Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Your Paper Your Way
• Types of article
• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• References
• Formatting requirements
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Graphical abstract
• Highlights
• Abbreviations
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• AudioSlides
• Supplementary material
• Open data
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

The Journal of Research in Personality (JRP) publishes both theoretical and empirical work in the traditional areas of personality (including both trait and dynamic process-oriented approaches) and in related areas central to the study of personality. These areas include, but are not limited to, genetic, physiological, motivational, cognitive, cross-cultural, developmental, and social processes relevant to understanding both normal and pathological aspects of personality. JRP publishes integrated sets of studies addressing important theoretical or conceptual issues, as well as theoretical and methodological review articles that have the potential to advance the field. JRP also solicits, in a brief report format, theoretically grounded, well-executed replication and null result studies. Such studies-though often difficult to publish-play a crucial role in building a cumulative knowledge base within any discipline and in fostering valid generalized casual inferences, especially through meta-analysis.

In addition to encouraging substantively and theoretically novel papers, JRP encourages submissions that use strong and innovative methodologies, such as longitudinal studies, diary studies, experiments, or quasi-experiments, as well as those that use non-self-report data (e.g., other reports, implicit methods, narratives). To broaden the base of published research, JRP further encourages studies that include non-college students as participants.

Cross-sectional, self-report studies conducted among college students can make important contributions to the literature. However, such studies are also relatively easy to conduct and have some important limitations. Although single-study papers that use these methods will be considered at JRP, we have somewhat higher expectations regarding the size and the novelty of the contribution that such studies can make. Papers that rely solely on cross-sectional designs and self-report questionnaire methods among convenience samples are often rejected without review.

In short, JRP seeks to continue its tradition of publishing top tier, traditional personality research, while establishing a lively forum in which well-done studies of a slightly riskier nature will find a comfortable home.

Types of article

Brief Reports
The Journal of Research in Personality accepts brief reports of empirical studies. This forum is intended primarily for publishing soundly designed studies that address targeted questions can be described without excessive theoretical background, and that have methods that can be described relatively succinctly. The contribution of brief reports is often as large as those from full-length papers; they simply address a more constrained question and can be described in fewer words. An author who submits a Short Communication must agree not to submit a full report based on the same data to another journal.

Special Instructions for Preparing Short Communications. The Short Communications should give a clear, condensed summary of the procedure of the study and as full an account of the results as space permits. Short Communications should be no longer than 3000 words, including the abstract. They should contain no more than 2 double-spaced pages of references (excluded from the word count), using 1-inch margins (top, bottom, and sides) and a standard 12-point font, such as Times New Roman. This limit does not include the cover page, title page, author note, tables, or figures; there may be no more than two tables and/or figures. Authors should clearly indicate the word count for the manuscript on the title page and note in the cover letter that they wish the manuscript to be considered for publications as a Short Communication.

Improving the Replicability of Psychological Research
The Journal of Research in Personality is committed to improving the replicability of psychological research. To that end, the editors have put in place three new policies that all authors should consider when submitting their manuscripts.

First, a major problem in the field has been small sample sizes and a general lack of power. This not only leads to problems detecting effects that actually exist, it also results in lower precision in estimates and systematically inflated effect sizes. Furthermore, some have argued that running large numbers of weakly powered studies increases the chance of obtaining artifactual results. For this reason, the editors of JRP are committed to increasing the power of studies published in the Journal. All submissions will be evaluated with respect to power before being sent out for review; submissions deemed to be severely underpowered will be rejected without review.

Given the importance of power and precision, authors are strongly encouraged to consider these issues when planning studies. Authors who submit to should ensure that their studies are adequately powered, and they should provide a discussion of power in their papers. Specifically, authors should (a) discuss what size effect they expect to find, (b) defend this expectation by referring to relevant prior empirical work, and (c) estimate the power to detect the expected effect with the sample size that is planned. If no evidence exists to guide judgments about reasonable effect sizes, researchers should err on the side of larger samples and higher power to provide increased precision. For instance, researchers might want to plan studies that are adequately powered to detect effects of the size that meta-analyses have suggested are typical within an area of research or within the field as a whole.

Second, the editors of JRP believe that transparency in the scientific process is of utmost importance. All authors who submit to the journal must abide by principles for research conduct, including making data available to other researchers who wish to verify the findings reported in the published paper. To facilitate greater transparency, all authors who submit to JRP will be asked to certify that they will share their data with researchers who make such a request (authors can stipulate that data will be used for verification purposes only). Note that data sharing refers to data/parameters described in the submitted manuscript; additional data/parameters collected can be listed without sharing actual data. If such a data sharing arrangement is not possible, authors must disclose the reasons why data cannot be shared at the submission process. The editors will consider these reasons when evaluating the paper. Authors should remember that according to most ethical guidelines, deidentified data is not human subjects research, and thus, institutional review boards should generally allow for this type of data sharing arrangement. JRP also has resources to link the underlying data to the article itself, and authors are encouraged to post their raw data with their articles upon publication. In addition, authors are encouraged to use on-line supplemental material to report additional information that cannot be included in the main text but that help improve the transparency of their investigation (e.g., large correlation matrices that allow other to replicate structural equation modeling results, alternative analyses that investigate the robustness of effects, scatterplots that illustrate the nature of the association between two variables).

