscience that lacks scientific rigor, quality control, has no control group, or generally offers random findings or author opinions. No papers are published without Institutional Review Board approval or note of authorized exemption. Abstracts that were presented at a scientific meeting do not preclude a manuscript from consideration for publication.
Structural requirements of each category are discussed in the Research section "MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION." Word counts specified for each manuscript category do not include the abstract (when required), tables/figures, and references.Research
The Journal welcomes original research and places high priority on publication of randomized controlled clinical trials, intervention studies, prospective cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, other population-based observational studies with large sample sizes and representative of a population of interest, validated surveys with high response rates from verified participants, cost-effectiveness studies and decision analyses, and research on the validation of novel screening and diagnostic tests as well as unique dietary assessment methodologies. Research on novel studies is expected to utilize validated nutritional and dietary assessment methods as appropriate. Thorough description of study designs, key hypotheses, data collection methods, analyses, and power calculations are expected (see "COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT: DETAILED OVERVIEW" section). The research questions and hypotheses being addressed in the study should be relevant and important to the Journal's readership, and should not have been adequately addressed in prior studies. The study's design should be appropriate for testing the stated research hypothesis. Manuscripts should include: (1) structured abstract; (2) introduction stating the purpose and relevance of the study and the testable hypotheses underlying the study design; (3) clear and full description of materials and methods, including criteria for participant selection, referenced validated measurement instruments and quality control measures and summary details of statistical methods; (4) report of results for clarity, following the same order presented in "methods"; (5) discussion (for greatest value, results should be compared with other published data of a similar nature using current literature) along with a paragraph describing the limitations of the study is also expected; (6) conclusions, applications and implications for further research; (7) current and all relevant references; and (8) tables/figures with clearly written titles, headings, and footnotes that permit full interpretation without accompanying text. Original Research manuscripts, in general, should range between 2,500 and 4,000 words, but are typically about 3,500 words. Figures and tables range from two to six and should be limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicating findings in the text.
The Journal welcomes comprehensive, systematic, unbiased reviews on specific nutrition topics with public health, clinical, management, or educational relevance. Review articles should address topics with an extensive body of primary source literature to provide a critical, balanced summary of the current evidence and applications. In some cases, review articles may also address an emerging topic with limited literature to better demonstrate the need for more research, but if the focus is on a clinical practice issue, this might better be presented as a Research and Practice Innovations article. Reviews will include: (1) unstructured abstract; (2) introduction and purpose; (3) body, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate subheads; (4) conclusions that specify gaps in the literature and further research needs; (5) detailed and comprehensive list of references; and (6) tables/figures as relevant. Systematic reviews including meta-analysis are also highly encouraged. Review articles seldom exceed 4,500 words. Systematic review tables may be published online. Specific guidelines in writing a review include:
- Clearly define and clarify the topic being addressed.
- When presenting studies, organize by conceptual subheadings and themes rather than discussing one after another.
- Identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature.
- Include specific questions left to answer with future research.
- Detail the process used in finding sources and screening the literature for the best studies.
- Describe the process used in grading the literature, prioritizing studies by rigor of the study design and methodology.
- Present both pro and con sides of the literature base regarding a particular problem.
- If possible, summarize results from large numbers of publications in a table.
- Include practical recommendations for the practice of dietetics based on the reviewed literature.
Various aspects of nutrition-related behaviors or attitudes, hypothesis or theory generation, or cultural description are suitable for submission as qualitative research. Unlike quantitative studies that rely on a priori hypothesis testing, qualitative research categorizes words, sounds, or pictures captured from qualitative data sources (eg, transcripts, audiotapes, videotapes), into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results. Authors are encouraged to seek further guidance by reviewing the article on qualitative research in the January 2009 issue of the Journal (J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(1):80-90) and referring to the appropriate sections under "COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT: DETAILED OVERVIEW".
All Qualitative Research submissions are subject to the same rigorous peer review process and standards as quantitative submissions; however, hypothesis generated outcomes and quantitative results are not expected. Special attention should be given to: describing the research questions, strategies for ensuring validity and reliability, sampling methodology, qualitative methodology (participation in a unique setting, direct observation, in-depth interviews and/or analysis of documents and materials), sample characteristics and sample size, control of potential response bias factors, and the analytic framework used to evaluate the results. The use of Internet-based survey data collection typically cannot provide sufficient rigor for published research due to the inability to confirm who the actual respondents are and the validity/reliability issues of their responses. The methodology (eg, focus groups, structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires) and any forms of data collected (eg, field notes, videos, pictures, documents) should be described in detail including the development of the measures along with the validity and reliability procedures used prior to administration and as part of data analysis.These manuscripts are formatted as follows: (1) unstructured abstract; (2) introduction (including research questions and literature review); (3) clear and full description of materials and methods, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate subheadings (criteria for participant selection, qualitative methodology, referenced validated measurement instruments, and statistical analyses); (4) results and discussion, which can be written separately or intermingled as one section (including themes and tentative answers to research questions); (5) conclusions (including applications to address the direct impact of the study findings and future research needs); and (6) detailed list of current, relevant references. Qualitative Research papers are 3,000 words or less with up to three tables/figures.
