Journal of Proteomics is an official journal of the European Proteomics Association (EuPA) and is aimed at both European and international protein scientists and analytical chemists in the field of proteomics, biomarker discovery, protein analytics, plant proteomics, microbial and animal proteomics, human studies, tissue imaging by mass spectrometry, non-conventional and non-model organism proteomics, and protein bioinformatics. The journal welcomes papers in new and upcoming areas such as metabolomics, genomics, systems biology, toxicogenomics, pharmacoproteomics. Journal of Proteomics unifies both fundamental scientists and clinicians, and includes translational research. Suggestions for reviews, webinars and thematic issues are welcome. All manuscripts are strictly peer reviewed and conform the highest ethical standards. Journal of Proteomics also publishes official EuPA reports and participates in the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme with HUPO and other partners.
Original Articles: Original articles are the normal medium of publication. Although there is no fixed length, articles should be as concise as possible, while providing sufficient information for the work to be repeated and for the claims of the authors to be judged by the readers. Authors are encouraged to use proteomics data in the context of interdisciplinary projects to elaborate appropriate biological hypotheses, and use these hypotheses to validate the proteomics data through hypothesis-driven experiments and/or elaborate on future research to check the proposed biological model/mechanism.
Mandatory requirements for reporting of clinical biomarker studies:1) A clinical biomarker is only relevant in specific contexts of use per disease, it must have a potential to improve the current state of the art (either being of added value, or based on its sole performance), and its application must be linked to a clear change in patient management. As such, the specific proposed context of use of the presented biomarker must be clearly provided and the expected practical consequence of the biomarker application should be discussed.
2) A biomarker can only be assessed in an independent (ideally blinded) test set, containing sufficient samples to demonstrate significant value and justify relevant claims regarding biomarker use. Assessment of performance in a discovery set is inappropriate.
3) This initial independent validation and performance assessment has to be performed in samples that reflect the typical clinical situation depending on the targeted context of use.
4) Authors submitting clinical biomarker studies should address the above points in the cover letter, so that the Editor can assess and evaluate if the submitted manuscript fulfils the requirements for publication in Journal of Proteomics.
Reviews: These are contributed by scientists who are leading specialists in their field of expertise, normally at the invitation of the Editors. Authors wishing to contribute a review paper are advised first to contact one of the responsible Editors (listed in the issues of Journal of Proteomics to avoid overlap with Reviews already commissioned.)Technical reports: Technical reports should present brief descriptions of novel apparatus, a new experimental or computational method, test or procedure, or an improvement or noteworthy modification of an already existing technique or platform used in the proteomic workflow. Technical reports should show a realistic application of the methodology described. Theoretical papers dealing with mechanistic aspects of proteomic techniques will also be considered. A technical report should be a short (no more than two pages when published) description written in a continuous style with no more than two figures and one table.
Tutorials: The International Proteomics Tutorial Programme, initiated by the education committees of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) and the European Proteomics Association (EuPA) is aimed at Masters/PhD level students who are starting out their research and who would benefit from a solid grounding in the techniques used in modern protein-based research. The tutorial program will cover core techniques and basics as an introduction to scientists new to the field. Authors are generally invited to contribute a Tutorial. For suggestions, prospective authors of high standing may contact the Journal's Tutorial editor Peter James.
News & Views: News & Views point out the author(s) vision of the character and importance of a new direction in proteome research. They are not intended to be accounts or analyses of an individual's personal research. Although News & Views will usually be invited, they can be submitted without invitation. Author(s) are encouraged to suggest experts in the field who can act as reviewers.Letters to the Editor: Letters to the Editor are intended to stimulate discussion and debate in areas of general concern and controversy in proteomics, and generally reflect the personal opinions of the author(s). They should be written in a continuous style and should normally not exceed two printed pages and contain no more than one figure or table. Ethics in publishing
For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.
