Guide for Authors

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    The Journal of Renal Nutrition is the officialresearch publication of the Council on Renal Nutrition ofthe National Kidney Foundation, Inc. and the InternationalSociety of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. The purposeof JRN is to stimulate interest and research in nutrition pertainingto kidney and urologic diseases, hypertension, dialysistherapies and kidney transplantation in children and adults, aswell as to publish information concerning renal nutritionresearch, practice issues and policies. The goal of JRN is topublish original communications and research that maintainhigh standards for the profession and that contribute significantlyto the overall advancement of the field.

    The JRN is a refereed publication. Manuscripts areaccepted for review with the understanding that the materialhas not been previously published except in abstract form,and is not concurrently under review for publication elsewhere.Authors submitting a manuscript to JRN must understandthat if it is accepted for publication, copyright of thearticle including the right to reproduce the article in all formsand media, shall be assigned exclusively to the National KidneyFoundation. The Publisher, Elsevier, will not refuse anyreasonable request by the author for permission to reproduceany of his or her contributions to the Journal. Information onhow to request permission is available on the JRN website(

    Manuscript Categories

    The Journal of Renal Nutrition welcomes manuscripts in thefollowing categories: Original Research Articles, Reviews,Clinical/Research Briefs, Practical Aspects Articles, CaseStudies, Patient Education Material, Letters to the Editor,and Supplements. Authors should adhere to the guidelinesprovided for each type of manuscript.

    Original Research: Original research articles are fulllengthreports that cover topics relevant to renal nutritiondietetics or renal nutrition science for both adult and pediatricissues. To be published, the work presented in the manuscriptmust be original; on occasion, confirmatory studies of timelyand important observations will also be acceptable. In addition,other considerations for evaluating the acceptability ofa submitted manuscript include its importance, the soundnessof the experimental design, the validity of the methods, theappropriateness of the conclusions, and the quality of presentation.Original Research manuscripts should be organized asfollows: title page, support and financial disclosure, abstract,introduction, methods, results, discussion, practical application,acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends andfigures. All pages should be numbered consecutively, startingwith the title page as page one. Original Research manuscripts,in general, should range between 2,500 and 4,000words, but are typically about 3,500 words, not including references.Tables and illustrations range from 2 to 6 and shouldbe limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicatingfindings in the text. The editor reserves the right topublish excessively long tables as online-only material. Failure to comply with length restrictions may result in a delay inprocessing the paper.

    Reviews: Comprehensive, quantitative reviews of specificrenal nutrition topics of clinical relevance, traditional ormeta-analysis, are usually invited contributions; however, lettersof interest are welcomed. Reviews should address topicswith an extensive body of literature to provide a critical summaryof the current evidence and applications. In some cases,review articles may also address an emerging topic with limitedliterature to better demonstrate the need for more research, butif the focus of the article is on a clinical practice issue, this mightbetter be presented as a "Practical Aspects" article.

    Reviews should include: (1) an unstructured abstract (150maximum word count) that clearly states the purpose of thereview, the methodology employed, brief findings and conclusion;(2) introduction and purpose; (3) body, whichdevelops the subject in logical order using appropriate headingsand subheadings; (4) conclusions that specify the needsfor further research; (5) a detailed and comprehensive list ofreferences; and (6) relevant tables and/or figures. Maximumword count for a review article is 4500 words, not includingreferences, tables/figures and title page.

    Clinical/Research Briefs: Clinical/research briefs are submittedin an abbreviated manuscript format that presents clinicalpractice experience, preliminary research findings (basicor clinical), or professional observations in a shortened reportform. Length usually should not exceed six double-spacedpages, not including references, tables and figures. Clinical/Research Briefs should be organized as follows: title page,support and financial disclosure, abstract, introduction,methods, results, discussion, practical application, acknowledgments,references, tables, and legends and figures. Allpages should be numbered consecutively, starting with thetitle page as page one.

    Practical Aspects: The Journal welcomes manuscriptsabout a specific renal nutrition topic of clinical relevancefor the provider of nutrition or medical care to patientswith kidney disease. Contributions to this section are detailedprotocols, forms, or other such materials that are successfullyutilized for delivery of nutrition care or medical, nursing orpsychological care that has a nutrition component.