Research and Professional BriefsResearch and Practice Innovations
These evidence-based, experimentally designed research articles are another Journal priority area. They are shorter reports of research findings that are typically hypothesis-driven, may include secondary and/or cross-sectional analyses from larger population-based studies; epidemiological and survey research with relatively large sample sizes representative of a population of interest; observational studies; randomized clinical trials using smaller sample sizes; case series investigations; and validation studies of established dietary or clinical assessment techniques in new populations. These reports are expected to utilize rigorous research designs with appropriate statistical analyses and validated research methods, although some of these reports may also be methodological validation studies. Manuscripts in this category should include: (1) an unstructured abstract; (2) introduction; (3) body, which develops the subject in logical order using the headings "Methods," "Results and Discussion" [intermingled and including limitations], and "Conclusions" with appropriate subheadings; and (4) pertinent references. These research briefs are typically less than 2,500 words and can include up to three tables and/or figures.
Manuscripts in this category focus on important practice-related, translational quantitative research areas and, as such, are also a priority of the Journal. Research and Practice Innovations papers should be evidence-based, often elaborating on the practical applications associated with an original research project. These articles may also focus on innovative or understudied topic areas that may lead to hypothesis generation, raise questions for further study, or may precede an Original Research manuscript. These may include: well-designed, methodologically-sound pilot studies; small-scale program evaluation; or intervention studies. In addition, Research and Practice Innovations papers may offer insights or translational experiences that provide valuable evidence-based, hands-on information for practitioners. These articles should include: (1) unstructured abstract; (2) an introduction that provides a strong context for the presentation; (3) body, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate subheadings (for pilot studies this might include a methods section and findings combined with their discussion); (4) conclusions, with heavy emphasis on the applications to general practice and/or future research needs; and (5) detailed list of current, relevant references. Research and Practice Innovations articles should not exceed 3,000 words and can include up to three tables and/or figures.
Practical Clinical SolutionsResearch Editorial
These nutrition-related case studies or case series of general or of unique interest to the profession focus on a specific diagnosis for a particular patient or groups of patients. Manuscripts should include: (1) an introduction and general description of the pathophysiology of the disease or disorder and its nutritional relevancy; (2) a brief but thorough description of the clinical case (eg, patient profile, presenting symptoms, relevant past medical/surgical history, hospital or treatment course, laboratory results, tests or procedures) with utilization of the Nutrition Care Process (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1113-1117) , International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(8):1287-1293), and using de-identified data to protect the patient or patients' right to privacy; (3) the interventions and medical nutrition therapies and evidence-based guidelines employed; and (4) a discussion and conclusion, which includes outcome data (if available), lessons learned for the subsequent management of similar cases and emphasis on future directions for applicable research. A Practical Clinical Solutions submission should be approximately 1,500 words, excluding references and can include one to two tables and/or figures. Please refer to following citation for a template of these submissions: J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2105-2108.
A Research Editorial is written in conjunction with an upcoming publication of an Original Research paper. Well-documented, evidence-based editorials on relevant subject matter of key interest to the readership are invited. Editorials are expected to contribute substantive evidence regarding the topic of specific interest, not simply descriptive or subjective material, nor a summary of the paper involved. These manuscripts average in length around 2,500 words (excluding references) and may include up to two tables and/or figures.
CommentaryEmerging Science and Translational Applications
Commentaries are scholarly papers that address topics of interest to the dietetics profession and often reflect matters of emerging importance or of a controversial nature that require additional research or policy development . Such topics may have been previously published in the Journal or foreshadow emerging science or practical applications. Commentaries may be invited or spontaneously submitted and should focus on matters of nutrition research, the practice of dietetics, or related areas with rigorous attention to matters of study design, the quality of existing data, and relevant limitations as well. Commentaries are approximately 2,500 words in length and are expected to be balanced, unbiased, and well documented with qualified references. Commentaries may include one or two tables or graphs as appropriate, and should reflect a substantive area of concern. Subjective, anecdotal, or purely descriptive data are not publishable in this context. For an example of a commentary please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(9):1330-1333.
These brief articles communicate novel scientific or conceptual advancements within the field of dietetics that are vital to providing timely support for promising areas of future research and practice. As formal research manuscripts or briefs may not yet be fully developed, progress reports reflecting emerging science and innovative findings specific to dietetics issues are welcome to help keep food and nutrition practitioners apprised of important new developments in the field. Brief summaries should be written in a narrative format with specified subheadings that progress in a logical order: (1) introduction (succinctly summarizing in a few sentences the relevant science and the novelty of this new emerging area: Why is this new or innovative? What gap in research or practice does this attempt to address?); (2) body (describe the concept, idea, or new area of interest and how it is being tested: What technique, methods, or approach to the problem is applied? Briefly, in a few sentences, summarize the developmental process and/or improvements to previous versions, practices, or techniques: What is it? How is it different? How does understanding it enhance nutrition and dietetics?); (3) conclusions (describe future research implications or direct applications to the field of nutrition and dietetics. In a few sentences, explore the potential impact this is likely to have and offer website or other access to ongoing progress reports: How does this change future research, practice, or educations efforts?). These brief reports are typically around 800 words with up to one table or figure (optional) and only key references.
New Investigator Program Initiative (NIPI)Practice Applications
This unique Journal program is offered to help qualified individuals pursue the publication of a high-quality manuscript in any Research article category. Eligible participants should have presented an abstract at the Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo and have no previous published manuscripts in any peer-review journal as the first author. Interested authors should review the NIPI FAQ at: http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl/img/FAQ.doc to learn more about this program. Information on a toolkit designed to help registered dietitians learn how to evaluate and use published research is located in the introductory paragraph of the guidelines and within the NIPI FAQ.