Human and animal rights
If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
Journal of Proteomics follows the ICMJE recommendations regarding conflict of interest disclosures. All authors are required to report the following information with each submission: (1) All third-party financial support for the work in the submitted manuscript. (2) All financial relationships with any entities that could be viewed as relevant to the general area of the submitted manuscript. (3) All sources of revenue with relevance to the submitted work who made payments to you, or to your institution on your behalf, in the 36 months prior to submission. (4) Any other interactions with the sponsor of outside of the submitted work should also be reported. (5) Any relevant patents or copyrights (planned, pending, or issued). (6) Any other relationships or affiliations that may be perceived by readers to have influenced, or give the appearance of potentially influencing, what you wrote in the submitted work. As a general guideline, it is usually better to disclose a relationship than not. This information will be acknowledged at publication in a Transparency Document link directly in the article. Additional information on the ICMJE recommendations can be found at: http://www.icmje.org/. The form for conflict of interest disclosure can be downloaded here: http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (if this link does not display properly in your browser, please right-click the link and select "Save Target As..." or "Save Link as..." from the pop-up menu).
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/sharingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Changes to authorship
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Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
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Language (usage and editing services)
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Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please provide the names and addresses of 4 - 5 suitable potential reviewers. If there are compelling reasons for excluding some individuals as potential reviewers, these can be mentioned. However, choice of reviewers is at the Editors' discretion.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
To assist in the reviewing of your paper, please add line numbering to your manuscript file
Original articles are usually divided into the sections Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusions:
AbstractThe Abstract should describe in a single paragraph the findings of the study, and should be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper. Non-standard abbreviations and reference citations should be avoided.
SignificanceStarting January 2013, manuscripts submitted to Journal of Proteomics must include a paragraph entitled "Significance" detailing the biological relevance of the reported research or technological innovation. Authors shortly but realistically state how the paper impacts its field of research (please consult Calvete JJ (2012) Updating JPROT's publication standards for large-scale proteomic studies: towards hypothesis-driven interpretation of predictive biological models. J Proteomics 76, 1-2).
This is a short section in which the authors should state the reasons for performing the work, with brief reference to relevant previous work.
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Tutorials are a combination of article and slides. Specific instructions are provided upon invitation. Authors are encouraged to submit Author Vitae at first submission. Please include in the manuscript a short (maximum 100 words) biography of each author, along with a passport-type photograph accompanying the other figures.Experimental design data analysis for 2-D PAGE and MS-based experiments:
The experimental design must be provided and must include details of the number of biological and analytical replicates. Only one biological/analytical replicate will not be acceptable. In clinical studies, it is highly desirable that a power analysis predicting the appropriate sample size for subsequent statistical analysis of the data is carried out.
For expression analysis studies, summary statistics (mean, standard deviation) must be provided and results of statistical analysis must be shown. Reporting fold differences alone is not acceptable. For comparative proteomics multivariant analysis of the variance should be used (Please consult: Valledor, L., Jorrin, JV (2010). Back to the basics: Maximizing the information obtained by quantitative two dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses by an appropriate experimental design and statistical analyses. J. Proteomics 74, 1-18).
Proper terminology should be used. "Protein species" or "Gene product" are preferred terms when referring to "isoforms" and "allelic variants", respectively, (please consult Jungblut et al. The speciation of the proteome. Chemistry Central Journal 2008; 2: 16, and Schlüter et al. Finding one's way in proteomics: a protein species nomenclature. Chemistry Central Journal 2009; 3: 11). Terms, such as "differences in protein expression" and "induction/repression" should be avoided, since this terminology relates to gene regulation, and quantitative proteomics deals with the measure of differential abundances of spots (2DE) or peptide ions (LC-MS/MS).
Identification of proteins based solely on mass fingerprinting will be considered only if the sequence of the genome of the organism under study is known. For peptide mass fingerprinting, the number of peptides that match the sequence, the number of unmatched peaks, and the total percent of sequence coverage must be stated.
Identification of proteins from organisms with unknown genome sequence will be accepted only if MS/MS-derived peptide sequence data have been used for database searching or BLAST analysis. The score for the highest ranked hit to an homologous, orthologous, or paralogous protein should be indicated.For experiments with large MS/MS data sets, estimates of the false positive rates are required (e.g. through searching randomized or reversed sequence databases). This information should be provided as supporting information. Where post-translational modifications are reported, the methods used to discover the modification must be described. The modification should be mapped to amino acid(s) by fragmentation analysis, but reported as ambiguous if mapping to a single amino acid is not possible. For isobaric modifications, evidence for assigning a specific modification must be provided and the spectra included as supporting information. Where protein sequence isoforms are reported, the peptide sequence that matches the unique amino acid sequence of a particular isoform must be provided. Fragmentation analysis of the appropriate peptides should be described.