    Material submitted to the Practical Aspects section shouldinclude: (1) a title page; (2) an unstructured abstract (150maximum word count); (3) an introduction and purpose;(4) a body, which develops the subject in logical order usingappropriate headings and subheadings; (5) references and,(6) tables and figures, when appropriate.

    Case Studies: This detailed scenario should illustratea patient care situation that benefited from nutrition intervention.Typically, it should consist of a brief clinical and nutritionhistory, and a detailed nutrition intervention plan withdiscussion of recommendations focused on practical application.Appropriate laboratory values, anthropometric measurements,and clinical parameters should be provided.

    Patient Education*: This section provides renal dietitianswith a convenient, easy-to-read, educational handout forpatient distribution. Patient education materials are published online only, although they are referenced in the Table of Contentsof the print edition.

    Submissions for Patient Education should be accompaniedby an introduction explaining the rationale for the developmentof the material and, when appropriate, how it shouldbe used. Text should be clear and concise and illustrationsshould be contained on two pages with expanded type.

    Letters to the Editor: Letters should be restricted to scientificcommentary about materials published in JRN or to topicsof general interest to professionals working in the field of renalnutrition science and dietetics. Letters must be double-spaced,should include a title page, should have no more than 10 references,and should not exceed 750 words. All letters will be subjectedto editorial review and decision before acceptance. TheJRN does not accept letters that are unrelated to a specific,recently published article; that contain extensive unpublisheddata; or that engage in personal slander or invective.

    Supplements: The JRN publishes funded supplements afterapproval and review by the Editorial Office. Initial inquiriesand proposals for supplements should be directed to JerrilynnD. Burrowes, Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Renal Nutrition

    Proceedings Papers: Manuscript submissions from Proceedings must include a 150 word abstract, a main body of about 2,000 words, one figure and no more than 20 references. (If the figure is not possible, then the submission must have one table.) In rare circumstances, up to 2 figures may be considered following discussion with the editors. Pure text without a figure should be avoided.

    *NOTE: Patient Education and Product Updates are acceptedfor publication solely on the JRN website. They will be listedin the printed table of contents and indexed in MEDLINE.There are no charges for color figures; however, they willbe subject to the same copyright laws as the printed edition.

    Manuscript Preparation and Submission

    The Journal of Renal Nutrition utilizes the Elsevier EditorialSystem (EES), a web-based manuscript submission and peer reviewsystem that provide full electronic capabilities forsubmission, review, and status updates. Manuscripts mustbe submitted at Manuscriptsthat do not comply with these specific guidelineswill be returned to the authors for revision priorto being sent out for review or evaluated by the editors.Authors should review carefully the Tutorial for Authors, whichcan be found at After submission, the author can log ontothe EES to view the status of the manuscript. For problemsor questions concerning submission, contact Sheila Gibbons,JRN Managing Editor at or visit

    All accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial revisionand shortening. Authors should avoid redundancy betweensections of text and between illustrations and text. Due topage limitations, the Editors may decide that tables, illustrations,appendices, acknowledgments, and other materialshould be published online and referenced in the print edition.

    Manuscript Format

    Manuscripts must adhere to standard layout and lengthguidelines. Manuscripts must be submitted in MicrosoftWord, double-spaced using 12 pt. font (preferably TimesNew Roman) and unjustified margins. Pages must be numberedstarting with the title page. Include a cover letter tothe Editor with the submission stating the main aspects of theresearch findings of the article. Identify the name of the correspondingauthor. The JRN encourages authors to provide thenames, fields of interest, addresses, telephone and fax numbers,and e-mail addresses of 3 to 4 unbiased and qualified potentialexpert reviewers from outside the authors' institutions.

    Do not use the footnote function for references or thecomments function. DO NOT UPLOAD MANUSCRIPTTEXT FILES IN PDF FORMAT. Also, manuscripts mustnot be submitted with track changes.

    Use of the present tense is preferable. Refer to patients bynumber. Actual names or initials should not be used in thetext, tables, or illustrations. All clinical laboratory valuesshould be expressed in U.S. conventional units. If necessary,the International System of Units (SI units) can be providedin parentheses immediately after the U.S. convention units.Conversion tables are available at JAMA 1986; 255(17):2329-2339 or Ann Intern Med 1987;106(1):114-129.