Topics of Professional Interest
This section offers authors an opportunity to briefly summarize work regarding cutting-edge or emerging nutrition and research topics, nutrition- and scope of practice-related findings, survey results, emerging dietetics issues, current media topics, and prevalent client communication issues. Particular areas of interest include:
- management in dietetics
- operations in all areas of practice (eg, results of operations research, sustainability within operations, outcomes assessment)
- media interest/what to tell patients/clients about hot topics (eg, allergies)
- foodservice, retail food service, and food safety and biosecurity
- standardized language
- quality measures and outcomes (eg, customer satisfaction)
- emerging areas of competency development (eg, cultural competency, leadership qualities/opportunities)
- job/career satisfaction and career path research
- human resource management in all areas of dietetics
Articles are expected to keep the registered dietitian/dietetic technician, registered informed on health issues in nutrition that are becoming increasingly important to the profession. These manuscripts may range in length from 1,000 to 3,500 words, including references and can include up to four tables and - or figures. For an example of a Topics of Professional Interest article, please refer to: J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(3):340-353.
Business of DieteticsLetters to the Editor
This section provides practical and how-to insights into the workings of the business field, such as resume writing, legal knowledge, career tips, professional economic issues, mentoring issues, and leadership training. These manuscripts average between 850 and 2,000 words and can include up to four tables and figures.
Letters to the Editor-in-Chief may be submitted for consideration regarding manuscripts published within the past 6 months. Letters should generate productive discussion with the authors by objectively addressing key scientific factors or controversies that add important, constructive, well-documented points to the topic. Letters should be succinct, non-pejorative and no more than 500 words and can contain up to 20 references. As with other submissions, Letters should be submitted online and include an author page, funding disclosure, conflict of interest disclosure, and signed copyright/authorship form. All letters will be subjected to editorial review and decision before acceptance and may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the editor. When appropriate, authors of original articles will be given an opportunity to respond, and if they chose not to respond, this will be noted, following the Letter to the Editor.
HOW TO SUBMIT A MANUSCRIPT
Elsevier Editorial System (EES), the Web-based peer-review and article submission system for the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, is required for submission of manuscripts and reviews. Web-based peer review provides full electronic capabilities for submission, review, and status updates. Manuscripts must be submitted at http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl, and should contain the following (as appropriate):
- cover letter-an informal introduction to the paper citing any relevant information to the editors about the manuscript that is not included in the text (submitted online and required with each submission/round of revision);
- author page (author names or initials should not appear anywhere else within the manuscript or other documents);
- abstract (included in the "manuscript" document);
- manuscript formatted in Microsoft Word (PDF files are not acceptable) containing continuous line and page numbers beginning with the abstract and continuing through the body of the paper.
- notice of informed consent/Institutional Review Board approval (or note of exemption);
- tables and/or figures (attached as separate files); Please see "MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION" section for information on table and figure preparation;
- acknowledgement page, if any;
- copyright/authorship/conflict of interest form (may be submitted offline; please see further information in the "Copyright Transfer, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest" section);
- blinded funding disclosure (if there is none, upload an unsigned document stating as such); and
- conflict of interest disclosure (if there is none, upload an unsigned document stating as such).
Manuscripts that do not comply with these specific guidelines will be returned to authors for revision prior to being sent out for review or evaluated by editors. Authors will be prompted to copy the abstract into a separate text box for use by reviewers. All manuscripts are then sent to peer reviewers. The identities of both the peer reviewers and the authors are kept confidential. The reviewers evaluate each manuscript on the basis of content, originality, scientific accuracy, clarity, and contribution to the field of nutrition and dietetics. Manuscripts are accepted at the discretion of the reviewers and the Journal editors. After peer review (usually 4 to 6 weeks after the date of submission), the corresponding author will be notified whether the manuscript has been accepted with revision or rejected.
The Tutorial for Authors can also be found at http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl. For problems or questions concerning submission, contact Lois Ahrens, RDN, LD, Associate Editor at 319-384-5044 or email@example.com.AUTHOR RESPONSIBILITIES Manuscript content and accuracy are the authors' responsibility.
Manuscripts must be submitted solely to the Journal. A manuscript is considered for publication with the understanding that it has not been published in its entirety or any portion thereof (this includes tables and figures) previously in print or electronic form (except as a preprint, including prior version as a thesis; see http://www.elsevier.com/authors/preprints) and is not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Findings previously presented in an oral report or in an abstract in conjunction with a scientific or professional conference may be submitted for consideration. However, the author(s) must inform the Journal, via EES, (either in the cover letter or comments to editor) of any previous disclosure of information contained in a submitted manuscript, including the aforementioned or other reports of the information in technical papers or newsletters.Copyright Transfer, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest
The Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form can be downloaded from EES at http://ees.elsevier.com/andjrnl/img/ANDJ_Copyright_Authorship_CoI.pdf.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics holds the copyright on all material published in the Journal or on the Journal's website. All authors must sign and date this statement that transfers their article's copyright to the Academy and submit it with their manuscript. (Electronic signatures and signatures reproduced by photocopy or fax are acceptable and legally binding.) Manuscripts submitted by authors who were employees of the US federal government at the time their work was conducted and written are not subject to the Copyright Act; therefore, these authors do not have to transfer copyright but instead must indicate their status as federal employees in the appropriate section on the copyright form. Authors who transfer their copyright will not lose the right to reprint material from their articles but will be required to acknowledge and credit the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in all reprints. If a manuscript is not accepted, or is withdrawn before publication, transfer of copyright is null and void. The Journal adheres to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy concerning manuscripts funded by the NIH and a statement is located on the copyright form.All persons designated as authors must meet the criteria for authorship detailed in the Authorship Agreement. The Journal follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). An explanation for the addition or removal of an author must be provided with direct verification from the added/removed author. See "Acknowledgments" and "Funding/Support Disclosure" sections for guidelines on how to recognize other contributors to the work.
