Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Structural Data
• Crystallization Notes, Technical Notes and Structure Reports
• Minireviews
• Paper of the Year
• Submission of Manuscripts
• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Acknowledgements
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• e-CRC
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• AudioSlides
• Supplementary material
• Data in Brief
• Database linking
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
• Issue copies

The Journal of Structural Biology (J. Struct. Biol., JSB) publishes papers dealing with the structural analysis of biological matter at all levels of organization and the functional connotations of such observations. The field covered by the journal extends from individual macromolecules to cells and tissues with emphasis on the supramolecular (e.g. complexes and machines) and subcellular (e.g., membranes, compartments, cytoskeleton) levels of the structural hierarchy.

Novel applications of and methodological innovations in electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, probe microscopy, and light microscopy as well as aspects of computational biology image processing, bioinformatics and structural prediction, and other biophysical techniques yielding structural information are of interest to the journal. In the context of structural cell biology, papers dealing with cellular architecture and dynamics are particularly welcomed. We see biomineralization as an important emerging area.

Preference will be given to research that correlates structural results with functional, biochemical, biophysical, immunological, or genetic data on the system under study. Purely descriptive contributions should deal with the discovery of novel structural entities of biological significance or novel insights from innovative imaging modalities. A limited number of reviews (usually invited) will be published to keep the reader abreast of recent progress in the various fields of structural biology and advances in methodology.

Structural Data

For papers describing structures of biological macromolecules, the atomic coordinates and the related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities and/or NMR restraints) must be deposited at a member site of the Worldwide Protein Data Bank ( RCSB PDB (, MSD-EBI (, PDBj (, or BMRB ( Manuscripts must carry a statement that coordinates and structure factors (or NMR restraints) have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The accession number(s) must be cited in the manuscript at the end of the Materials and Methods section. Authors must agree to release the atomic coordinates and experimental data immediately upon publication.

It is increasingly common for coordinates to be deposited in the Protein Data Bank without an associated publication. Before submission to JSB, authors are expected to search the Protein Data Bank for related structures using one or more alignment programs and report the outcome. Prior deposition of related coordinates, without an associated publication, does not necessarily preclude publication in JSB. The primary criteria for publication of a structure in JSB are that it provides novel structural insights or important new functional and biological insights that are likely to be of general interest.

Crystallization Notes, Technical Notes and Structure Reports

In addition to regular full-length papers reporting crystal structures and novel methods and/or mechanisms of crystallization, the Journal of Structural Biology publishes three kinds of short communications - Crystallization Notes, Technical Notes and Structure Reports.

The primary consideration for eligibility as a Crystallization Note is that the observations reported should have sufficient significance and originality to merit publication separate from the structure. That significance/originality should be described in the letter of submission. At least one of the following criteria must apply:
i. significant novelty in crystallization method or expression strategy;
ii. crystals of a membrane protein or large macromolecular complex;
iii. 2D crystals (planar or helical/tubular) for EM analysis;
iv. other significant novelty.
For studies in which expression and crystallization have resulted from application of standard procedures, this information is more appropriately reported in the Materials and Methods section of the paper describing structure.

A Technical Note is similar to a Crystallization Note in format and length and gives a succinct description of a major methodological innovation in a domain other than crystallization.

Structure Reports concisely document macromolecular crystal structures, including those emanating from structural genomics. Where no biological role is yet determined, these reports can be presented without such connections. In addition to appropriate quality of the reported structure, it is essential that the procedures used to prepare the protein and to determine the structure should be repeatable with the information provided. The manuscript should begin by describing the source of the protein, the means used to screen for or devise crystallization conditions, and the crystallization procedures and conditions and should include a table with the information listed in Table A.

A Crystallization Note, Technical Note or Structure Report should consist of an abstract, a single passage of text that should not be divided into sections labeled Introduction, Results, etc., but which may include declarative subtitles, and a brief References section, and should not exceed four printed pages (Crystallization Note or Technical Note) or five printed pages (Structure Report) including figures (1 page ~ 900 words/5000 characters). For a paper submitted in one of these three categories, the letter of submission should include a calculation of its length (Number of column-inches for Figures word count).

For 3D crystals, crystal quality should be demonstrated with a crystal photograph as well as the diffraction data used to determine the unit cell parameters and space group symmetry. These data may be given in the form of a table summarizing the data collection statistics and/or precession photographs or pseudo-precession photographs generated from the diffraction data. These data will be reviewed but not necessarily included in the final publication. 2D crystals or helical filaments suitable for analysis by electron microscopy and/or electron crystallography should be documented by optical or computed diffractograms of electron diffractograms and, when possible, by filtered 2D projection images.