A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples. Electronic artwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
• Submit each figure as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
• Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules. Citation in Text
The numerical system of references should be used. References in the text should be cited by numbers in square brackets in the order of their citation.
References are listed together in their order of appearance in a separate section at the end of the text under the heading References. All references should be numbered consecutively. References to journals should contain initials and names of all authors, article title, abbreviation of the name of the journal according to the List of Serial Title World Abbreviations (International Series Data System, 20, rue Bachaumont, 75002 Paris, France. ISBN 2-904938-02-8), year of publication, volume number, and page numbers. References to books should also include the title (of series and volumes), initials and names of the editor(s), the publisher and place of publication.Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
 Resing KA, Ahn NG. Proteomics strategies for protein identification. FEBS Letters 2005;579:885-9.
 Rehm H. Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics. San Diego: Academic Press/Elsevier Inc; 2006.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book or book series:
 Morgan JW, Hettick JM, Russell DH. Peptide sequencing by MALDI 193-nm photodissociation TOF MS. In: Burlingame AL, editor. Methods in Enzymology, vol 402: Biological Mass Spectrometry. San Diego: Academic Press/Elsevier Inc; 2005, p.186-209.
Unpublished results should not be listed in the References section. In the text they are mentioned as follows: "(Tervoort MV and Glimcher J, unpublished data)". When unpublished results are cited, the data should be provided for the Editors' information when essential for proper evaluation, or if requested.A personal communication should be mentioned in the text as follows: "(Tervoort MV, personal communication)". Authors should not make unauthorized use of personal communications. Personal communications are not to be included in the Reference section.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley (http://www.mendeley.com/features/reference-manager) and also others like EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/downloads/styles). Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.
If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit http://citationstyles.org.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Data in Brief
Authors have the option of converting any or all parts of their supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple Data in Brief articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes their data. Data in Brief articles ensure that your data, which is normally buried in supplementary material, is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. Authors are encouraged to submit their Data in Brief article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your Data in Brief article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the new, open access journal, Data in Brief (http://www.journals.elsevier.com/data-in-brief). The open access fee for Data in Brief is $500. For authors who submit in 2015 a reduced fee of $250 will apply. Please use the following template to write your Data in Brief: http://www.elsevier.com/dib-template.
Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.
Interactive Cytoscape networks
You can enrich your online article by including interactive network diagrams created with Cytoscape v3.1 (or higher). Each network will have to be exported from Cytoscape as a pair of the network (.cyjs) and visual style (.json) files, both files archived as a single ZIP dataset and uploaded to the electronic submission system via the "Cytoscape networks (.zip)" submission category. Multiple datasets can be submitted. The recommended size of a single ZIP dataset is 150 MB or less. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the "Description" field when uploading files. Once the article is accepted your ZIP datasets will appear as supplementary material on ScienceDirect and will be visualized inside the Cytoscape application displayed alongside your article. Readers will then be able to interactively explore your networks while reading the article: zoom in or out to view details in the network, show or hide node and edge labels, click on node or edge to show assigned label, pan the visible area with mouse or keyboard arrow keys, and download original network files. For more information see: http://www.elsevier.com/about/content-innovation/cytoscape.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
- E-mail address
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- Highlights bullets
- "Significance" paragraph after the Abstract
- All figure captions
- All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
- Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
- References are in the correct format for this journal
- All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
- Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.
- Line numbers have been added to your manuscript file
- Does the information on mass spectrometry data meet the Guidelines of the journal? (JPROT encourages authors to read the MIAPE-MS document available addressing http://www.psidev.info/sites/default/files/MIAPE_MS_2.98.pdf).
- Does your paper cite databank accession codes? (J. Proteomics encourages authors to adopt the linking scheme to link out from ScienceDirect to CRAN, the Comprehensive R Archive Network (http://cran.r-project.org/). More info about this kind of linking is available at http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking).
If you are submitting a revised version of a manuscript, and to facilitate peer-reviewing, changes introduced in the revised version of the manuscript should be highlighted.
Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
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ACES 2-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)amino] ethanesulphonic acid
A/D analog to digital converter
AEBSF 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulphonyl fluoride
amu atomic mass unit
ANOVA analysis of variance
API atmospheric pressure ionization
AUC area under curve
bp base pairs
BSA bovine serum albumin
%C cross-linking agent (g/100 mL)/%T
CAPS 3-(cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulphonic acid
CBB Coomassie Brilliant Blue
CCD charge-coupled device
CD circular dicroism
CE capillary electrophoresis
CEC capillary electrochromatography
CFE continuous flow electrophoresis
CHCA &agr;-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid
CHES 2-(N-cyclohexylamino)ethanesulphonic acid
CID collision-induced dissociation
CIEF capillary isoelectric focusing
CMC critical micelle concentration
Con A Concanavalin A
CNS central nervous system
cpm counts per minute
CTAB etyltrimethylammonium bromide
CV coefficient of variation
CZE capillary zone electrophoresis
Da dalton (molecular mass)
2-DE two-dimensional electrophoresis
DIGE fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis
DGGE denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
DMEM Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium
DMSO dimethyl sulphoxide
DOC sodium deoxycholate
dsDNA double-stranded DNA
ECL enhanced chemiluminescence
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGTA ethylene glycol-bis(&bgr;-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid
EKC electrokinetic chromatography
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMSA electrophoretic mobility shift assay
EOF electroosmotic flow
ER endoplasmic reticulum
ESI electrospray ionization
EST expressed sequence tag
EUPA European Proteome Association
FAB fast atom bombardment
FACS fluorescence activated cell sorting
FBS fetal bovine serum
FCS fetal calf serum
FIGE field inversion gel electrophoresis
FITC fluorescein isothiocyanate
FT Fourier transform
FT-ICR Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance
GC gas chromatography
GIF graphic interchange format
GRAVY grand average hydrophobicity
HE hematoxylin and eosin
HEPES N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-2'-(2-ethanesulphonic acid)
HPCE high-performance capillary electrophoresis
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
HRP horseradish peroxidase
HSA human serum albumin
HSP heat shock protein
HTML hypertext mark-up language
HUPO Human Proteome Organisation
HVR hypervariable region
ICAT isotop-coded affinity tag
ICR ion cyclotron resonance
id inside diameter
IEF isoelectric focusing
IMAC immobilized metal affinity capture
IPG immobilized pH gradient
IT ion trap
iTRAQ isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation
kbp kilobase pairs
kDa kilodalton (molecular mass)
LC liquid chromatography
LED light-emitting diode
LOD limit of detection
LOQ limit of quantitation
mAb monoclonal antibody
MALDI-MS matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-mass spectrometry
MEKC micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography
MES 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid
MHC major histocompatibility complex
MOPS 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulphonic acid
Mr relative molecular mass (dimensionless)
MS mass spectrometry
MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry
MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide
m/z mass-to-charge ratio
NC nitrocellulose NEPHGE nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NP-40 Nonidet P-40
od outside diameter
OD optical density
OFAGE orthogonal field alternation gel electrophoresis
ORF open reading frame
PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS phosphate-buffered saline
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PED pulsed electrochemical detection PEG polyethylene glycol
PFGE pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
PFU plaque-forming units
pI isoelectric point
PMF peptide mass fingerprinting
PMS phenazine methosulphate
PMSF phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride
PMT photomultiplier tube
PSD post-source decay
PTM post-translational modification
PVA polyvinyl alcohol
PVDF polyvinylidene difluoride
Q-TOF quadrupole time-of-flight
RACE rapid amplification of cDNA ends
RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism
ROS reactive oxygen species
RP reversed phase
rpm revolutions per minute
RSD relative standard deviation
RT-PCR reverse transcriptase-PCR
SAGE serial analysis of gene expression
SD standard deviation
SDS sodium dodecyl sulphate
SEC size-exclusion chromatography
SELDI surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization
SEM standard error of the mean
SIM selected ion monitoring
S/N signal-to-noise ratio
SPE solid-phase extraction
SPR surface plasmon resonants
SSCP single-strand conformation polymorphism
ssDNA single-stranded DNA
SSP sample spot number
STR short tandem repeat
%T total gel concentration (acrylamide plus cross-linking agent; g/100 mL)
TBS Tris-buffered saline
TCA trichloroacetic acid
TFA trifluoroacetic acid
TIC total ion current
TLC thin-layer chromatography
TNF tumour necrosis factor
TOF time of flight
TRITC tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate
URL uniform resource locator
UTR untranslated region
Vh volt ×hours
z ion charge
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