Finally, the editors of JRP strongly believe that highly powered replication studies are essential to good science. Although JRP has for many years considered and published replication studies (including failures to replicate), we are now, on a trial basis, expanding this policy to encourage even more replication. Specifically, we invite authors to submit especially strong replication attempts of studies that were published in JRP in the past five years (or older studies that are frequently cited). Authors should assume that effect sizes will likely not be as large as those published in the original paper, and they should choose sample sizes that have more than adequate power to detect this expected effect. Furthermore, authors should calculate confidence intervals around their estimated effects and compare them to the original effect size and to the null hypothesis when reporting their results.

During the trial period, replication reports will be considered in the Brief Report format. Replication reports should include brief introduction and discussion sections that succinctly report the goal of the initial paper. Manuscripts submitted through this new policy will be subjected to an abbreviated review process that simply evaluates whether the research was conducted competently. Replication attempts that follow these guidelines and are judged to have adequate methods will typically be accepted at JRP regardless of the results that are obtained. Although pre-registration is not required, authors who have questions about whether their planned study is likely to be accepted can contact the editor-in-chief before conducting the study to get feedback on these issues.

Contact details
If for any reason an electronic version of the manuscript is not available, please contact the Editorial Office for further instructions. These and all other inquiries may be sent to:

Scott Holcomb
Journal Manager, Journal of Research in Personality
525 B Street, Suite 1800
San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA
Office: +1 619 699 6563
Fax: +1 619 699 6855

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Authors also agree not to withhold data from interested researchers who wish to verify results, unless the reasons for this refusal are disclosed to the editor at the time of submission.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 24 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

JRP gives you the opportunity to enrich your article by providing readers with access to relevant statistical R-code and data. To share your R-code and corresponding (example) data set, please submit your R-code and data set with the manuscript. Multiple files can be submitted. We support the .R format for R-code and .CSV, .XLS, .TXT and .DAT files for datasets. Each R-file and corresponding data set will have to be zipped together and uploaded to online submission system via the "R data" submission category. Recommended size of a single uncompressed file is 100 MB. Please provide a short informative description for each file by filling in the "Description" field when uploading a dataset. Please mention dependencies on R libraries as comment in your R-code.

Additional information
Peer review is widely accepted as an essential if not the essential component in the scientific publication process. Nevertheless, the peer review process can be costly for both authors and reviewers. For authors, obtaining written reviews from qualified reviewers accounts for much of the total lag in the review process (which, as we all know, can sometimes be excruciatingly long).For reviewers, preparing thoughtful and detailed reviews is enormously time-consuming and can eat into time for one's own research. To make matters worse, with the high rejection rates common among top journals, authors may have to go through multiple review processes before finding an appropriate home for their work. And as anyone who has ever gone down this road knows, resubmitting a paper to a new journal creates its own set of dilemmas. For example, to what extent should the paper be revised to address issues raised in a set of reviews with which one may not completely agree? On the other hand, failing to address issues raised int he initial set of reviews risks a negative outcome in the new review cycle, particularly when advice is sought from the same reviewer! Thus, the resubmission cycle appears to compound many of the problems associated with the peer review process.
To help address this issue, JRP has instituted on a trial basis a streamlined review process in which authors may submit a peer-reviewed article that was rejected by any journal published by either The Association for Psychological Science (APS - formerly American Psychological Society) or the American Psychological Association (APA), and request an editorial decision on the basis of the prior reviews. These journals often reject papers for reasons that have little to do with quality per se - for example, they include only a single study, use unconventional methods, or are on the periphery of traditional areas of inquiry. JRP seeks to publish innovative, high quality research and may not be limited by these same restrictions.

Instructions for requesting a streamlined review 1. Submit the manuscript along with a cover letter. In the cover letter, the author must request a streamlined review and indicate when and where the paper was previously submitted. In addition, the author should specifically describe the nature of any changes that were made to the manuscript in response to the prior set of reviews, just as he/she would normally do when submitting a revised manuscript. Although the author is not obligated to revise the manuscript in response to the prior set of reviews, it is the rare manuscript that would not benefit from at least some revision. Thus, in most cases, it would behoove the author to carefully consider the content of the reviews and to make those changes with which the author agrees prior to requesting streamlined review.

2. Include a copy of the editor's action letter along with copies of all of the written reviews from the prior submission. These materials must be submitted in their original form; any alteration of these materials will cause the manuscript to be returned without review.

Possible decisions

1. Authors will typically be informed within 2 weeks if the submitted materials are not viewed as adequate for the purposes of making an editorial decision. Under the circumstance, the paper will be sent out for review following the normal review process. (Note that neither the prior action letter nor the reviews would be sent out to the new reviewers in this case).

2. If the materials are deemed adequate (which is the typical outcome), an editorial decision will be rendered within 45 days, or sooner when possible.

3. The range of decisions in either case is the same as manuscripts going through the normal review process - that is, Accept (with or without minor revisions), Revise and resubmit, or Reject.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.


There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Formatting requirements

There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.


Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results and Discussion
Results and discussion may be combined and may be organized with subheadings.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

A concise and factual abstract is required with 100-120 words max. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Acknowledgments should be brief and should precede the References.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK.
List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4).
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281–304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Open data

This journal supports Open Data, enabling authors to submit any raw (unprocessed) research data with their article for open access publication on ScienceDirect under the CC BY license. For more information, please visit Please read more about the badges here ( and in the FAQs here (

Open Science Badges
We offer three Open Science Badges that were developed by the Center for Open Science: Open Data, Open Materials, and Preregistered. More details about the steps for applying for these badges are available through the submission process, but authors are invited to review the brief descriptions quoted from the COS webpage to determine whether they are interested in applying for one or more of the badges.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
• For reproduction in black-and-white, please supply black-and-white versions of the figures for printing purposes.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via