    International authors are advised to have their manuscriptsreviewed by a scientific colleague who is fluent in English sothat the manuscripts will conform to U.S. English usage andgrammar. The EES has a language editing service available at

    Manuscript Body

    Title Page: The title page should include: (1) the title ofthe manuscript; (2) the name and degree(s) of each author(s);(3) the current title(s) and affiliation(s) of the author(s);(4) the corresponding author's name, address, telephone andfax numbers, and email address; (5) word counts for theabstract and the body of the manuscript (excluding, references,tables and figures); and (6) a short title (45 charactersor fewer, including spaces) to be used as a running head.
    Note: All individuals listed as authors must fulfill the followingcriteria for authorship. Each author must have participatedsufficiently in the work to take public responsibility forthe content of the paper and must approve of the final versionof the manuscript. Authorship should be based on substantivecontributions to each of the following: (1) conception anddesign of the study; (2) generation, collection, assembly, analysisand/or interpretation of data; (3) drafting and/or revisionof the manuscript; and (4) approval of the final version of themanuscript. The author who is named as the correspondingauthor on the manuscript's title page must be the individualto whom all Editorial-related correspondence is directed.

    Support and Financial Disclosure Declaration: The secondpage of each manuscript should acknowledge research support(from funding agencies or industry) and disclose anypotential financial conflicts of interest for each author. Anymeaningful affiliation or involvement, either direct or indirect,with any organization or entity with a direct financialinterest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g.,employment, consultancies, grants, honoraria) must be disclosed.Specifics of the disclosure will remain confidential.If deemed appropriate by the Editor, a general statementregarding disclosure will be included in the Acknowledgmentsection of the manuscript. The Acknowledgment sectionmust also reveal all sources of support for the work, bothfinancial and material. If no financial conflict of interest isidentified, 'none' should be written next to the author'sname. Note: If the manuscript is accepted for publication,a summary of the relevant information will be transferred tothe "Support" and "Financial Disclosure" sections of theAcknowledgements.

    Abstract: The abstract page should include the title of themanuscript, but no other identifying information. A structuredabstract format should be used for "original research"and "clinical/research brief " using the following headings:(1) Objective: clear statement of purpose of study; (2) Design:research design; (3) Setting: context in which the study wasconducted; (4) Subjects: demographics, selection criteria, controlgroup used; (5) Intervention: methodology, description oftreatment used; (6) Main outcome measure: variable used to assessintervention effect; (7) Results: primary findings of the study;and (8) Conclusion: brief summary of the results directly supportedby evidence. The abstract limit is 300 words or fewer.A list of approximately five keywords (to be used for indexing)should appear at the end of the abstract.

    Original Research Sections:

    1. Introduction: Clearly state the purpose of the research.Summarize the rationale and background for the studyor observation; cite only pertinent references. The"Introduction" should be limited to 1.5 typed manuscriptpages.
    2. Methods: Provide sufficient detail so that the study canbe repeated. Describe new methods in detail; reportaccepted methods briefly with references. Use subheadingsas needed for clarity.
      Use of Trade Names: Trade names are to be avoided indefining products whenever possible. If naminga product trade name cannot be avoided, the tradenames of other like products should also be mentioned,and first use should be accompanied by thesuperscript symbol ™ or ®, followed in parenthesesby the owner's name. If a product trade name is used,it is imperative that the product be described in sufficientdetail so that professionally trained readerscan understand the nature of the product.
      The mention of critical, especially novel, suppliesand pieces of equipment ought to be followed,in parenthesis, by name of manufactureror provider, and on the first mention only, city,state/province, and country (such as Ross Products,Columbus, OH).
      Statistics: Describe statistical methods with enoughdetail to enable a knowledgeable reader with accessto the original data to verify the reported results.When possible, quantify findings and presentthem with appropriate indicators of measurementerror or uncertainty (e.g., CIs, SDs, or SEs), evenfor differences that were not significant. Reportthe number of observations. Specify any general usecomputer programs used, including the versionnumber and the manufacturer's name and location.Include general descriptions of statistical methodsin the "Methods" section and specific descriptionsin each table and figure legend. Indicate whethervariables were transformed for analysis. Providedetails about what hypotheses were tested, whatstatistical tests were used, and what the outcomeand explanatory variables were (where appropriate).Indicate the level of significance used in testsif different from the conventional 2-sided 5%alpha error and whether or what type of adjustmentwas made for multiple comparisons. Whendata are summarized in the "Results" section, specifythe statistical methods used to analyze them.
    3. Results: Present the results in a logical sequence in thetext, tables, and figures. Do not duplicate data fromtables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarizeonly important observations. Do not present data fromindividual subjects except for very compelling reasons.
    4. Discussion: This section should not exceed 4 typewrittenpages. Emphasize concisely the novel and importantaspects of the study and the conclusions thatfollow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or othermaterial presented in the "Introduction" or "Results."Compare results to those previously reported. Linkconclusions with the goals of the study and avoidunqualified statements and conclusions that are notcompletely supported by the data. Indicate what newinformation is contributed by the present study.
    5. Practical Application: This section is written in terms thatthe practicing clinician can understand and the potentialclinical application of the research presented in thepaper. Keep the description short, about 2 to 3 sentences,and in a language that the readers can easily understand. Do not make unreasonable claims thatcannot be derived from the work described in the paper.If this section is not included with the manuscriptsubmission, the author acknowledges that an AssociateEditor of the Journal will write the practical applicationof the research findings.

    Acknowledgments: If authors wish to express thanks oracknowledge assistance, an acknowledgements sectionshould be inserted after the manuscript text and before thereference list. All individuals who contributed to the writingof the manuscript but who do not qualify as authors must benamed in this section. Authors are responsible for informingall listed individuals/parties that they are being mentioned inthe manuscript and for obtaining their approval prior topublication.


    References must be numbered according to order ofappearance in the text using superscript numbers in thetext. References should be compiled at the end of the manuscriptaccording to the order of citation in the text and shouldfollow the American Medical Association (AMA) style andformat. Examples of the most common reference types areprovided below. Authors using reference-managing softwaresuch as EndNote or Reference Manager should selectNLM/PubMed output style.
    References should be typed, double-spaced starting ona separate page at the end of the manuscript. When listing references,abbreviate names of journals as listed in PubMed. Listall authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first3 followed by "et al." Journal references should include theissue number in parentheses after the volume number. Accuracyof reference information is the author's responsibility.Please indicate if the source is a complete article, abstract,or editorial; give inclusive page numbers for complete articles.All reference information must be complete when the manuscriptis submitted.

    Examples of References

    Journal Article: Six or Fewer Authors
    Eyre S, Attman P, Haraldsson B. Positive effects of proteinrestriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. J RenNutr. 2008;18(3):269-280.
    Journal Article: More Than Six Authors
    Fernandez-Reyes MJ, Sanchez R, Garcýa L, et al. Acuteresponses of gastrointestinal hormones to both oraland parenteral intradialytic nutrition. Am J Nephrol.2010;32(3):272-278.
    Journal Article in Press
    Steiber AL, Kopple JD. Vitamin status and needs for peoplewith stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. (in press)
    Complete Book
    Byham-Gray LD, Burrowes JD, Chertow GM, eds. Nutritionin Kidney Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008.
    Chapter in Book
    Wilkens KG, Juneja V. Medical nutrition therapy for renaldisorders. In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause'sFood & Nutrition Therapy. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders;2008:921-958.
    Journal Article in a Supplement
    Gullett NP, Hebbar G, Ziegler TR. Update on clinical trialsof growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia andwasting. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(4)(suppl):S1143-S1147.
    PubMed Abstract Citation
    Szklarek-Kubicka M, Fijalkowska-Morawska J, Zaremba-Drobnik D, Ucinski A, Czekalski S, Nowicki M. Effectof intradialytic intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory responsein hemodialysis patients: a pilot study [abstract]. J RenNutr. 2009;19(6):487-493. Accessed December 24, 2010.PMID: 19616450.
    McCarron DA, Drueke TB, Stricker EM. Science trumpspolitics: urinary sodium data challenge US dietary sodiumguideline [editorial]. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1005-1006.
    EPub Ahead of Print
    Kagoma YK, Weir A, Iansavichus AV, et al. Impact ofestimated GFR reporting on patients, clinicians, andhealth-care systems: a systematic review [publishedonline ahead of print December 9 2010]. Am J KidneyDis. 2010. Accessed December 24, 2010.