Authors must inform the Journal in writing of any financial arrangements, organizational affiliations, or other relationships that may constitute a conflict of interest regarding the subject matter of the manuscript. See "Conflict of Interest Disclosure" section for more details.Authors' rights are explicitly detailed on the copyright form and on Elsevier's website at: www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/authorsrights.
The Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form can be submitted via EES, e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org, or sent via mail to Lois Ahrens RDN, LD, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive SE230 GH, Iowa City, IA 52242.Funding/Support Disclosure
In addition to the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form, all financial and material support for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified and submitted in EES as a separate attached page with the manuscript. Inclusion of an external Data Safety and Monitoring Board is strongly recommended for all industry-sponsored research. If there is no funding or support, a page should be attached stating as such.
Conflict of Interest DisclosureIn addition to the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form, all such disclosures must be submitted in EES as a separate, unsigned, attached page with the manuscript. Authors without conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject of their manuscript, should include a statement of no such interests. Failure to include this information in the manuscript may delay the review of the manuscript.
A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author's decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the author page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. Authors should err on the side of full disclosure and should contact the editorial office if they have questions or concerns.
Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts within the past 5 years and for the foreseeable future (including, but not limited to employment/ affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria, speakers' bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, or patents filed, received, pending, or in preparation), particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation), that represent potential future financial gain. Although many universities and other institutions have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest, the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics requires complete disclosure of all relevant financial relationships and potential financial conflicts of interest, regardless of amount or value. If authors are uncertain about what constitutes a relevant financial interest or relationship, they should contact the editorial office.For all accepted manuscripts, each author's disclosures of conflicts of interest and relevant financial interests and affiliations and declarations of no such interests will be published. Decisions about whether such information provided by authors should be published, and thereby disclosed to readers, are usually straightforward. Although editors are willing to discuss disclosure of specific conflicts of interest with authors, the Journal's policy is one of complete disclosure of all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the author page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. If an author's disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to rectify the original published disclosure statement, and additional action may be taken as necessary, as outlined by and in compliance with the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org ).
Ethics and Study Participant CoordinationAcknowledgments
In studies involving human participants, authors must provide a statement in the manuscript regarding ethical approval, the use of Institutional Review Board-approved protocol, signed consent forms, and compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) guidelines. If ethical approval was sought and considered exempt, this must be so stated. See the "MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION" section for more detailed guidance and statement examples.
Authors are encouraged to acknowledge persons other than coauthors who have made substantial contributions to the development of their study or manuscript. Permission from all persons named in the acknowledgments must be obtained prior to submission to the Journal and authors must inform the Editor-in-Chief in writing that such permission has been obtained. This statement can be included in the "Comments" section in EES when submitting a manuscript. A statement in the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form verifies that written consent was obtained from those acknowledged. Any personal acknowledgments should also be submitted as a separate attached page with the manuscript.
KeywordsPermission to Reprint
Authors are required to provide five keywords to accompany their articles, Keywords appear alongside the article abstract and provide readers with a quick list of the main issues discussed in the article. When selecting keywords, take into consideration the overarching topic of your article as well as the specifics of their research.
Any direct quotations, figures, or tables that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author, along with full source information. Images of brand name products must have written consent from the manufacturer to be reproduced. Any photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by signed releases showing informed consent. Since articles appear in both the print and online versions of the Journal, the permission must specify "permission to publish in all forms and media." Failure to obtain print and electronic permission may result in the images not appearing in the print and/or online version.
Open AccessMANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
The Journal does not ordinarily have publication charges for authors. However, authors can opt to make articles open access for a fee of $2,500 payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication, unless otherwise specified by our publisher's agreement with your funding body. For information about funding body agreements and policies or other mandates that may apply visit www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors will be prompted to indicate whether they intend to publish as open access upon submission of their manuscripts. Authors' publication choice has no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of manuscripts.
Use standard 12-point font and double-space type throughout, including the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends. Number each page of the manuscript consecutively and include continuous line numbers. Authors' names should appear only on the authors' page described below. Other pages should not contain any information identifying the authors. A description of the various components of a manuscript follows.
Note: The manuscript should be formatted in Microsoft Word. Do not use the footnote function for references or the comments function. Include references at the end of the manuscript. DO NOT UPLOAD MANUSCRIPT TEXT FILES IN PDF FORMAT. Also, manuscripts must not be submitted with track changes.Authors' Page
Each manuscript must include a separate attached authors' page that lists: (1) the title of the manuscript; (2) five keywords or descriptive phrases; (3) word counts for the abstract and the text (excluding references, tables, and figures); (4) full names, academic degrees, and affiliations (position title, organization, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address) for all authors both at the time the work was completed and at present if affiliations have changed since the work was completed; (5) identification of the corresponding author; and (6) name and address of author who will handle reader requests for reprints, if this is different from the corresponding author. Type authors' names in the order they should appear in the published article. To be listed as an author on a manuscript, authors must have contributed to one or more of the following elements of the paper: conception and design, obtaining funding, acquisition of data, data management, statistical analyses and interpretation, or drafting or revision of the manuscript. It is the lead author's responsibility to ensure that each co-author satisfies these criteria. Refer to the subsection titled "Credentials" in the section titled "JOURNAL STYLE" for more information about listing degrees and credentials on the authors' page.
The manuscript title should be specific and informative, conveying the findings of the research (eg, "Dietary fiber lowers serum cholesterol" rather than "Effects of dietary fiber on serum cholesterol"). The manuscript title should appear on the abstract, the first page of the manuscript text, the authors' page, and all correspondence and disclosure statements.