JSB will publish minireviews describing emerging concepts, important methodological advances, and research hypotheses on topics related to the journal's sphere of interest (see above). Including graphics, a minreview should be approximately four pages. Minireviews will be subject to the same review process as regular papers. Topics, including a summary of 1-2 paragraphs, may be proposed to either editor.

Paper of the Year

The Journal of Structural Biology Paper of the Year Award is conferred annually and consists of a cash prize of $1000 and an award certificate. The recipient should be a young scientist (graduate student or postdoctoral fellow) who has been first author or co-first author of a paper that appeared in JSB in the preceding three years or who had that status (graduate student or fellow) at the time the published work was done. Nominations can be made by any reader. A nomination, not exceeding 300 words, should consist of a statement of the particular merit of the paper and should be sent by e-mail to The cutoff date for nominations in any year is 31 December. An unsuccessful nomination will remain eligible in the following years, subject to the three-year limitation.

Submission of Manuscripts

It is a condition of publication that all manuscripts must be written in clear and grammatical English and be submitted to the Journal of Structural Biology Web site at If you are unable to provide an electronic version, please contact the Editorial Office prior to submission (e-mail:; telephone: (619)699-6375; or fax: (619) 699-6700).

Revised manuscripts should be accompanied by point-by-point responses to each point made by reviewers. These should be formatted by first repeating the point at issue, as stated, followed by the authors response in a different font.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2400, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail. The initial submission should be a PDF file including text, Figures and Tables, with the Figures and Tables inserted at the points in the text where they are first cited. The legends should accompany the Figures and Table. Revised submissions should include a similar integrated PDF plus Word files for text, Tables and legends and high resolution individual files for Figures. Please use line numbering which makes it easier for reviewers and editors to locate controversial or revised passages of text.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


General points: Elsevier can only accept MS Word, LaTeX, or postscript/PDF documents as electronic camera-ready copy (e-CRC). Electronic files can be stored on CD or may be transferred to Elsevier via FTP (details available from Customer support: Please note: always send the source file (Word or LaTex) together with any PDF files as this can contribute to better quality final PDF files and help in the conversion to XML.
MS Word file: Please ensure that you use normal fonts as much as possible in your documents, such as Times New Roman, Arial, Symbol, Helvetica, or Times (TrueType or Type 1 fonts). Special fonts, such as those used in the Far East (Japanese, Chinese, Korean, etc.) may be cause problems during processing. If you use a lot of special fonts, please convert the document to PDF with Adobe Acrobat (see below, and also Elsevier's Quickguide: Please place figures in a logical place within the document (see also the section on Preparation of electronic illustrations at To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-checker' function of your wordprocessor.
LaTeX documents: Please use a LaTeX setup that uses Type 1 fonts instead of the sometimes default bitmap fonts (Type 3, or pk fonts). For instance, using the LaTeX Times package may be enough to enable this adjustment. For information on LaTex see Please provide all document-related and temporary files on submission, as well as the resulting postscript or PDF file.
Postscript/PDF files: Please create postscript files, making sure all fonts are embedded. When creating PDF files with Adobe Acrobat, please use version 4.05 or higher, and use the standard "Press Optimized" settings, as provided by Adobe.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Color figures will be published free of charge.

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Cover art
Authors of accepted papers are encouraged to submit compositions related to their paper for consideration for cover art. The submission should include a high resolution TIFF file, a lower resolution TIFF or JPEG (<2MB) file, and a brief legend.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference style
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Data in Brief

Authors have the option of converting any or all parts of their supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple Data in Brief articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes their data. Data in Brief articles ensure that your data, which is normally buried in supplementary material, is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. Authors are encouraged to submit their Data in Brief article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your Data in Brief article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the new, open access journal, Data in Brief ( The open access fee for Data in Brief is $500. For authors who submit in 2015 a reduced fee of $250 will apply. Please use the following template to write your Data in Brief:

Database linking

Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See for more information and a full list of supported databases.

Submission checklist

The initial submission should be a PDF file including text, Figures and Tables, with the Figures and Tables inserted at the points in the text where they are first cited. The legends should accompany the Figures and Table. Revised submissions should include a similar integrated PDF plus Word files for text, Tables and legends and high resolution individual files for Figures. Please use line numbering which makes it easier for reviewers and editors to locate controversial or revised passages of text.

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

Issue copies

Authors also may order extra copies of the journal, more offprints, or certificates and posters. Please go to Non-authors also may order extra copies of the journal or any special issue by contacting customer service (Europe, Middle East and Africa:; America:; or Asia:

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via