    Tables and Figures

    Tables: Type each table on a separate page. Do not insertvertical lines in tables. Include a title for each table. Numbertables consecutively within the manuscript (Table 1, Table 2,Table 3, etc.). Use standard citation superscript symbols (*,†, ‡, §...). Authors should place footnotes in order, readingfrom left to right and top to bottom, and should begina new series of footnotes for each table. Footnotes shouldnot appear in table titles.
    Figures: Illustrations include charts, drawings, graphs, andphotographs. Charts, drawings and graphs must be computer generated.Each figure should be on a separate page. Numberfigures consecutively in the order they are to appear in thetext (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, etc.). Figures shouldbe uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscriptfile. For most types of figures, TIFF or EPS files are the preferredformat. The resolution for line art must be at least 1200dpi; photographs and shaded drawings must have a finishedresolution of 300 dpi. The following image file formats arenot acceptable because they are low resolution: PowerPoint,JPG, GIF,ONG, PCX, PNG, XBM, and Excel. On a separatepage, list the legend for each figure, double-spaced, withabbreviations and symbols identified.
    Authors must bear all costs associated with printed colorfigures and tables. The cost of the first color figure is$650.00 and each additional figure is $100.00. If authors electnot to print figures in color, in most cases, authors will be ableto have their color figures produced in black and white for theprint version of JRN, but the figures will appear in coloronline.
    If any table or figure has been published previously, a copyof the letter of permission from the copyright holder mustaccompany the manuscript. The original source of the tableor figure should be acknowledged in full reference form inthe reference section of the manuscript. The figure legend(or table notes) should conclude with: "Reprinted with permission"followed by the appropriate reference number.Authors are responsible for applying for permission for bothprint and electronic rights for all borrowed materials, andthey are responsible for paying any fees related to the applicationof these permissions.

    Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Complex terms used frequently in the manuscript may beabbreviated. Abbreviations should be placed in parentheses atfirst use in the abstract and again at first use in the text. Do notuse abbreviations and acronyms in titles.

    Supplementary Material for OnlinePublication

    Authors may submit supporting material to accompanytheir article for online-only publication when there is insufficientspace to include the material in the print article. Thismaterial should be important to the understanding and interpretationof the paper and should not repeat material in theprint article. The amount of online-only material should belimited and justified. Online-only material should be originaland not previously published.
    Online-only material will undergo editorial and peerreview with the main manuscript. If the manuscript isaccepted for publication and if the editors deem the online onlymaterial appropriate for publication, it will be postedonline at the time of publication of the article as additionalmaterial provided by the authors. The authors are responsiblefor the accuracy and presentation of all such material.
    Online-only material should be submitted in a separateWord document, PDF file, Excel File, Approved Figure format,etc with pages numbered consecutively. Each elementincluded in the online-only material should be cited in thetext of the main manuscript (e.g., see Table S1) and numberedin order of citation in the text (e.g., Table S1, Table S2, FigureS1, Figure S2, Appendix S1, etc.). The first page of theonline-only document should list the number and the titleof each element included in the document.
    Online-Only References: All references cited within theonline-only document must be included in a separate referencesection, including those that also were cited in themain manuscript. They should be formatted just as in themain manuscript and numbered and cited consecutively inthe online-only material.

    Manuscript Processing and ReviewSubmissions

    The JRN Editorial Office receives hundreds of manuscriptsa year. Each new manuscript receives a unique number,and information on the manuscript is recorded in theEES. The editorial staff releases information on manuscriptsto authors only. The EES will e-mail a letter to the correspondingauthor acknowledging receipt of a manuscript,whether new or a resubmission.