Authors should prepare a structured abstract for manuscripts submitted to the Original Research category and a conventional (unstructured) abstract for manuscripts submitted to the Review, Qualitative Research, Research and Professional Briefs, and Research and Practice Innovations categories. Abstracts should be understandable without reference to the main text and should be written for a general journal readership. Descriptions of the abstract forms follow.
Structured abstracts provide a focused overview of a study's design and outcomes by organizing information with descriptive headings. Suggested headings, and the information that should be provided for each, are described below. Structured abstracts should not exceed 300 words.
- Background. Briefly explain the context of the study or summarize the relevant problem addressed by the study. The statement should clearly state the rationale for investigating the research question.
- Objective. Describe the question or problem addressed and the testable hypotheses involved.
- Design.Identify the design of the study (eg, intervention, randomized controlled trial, case-control, cohort, survey, factorial design, or cost-effectiveness analysis). Define the duration of follow-up. Describe the criterion standard used for comparison. Define and describe methodology used to collect data.
- Participants/setting. Describe eligibility criteria used to select participants, the number of participants involved in the analysis, and the attrition rate. Describe where and when the study was conducted and how the setting might relate to the selection of participants (eg, community-based or hospitalized participants) or the study's applicability to a specialty practice situation.
- Intervention. Describe the essential features of the treatment or intervention in studies that use an experimental design. This heading, as well as "Main outcome measures," should be omitted in descriptive research (eg, studies that use surveys).
- Main outcome measures. Note the primary outcome measure as planned before data collection began; if the hypothesis being reported was formulated during or after data collection, this information should be clearly stated.
- Statistical analyses performed. Indicate statistical tests used in data analyses (eg, X2, analysis of variance, or confidence intervals). Note procedures used to adjust for confounding factors, such as age and sex.
- Results. Identify study results related to the a priori hypothesis and clearly label findings from post hoc analyses. Describe relevant findings of the study including numerical values.
- Conclusions. Offer key conclusions on the basis of evidence provided by the study and relate these findings to clinical or practice applications.
Unstructured abstracts are written in paragraph style and should describe the problem being addressed, how the study was designed and implemented, the sample size, the years that data were collected, statistical procedures, primary findings and the conclusions. Unstructured abstracts must not exceed 250 words.Tables and Figures
Tables and figures should be limited to those required to clarify an article. Each table or figure should be understandable by itself and not require the reader to refer to the text. Present data only once, either in tabular or graphic form or in the text. Each table and figure, with table/figure number and title/legend included, should be submitted on a separate attached page with the manuscript. Acceptable file types for tables and figures are: TIFF, EPS, PDF, and Microsoft Office files (Word, PowerPoint, Excel). The preferred font type for tables and figures is Helvetica Condensed; however, any font type in the Helvetica family is acceptable.
TablesFor numerals less than 1.00, insert a zero to the left of the decimal point (eg, 0.95). Use a hyphen to indicate ranges (eg, 75-100). Identify statistical measures of variations (eg, standard deviation or standard error of the mean). When the designation line at the left-hand side of a table (stub) requires two lines, values in that horizontal row should align with the second line of the designation. Align columns vertically on decimal points, hyphens, or "±". Use superscript letters to indicate footnotes (eg, a,b,c); however, use the standard * for P < 0.05, ** for P < 0.01, and *** for P < 0.001. Footnote order is determined by the first appearance of footnoted material in a horizontal row.
Tables should be double spaced and limited to one per page. Number tables consecutively (according to the order they are cited in the text) with Arabic numbers. Table titles should be detailed enough to stand alone from the manuscript text. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the column headings or table title. Be sure to include the unit of measure (eg, "No.," "%," "g," or "year") under the appropriate column heading. Use Conventional Units with conversion formulas for Systeme International (SI) values as a footnote. Tables may not contain more than 14 columns. Do not put more than one unit of information in a single cell of the table.
Authors who incorporate data from another published or unpublished source in a table must cite the original source in a reference or footnote.Figures
Authors should submit figures as separate attached documents when submitting a manuscript online. Number figures consecutively according to the order they are cited in the text. Bar graphs are used to show proportions or percents within categories, and line graphs are used to show data that are related such as serial observations. Three-dimensional figures are appropriate for simultaneous display of three but not two proportions or percents within categories (eg, height, weight, and percent body weight). Number figures consecutively (according to the order they are cited in the text) with Arabic numbers and supply a brief legend for each.
Figures can be color or gray scale, and should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. If submitting a color figure, try to avoid the use of the color yellow, which may not translate well to print. Figures that are line art should have a resolution of 1,200 dpi. If using gray scale, use shades of gray that can be easily distinguished from one another. Combinations of gray-scale and line art should be at least 1,200 dpi. It is important to keep in mind that figures may be reduced to fit allotted space on a Journal page.A figure legend should be brief yet make an illustration fully intelligible by itself. Cite and define all acronyms or abbreviations used in the figure in the legend as superscript footnotes (eg, a, b, c). If a figure is reproduced from another source, the appropriate credit line should be incorporated into the figure legend and permission should be obtained from the original source.
Software CitationsFootnotes in Text
Software developers are cited parenthetically in the text after the first mention of a software package. Software citations should include the name, version number, and release date of the software as well as the name of the software developer. [Example: All statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Analysis Software (version 9.1.3, 2006, SAS Institute Inc).] If software incorporates a nutrient database, provide information in the text about the database. This should include the release date for the database, a description of substantial modifications made to the database, and an explanation of how missing nutrient data for foods were handled (ie, indicate whether values were extrapolated and evaluate the effect of any missing values on dietary totals for the nutrients of interest). Do not include information about software or databases in the list of references or the abstract.
Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and indicated consecutively, with superscript symbols (*, †, ‡, §, etc), throughout the text. Double space footnotes on a separate sheet of paper.
ReferencesAuthors should use relevant, current citations from the professional and scientific literature. References from professional publications may be included based on the context in which they are included. References from nonscholarly publications are not acceptable; however, exceptions may be made based on the context in which the reference is included. Updated references (including access dates for website sources) are expected for manuscripts that have undergone a long turn-around time for review and/or revision. No matter how well known a book or source material (eg, Dietary Reference Intakes, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid), it must be included in the list of references if it is mentioned in the manuscript. Avoid using abstracts or presentations as references; full reports, either published or in press, are preferred. Also, the use of published theses is preferred to unpublished theses. Topics in the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library may be referenced as well, when appropriate. Personal communications may not be cited as references but may be noted parenthetically in the text. All personal communications should be dated, and authors must secure the approval of the person quoted. Unpublished data, such as an article submitted for publication but not yet accepted, should be cited parenthetically in the text with a date and the notation "unpublished data." Articles accepted for publication but not yet published can be included in the list of references with the notation "In press." Inclusive page numbers must be provided for all periodical articles cited. Page numbers are not required when an entire book is cited, but specific page numbers are needed when only a chapter or section of a book is cited. Provide a page number for all material quoted directly from any source. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and adequacy of all references cited in their manuscript. For more information on references, see the subsection "Reference Style" in the "JOURNAL STYLE" section.
Number references consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text. References should be cited in text, tables, and figures with superscript Arabic numerals. References cited only in a table or figure are acceptable if they are in sequence with references cited in the text. References should be typed double space on pages separate from the manuscript's main text. Reference management software, such as EndNote, or Reference Manager, is accepted. Note: Do not use the footnote function in Microsoft Word for references. Include references at the end of the manuscript.
Use of Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT).Plagiarism
For topics that are addressing dietetics and nutrition care provided by dietetics practitioners, authors should use the NCP as a framework for describing the nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnoses, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring/evaluation that was included in the research and use the IDNT to describe the aspects of care within each of the above steps. Additional information on the NCP and IDNT is available under "Resources for Health Practitioners" on the Academy's Web site at: www.eatright.org/HealthProfessionals/content.aspx?id=7077.
In instances where plagiarism is suspected, the Journal follows the protocol set forth by the Committee on Publishing Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).
COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT: DETAILED OVERVIEW
Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit www.elsevier.com/languagepolishing or Elsevier's customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com for more information. Please note the Journal and Elsevier neither endorse nor take responsibility for any products, goods, or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to Elsevier's Terms & Conditions: www.elsevier.com/termsandconditions.
The purpose of the introduction section is to set the stage for what is to follow. The justification for the study is established through a review of the literature that may indicate:
- Areas of controversy that warrant additional research;
- Gaps in the literature such as extrapolation from animal studies; and
- Limitations from previous study designs that may need to be extended. For example, the study may test a hypothesis in a different age group or cultural group, combine a new intervention with established therapies, or may involve a more sophisticated study design.
Include primary sources in the review. Avoid over-reliance on reviews and other secondary sources. Include only the most pertinent and relevant citations. Provide a clear statement of the problem and any research questions addressed. Provide a statement of purpose, hypotheses, research objectives, and/or specific aims. Provide a statement of concepts, constructs, and variables of relevance.
MethodsExplain all aspects of data collection, including clinical, self-reported, interviewer administered, etc, if these results will be published in the paper. Otherwise, cite the publication where the research protocol and methodology have been published.
The purpose of the methods section is to establish that the study followed rigorous scientific principles and procedures. Provide adequate detail so that another investigator could duplicate the study. Use validated and reliable methodology, including assessment tools, if at all possible. If the methods are a duplication of those used in a previous study, cite the publication where the research protocol and methodology have been published.
Also provide methods for the analytical processes involved in the study. Any laboratory analyses, nutrient data analyses, or questionnaires should be identified.Documentation of Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval is mandatory as follows:
- State explicitly that human participants' review was approved and how informed consent or assent was obtained.
- If the protocol is exempt from IRB approval, then indicate as such as described below:
- For questions regarding IRB, please see the following link: www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/irb/irb_guidebook.htm
- Examples of IRB approval statements are below:
- The <insert name of institution> Institutional Review Board approved the study protocol and all participants provided written informed consent (and child assent, if appropriate).
- This study was deemed exempt by <insert name of institution> Institutional Review Board.This study was deemed exempt under federal regulation 45 CFR §46.101(b). Reference: www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.html
For qualitative studies, describe the methodology (eg, focus groups, structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires) in detail and form of data that were collected (eg, field notes, videos, pictures, documents).
Statistical MethodsResearch design, such as:
Full description should be included providing the following elements. (Some of the items listed below may be relevant for research papers, but this list is intended to provide a comprehensive list of the aspects of the relevant statistical methods that the papers should describe).
- Prospective, retrospective, cohort, longitudinal
- Experimental (eg, randomized clinical trial, crossover design):
- Was there a control group?
- Were the participants randomized?
- Was the intervention assignment blinded/double-blinded?
- Cost-effectiveness analysis
Describe population and eligibility criteria:
- Participant eligibility criteria
- Provide inclusion and exclusion criteria with mutually exclusive definitions.
- Sample size:
- How was the sample size determined? Was statistical power considered?
- What type of sampling procedure was used? A statistical random sample? A statistical probability sample? A convenience sample? Why was this sampling procedure used?
- Describe the population the sample was designed to represent.
- Time period of recruitment (dates of when the study occurred)
- Recruitment method including compensation
- Number of participants contacted
- Number of eligible participants
- Number of participants enrolled
- Participant matching-describe variables used for the match
- Explanation for the categories of participants not enrolled or lost to follow-up
- For analysis of data collected for a sample or population, report the response rate or percentage of cases in the sample/population with valid data. (This information may be presented in the results section.)
- Exposure (risk factor) and potential confounding factors:
- What assessment tool was used?
- If a (preferably) validated dietary assessment tool was used, provide references regarding validation process.
- What quality control measures were used during the tool development and data entry?
- If a nutrient database was used, provide the name and version of this database.
- If a questionnaire was used, was it self-administered or administered by trained personnel?
- Quality control measures used in the study?
- Were questionnaires, focus groups, and survey tools culturally appropriate? Was translation available as necessary?
- If race or ethnicity is reported, provide information on how this was determined. Comment on who defined the race categories, the investigator, or the participant.
- If the study is qualitative or quantitative, how were data collected and analyzed?
- Outcome measures related to the hypotheses (eg, health consequence that may be associated with the exposure):
- How was the outcome measured or assessed?
- If this was a cohort design, were the same methods used to track outcomes for all intervention groups?
- Biochemical markers of nutritional and health status related to the hypotheses:
- What bioassays and procedures were used?
- What was/were coefficient(s) of variation for each bioassay?
- Statistical analyses:
- What type of variables were used in the study (eg, quantitative or categorical)?
- What statistical model was used to analyze the data and why was this method chosen?
- How were the details of the final statistical model developed? This guides the reader to understand why potential confounding factors were included in the final statistical test of the relationship between the exposure and the outcome. At times authors indicate that information, such as age, is included in a questionnaire but the results may not be included in the statistical model. The reader should be provided the criteria for these decisions.
- If discrete variables are used, how were the categories chosen? If the data were divided into quartiles based on the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, was this based on the combined data from all participants or only one group? What standard references were used for classification of physiological or assessment variables, such as age groups, blood glucose levels, body mass index categories? Provide reference.
- For qualitative research, describe how clusters were established. Describe how data (eg, field notes, interview transcripts) were analyzed and if evaluated by more than one researcher to ensure reliability. Clearly describe the process used to determine the validity and reliability (eg, content validity, test-retest reliability) of qualitative measures (eg, researcher developed surveys, questionnaires) prior to reporting quantitative measures. Was qualitative analysis software used? If so, what kind? What data can be linked to the qualitative instruments to provide confidence they are a valid and reliable measure of intended variables (eg, attitude, behavior)?
- What statistical tests were conducted? Note: it is very useful to present the sequence of tests in the order of the specific aims.
- What statistical program (eg, SPSS, SAS) was used for the analyses?
- How were post hoc tests analyzed if analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted?
- What was &agr; level to reject the null hypothesis?
Updated January 2013Results
Present the findings from the statistical tests. As noted in the methods section, the presentation of information should follow the "map" laid out by the a priori hypothesis and specific aims. Post hoc results are presented last.
- Provide descriptive information such as sex, age, and other demographic characteristics, and as appropriate characteristics related to variables of interest (eg, weight, body mass index, and hemoglobin A1c).
- Number tables and figures in the sequence in which they appear in the text. Tables should support the text and not repeat information.
- Report results with the effect estimator, confidence intervals, test statistics (eg, t, F, r), and/or P values.
- Avoid the use of percents for studies with less than 100 participants (eg, "ten of thirty participants" versus "33% of participants"). Use appropriate significant digits.
- Provide themes, hypotheses, theories, or answers to research questions in the case of qualitative research.
Discussion relates the findings to the purpose of the study. Has this study clarified an inconsistency, filled a gap, or extended previous research? Be careful not to overstate the significance of the results. Terms such as "approaches significance" should not be used when statistically the null hypothesis is not rejected.
- Summarize the results of the a priori hypothesis test. How does this finding compare to the literature?
- Comment on additional findings from the specific aims and post hoc analyses and relate these to the literature.
- What were the strengths and weaknesses of the study? How might these limit interpretation of the results?
- What, if any, are the practical applications/relevance of the results?
- Comment on any potential competing explanations for the results.
Please note: The Journal discourages the use of modifiers when describing significance. A test is either significant or not significant. "Slightly," "marginally," "almost," should not be used.
ConclusionsThe following publications have been developed by the Journal's Board of Editors' Statistics Team to further facilitate Journal readers and authors in nutrition research.
Succinctly state and relate to the reported results. Post hoc analyses warrant a conservative application. Finally, note future study directions that extend the current findings.
- Sheean PM, Bruemmer B, Gleason P, Harris J, Boushey C, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of multivariate techniques-Part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(1):103-110.
- Gleason PM, Harris JE, Sheean PM, Boushey CJ, Bruemmer B. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(3):409-419.
- Bruemmer B, Harris J, Gleason P, et al. Publishing nutrition research: a review of epidemiologic methods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(10):1728-1737.
- Harris J, Gleason P, Sheean P, Boushey C, Beto J, Bruemmer B. An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(1):80-90.
- Harris JE, Boushey C, Bruemmer B, Archer SL. Publishing nutrition research: a review of nonparametric methods, Part 3. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(9):1488-1496.
- Boushey CJ, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL. Publishing nutrition research: a review of sampling, sample size, statistical analysis, and other key elements of manuscript preparation. Part 2. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(4):679-688.
- Boushey C, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of study design, statistical analyses, and other key elements of manuscript preparation, Part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1):89-96.
For authoritative guidance on style, usage, and spelling, the Journal uses the following resources: AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed; Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 30th ed; and Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. Other resources for laboratory values, race and ethnicity, and Dietary Reference Intakes are listed under those sections.