    Review Process

    All submissions are sent to peer reviewers. The identities ofboth the peer reviewers and the authors are kept confidential.Each manuscript is assigned to an Editor who has expertise inthe subject area. After review by the Editor, if the manuscriptis judged to be appropriate and competitive for publication inJRN, it is sent to at least two experts in the appropriate area forpeer review who remain anonymous. The reviewers evaluateeach article on the basis of content, originality, scientificaccuracy, clarity, and contribution to the field of renal nutritiondietetics and science.
    The review process generally takes about 2 to 3 months.Reviewers provide comments for the editor and for theauthors. Minor changes in style and clarity are made at thediscretion of the reviewers. All substantial changes will requirethe approval of the author before typesetting.
    The Journal expects reviewers to treat manuscripts as confidentialcommunications and not to use the content for theirown purposes or make copies of the manuscripts. Reviewersare also expected to declare to the editor any possible conflictsof interest. After peer review (usually 4 to 6 weeks after the dateof submission), the corresponding author will be notifiedwhether the manuscript has been accepted, requires revision,or rejected.


    The single most important criterion for acceptance is theoriginality of the work. However, a decision to accept a manuscriptis not based solely on the scientific validity of its content.Other factors affecting decisions include the extent andimportance of new information in the paper compared withthat in other papers being considered, the Journal's need torepresent a wide range of topics, and the overall suitabilityfor JRN. Decision letters usually, but not always, convey allfactors considered for a particular decision. Occasionally,the comments to the authors may appear to be inconsistentwith the editorial decision, which takes into considerationreviewers' comments to the editor, as well as the additionalfactors listed above.

    Revisions and Rejections

    Manuscript revisions should be resubmitted within threemonths of the initial decision; they are carefully re-examinedby the editorial team and/or reviewers. However, no guaranteecan be made about the final acceptability of the paper.If authors of a rejected manuscript are able to make newadvances that go far beyond the original submission, theymay consider submitting the manuscript again as a new submission,referring to the original submission in the coverletter.

    After Acceptance

    Accepted manuscripts are sent to the publisher, Elsevier.Once an article has been copyedited, typeset, and authorshave reviewed the proof and submitted corrections, theauthor-corrected proof will be uploaded to the JRN websites( and under"Articles in Press" for pre-print viewing by subscribers. Thecorrected proof of the article is also delivered to PubMedfor indexing. When the article is assigned to a specific issueof JRN, it moves from the Articles in Press section to the tableof contents of that issue.

    Copyright Transfer

    The Copyright will be assigned exclusively to the NationalKidney Foundation, including the right to reproduce thearticle in all forms and media. Authors must sign the copyrighttransfer agreement.

    Open Access

    JRN offers you the option of making your article freely available to all via the and ScienceDirect platforms. To prevent any conflict of interest, you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication. The fee of $3,000 excludes taxes and other potential author fees such as color charges. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here:


    Manuscripts are copyedited to make them consistent withthe Journal style; if a particular section in the manuscript is notclear or requires additional information, the copy editor willdirect questions to the author. These questions, or "authorqueries," will appear in the margins of the proofs that aresent to the author. Changes made by the copy editors forstyle, grammar, and readability should not be altered by theauthor(s) unless a scientific error has been introduced.


    The corresponding author can expect one set of page proofsin PDF format via e-mail approximately two months after acceptance.The PDF proofs can be annotated using AdobeReader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompanythe proofs. If the author(s) do not wish to use the PDF annotationsfunction, the corrections can be listed (includingreplies to the Query Form) and returned to Elsevier via email.Please list corrections quoting line number. If, for anyreason, this is not possible, the corrections and any other commentscan be sent (including replies to the Query Form) ona printout of the proof and returned by fax, scan or e-mail.
    Please only check the typesetting, editing, completenessand correctness of the text, tables and illustrations. Significantchanges to the article after it has been accepted for publicationwill only be considered at this stage with permission from theEditor.We will do everything possible to get your article publishedquickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important toensure that all corrections are returned to Elsevier in one communication.Please check carefully before replying, asinclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed.Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note: Withpermission from the Editor, Elsevier may proceed with thepublication of the article if the proofs are not returned.
    Authors are expected to review proofs promptly (within48 hours of receipt).


    The corresponding author will be provided with a PDF file ofthe article via e-mail at no cost. Forms for ordering print articlereprints will be sent with the proofs to the authors and should bereturned with the corrected proofs. An order form with pricinginformation will be sent to the corresponding author.

    Revised November 2013


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