CredentialsNote: For articles that relate to specialist or advanced practice credentials, which appear in the "From the Academy" section, some author credentials may relate to specialist or advanced practice credentials obtained from another organization, and these can be included in the author byline. Non-CDR credentials received by the RD/DTR author in these "From the Academy" articles will be verified by the Quality Management Team (for SOP/SOPP in focused areas of practice) or the HOD Governance Team (for Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position or practice papers). These credentials include: CDE, BC-ADM, CNSS/CNSD, CHES, CLC, SNS-and others, which authors may inquire about at the time of submission. Authors from other fields such as nursing, medicine, surgery, etc., are asked to provide verification at the time of submission regarding their advanced practice credentials (these include, but are not limited to APRN-BC, CIC, NP, OCN, RM(C), RPh-BC-ADM, etc.).
Bylines are a general indicator for indexing purposes of authors' contribution to the published work. Journal style is to list the highest academic degree(s) of each author followed by any/all credentials and certifications from the Commission on Dietetic Registration (eg, RD, DTR, CSP, CSR, CSG, CSO, CSSD, FADA); and if desired by the author, state licensure (LD, LDN, or CDN) and fellowships. If an author has a doctorate, master's level degrees should not be included unless the master's degree is in a different or specialized field. Academic degrees below the master's level are omitted unless they are the highest obtained degree. For credentials issued outside the United States, indicate the country of origin in a footnote.
NumbersAbbreviations and Acronyms
Numbers below 10 are spelled out unless followed by a unit of measure or a percentage. Express all numbers larger than 10 as Arabic numerals. Numbers that begin a sentence are always spelled out. The number of significant digits reported should be realistic and supported by the original data (eg, 2,125 kcal, not 2,124.8 kcal; 105 lb, not 105.734 lb). For sample sizes smaller than 100, frequency must be given (eg, two of seven, not 29%); percent may also be provided if necessary. Also, do not include a decimal and zero after a whole percent number (Correct: 72%, Incorrect: 72.0%).
Abbreviate units of measure when used with numerals (5 g, 1,000 kcal). Chemical formulas should be written out, unless they are used to economize space in the column headings of a table; however, the formulas should be expanded in the footnotes. Always provide the complete form of an acronym the first time it is mentioned in the text (note that if an abbreviation has been spelled out in the abstract, it still must be spelled out in the text on first-time use). An acronym or abbreviation is permitted if it is used three or more times within the manuscript text. Avoid excessive use of acronyms and abbreviations. Avoid author-invented abbreviations and acronyms.
Laboratory ValuesTrade Names
All clinical laboratory values must be expressed in Conventional Units, (eg, lipids should be expressed in mg/dL) with Système International (SI) units in parentheses in the manuscript text, for example: triglycerides 100 mg/dL (1.13 mmol/L). Authors must provide the conversion factor to SI units as a footnote in tables and figures. The exception to this is the use of kilocalories; the Journal will continue to use kilocalories instead of kilojoules. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. A table of normal values in both Conventional and SI units and the appropriate conversion factors appears on Oxford University Press website: www.us.oup.com/us/pdf/9780195176339/table_2.pdf. Authors should refer to this table when converting data and use it as a guide for choosing the appropriate number of significant digits.
When specific products used in the research are referred to by a trade name, give the manufacturer's name and location parenthetically after the first mention. When possible use generic names for food and drugs. Registration or trademarks are not required.
Reference StyleExample of periodical reference: Bruemmer B, Harris J, Gleason P, et al. Publishing nutrition research: a review of epidemiologic methods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(10):1728-1737.
The Journal follows the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed, for references and citations. Abbreviate periodical titles according to the US National Library of Medicine's lists of biographic data found at: ftp://nlmpubs.nlm.nih.gov/online/journals/lsiweb.pdf. If a title does not appear on this list, provide the complete title. Published and updated dates, if available, and access dates for Web sites cited must be included. For example: Smith J. Risk factors for cancer. Cancer Risk Factors Web site. www.cancerriskfactors.gov. Published December 1, 2000. Updated January 15, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2008.
Dietary Reference IntakesPersonal Pronouns
Authors must use the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), not the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Information on the DRIs can be found at: www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/SummaryDRIs/DRI-Tables.aspx. If for any reason an author wishes to report nutrient intakes without using the stated DRIs, intakes may be reported, but adequacy should not be assessed.
Use of personal pronouns (eg, I, our, we) should be used sparingly, if at all, in Journal submissions except Letter to the Editor.
Race and EthnicityEDITORIAL PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION
The Journal will follow the guidelines set forth by the National Institutes of Health. This can be found at: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-01-053.html.
Article content is the authors' responsibility. Accepted manuscripts are copyedited to conform to Journal style and to meet space limitations. Authors should note that the editing process is separate from and occurs after the peer-review process. The corresponding author will receive an electronic proof of the article and have an opportunity to review editorial changes and to double-check accuracy of content, tables, and statistics before publication. However, a change made by copyeditors for style, grammar, and readability should not be altered by authors unless a scientific error has been introduced. Authors will be expected to review galleys promptly (within 4 business days of receipt). If the corresponding author is not available to receive or review proofs at any given time, a back-up should be identified and contact information provided to the editors.
Information regarding reprint orders will be sent along with author galleys from the Journal's publisher.Embargo Policy/Articles in Press
For the protection of each author's work, the Journal does not allow the unauthorized pre-publication of any materials slated for publication. All articles accepted for publication are posted online in their corrected format as Articles in Press, and are subject to embargo until such date the articles are available online. The timetable for online publication is approximately 8 weeks from acceptance.Updated December 2012