Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Instructions in other languages
• Contact Information
• Submission Guidelines
• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Use of word processing software
• Embedded math equations
• Essential title page information
• Title page format
• Units
• Math formulae
• Artwork
• Figure Submission
• Illustration services
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Supplementary material
• Submission Checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
• Permissions
• Interest in Commercial Companies and/or Products
• Writing Guidelines
• Additional Terminology Guidelines
• Sample Manuscript

Instructions in other languages


Now in its 63rd year, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry is the leading professional journal devoted exclusively to prosthetic and restorative dentistry. The Journal is the official publication of 25 leading U.S. and international prosthodontic organizations, serving prosthodontists and dentists in advanced practice. It features timely, original peer-reviewed articles on the newest techniques, dental materials, and research findings, with color photographs that illustrate step-by-step procedures. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry is included in Index Medicus and CINAHL, and is the highest ranked Prosthodontics title by number of citations according to the 2012 Journal Citation Reports.®


Articles are classified as one of the following: research/clinical science article, clinical report, technique article, systematic review, or tip from our readers. Required sections for each type of article are listed in the order in which they should be presented.

Research and Education/Clinical Science

The research report should be no longer than 10-12 double-spaced, typed pages and be accompanied by no more than 12 high-quality illustrations. Avoid the use of outline form (numbered and/or bulleted sentences or paragraphs). The text should be written in complete sentences and paragraph form.

Abstract (approximately 250 words): Create a structured abstract with the following subsections: Statement of Problem, Purpose, Material and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should contain enough detail to describe the experimental design and variables. Sample size, controls, method of measurement, standardization, examiner reliability, and statistical method used with associated level of significance should be described in the Material and Methods section. Actual values should be provided in the Results section.

Clinical Implications: In 2-4 sentences, describe the impact of the study results on clinical practice.

Introduction: Explain the problem completely and accurately. Summarize relevant literature, and identify any bias in previous studies. Clearly state the objective of the study and the research hypothesis at the end of the Introduction. Please note that, for a thorough review of the literature, most (if not all references) should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Material and Methods section.

Material and Methods: In the initial paragraph, provide an overview of the experiment. Provide complete manufacturing information for all products and instruments used, either in parentheses or in a table. Describe what was measured, how it was measured, and the units of measure. List criteria for quantitative judgment. Describe the experimental design and variables, including defined criteria to control variables, standardization of testing, allocation of specimens/subjects to groups (specify method of randomization), total sample size, controls, calibration of examiners, and reliability of instruments and examiners. State how sample sizes were determined (such as with power analysis). Avoid the use of group numbers to indicate groups. Instead, use codes or abbreviations that will more clearly indicate the characteristics of the groups and will therefore be more meaningful for the reader. Statistical tests and associated significance levels should be described at the end of this section.

Results: Report the results accurately and briefly, in the same order as the testing was described in the Material and Methods section. For extensive listings, present data in tabular or graphic form to help the reader. For a 1-way ANOVA report of, F and P values in the appropriate location in the text. For all other ANOVAs, per guidelines, provide the ANOVA table(s). Describe the most significant findings and trends. Text, tables, and figures should not repeat each other. Results noted as significant must be validated by actual data and P values.

Discussion: Discuss the results of the study in relation to the hypothesis and to relevant literature. The Discussion section should begin by stating whether or not the data support rejecting the stated null hypothesis. If the results do not agree with other studies and/or with accepted opinions, state how and why the results differ. Agreement with other studies should also be stated. Identify the limitations of the present study and suggest areas for future research.

Conclusions: Concisely list conclusions that may be drawn from the research; do not simply restate the results. The conclusions must be pertinent to the objectives and justified by the data. In most situations, the conclusions are true for only the population of the experiment. All statements reported as conclusions should be accompanied by statistical analyses.

References: See Reference Guidelines and Sample Manuscript (

Tables: See Table Guidelines.

Legends for illustrations: Concisely describe each illustration without directly duplicating the main text.

Clinical Report

The clinical report describes the author’s methods for meeting a patient treatment challenge. It should be no longer than 4 to 5 double-spaced, pages and be accompanied by no more than 8 high-quality illustrations. In some situations, the Editor may approve the publication of additional figures if they contribute significantly to the manuscript.

Abstract: Provide a short, nonstructured, 1-paragraph abstract that briefly summarizes the problem encountered and treatment administered.

Introduction: Summarize literature relevant to the problem encountered. Include references to standard treatments and protocols. Please note that most, if not all, references should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Clinical Report section.

Clinical Report: Describe the patient, the problem with which he/she presented, and any relevant medical or dental background. Describe the various treatment options and the reasons for selection of the chosen treatment. Fully describe the treatment rendered, the length of the follow-up period, and any improvements noted as a result of treatment. This section should be written in past tense and in paragraph form.

Discussion: Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen treatment and describe any contraindications for it. If the text will only be repetitive of previous sections, omit the Discussion.

Summary: Briefly summarize the patient treatment.

References: See Reference Guidelines and Sample Manuscript (

Legends for illustrations: Concisely describe each illustration without directly duplicating the main text.

Dental Technique

The dental technique article presents, in a step-by-step format, a unique procedure helpful to dental professionals. It should be no longer than 4 to 5 double-spaced, typed pages and be accompanied by no more than 8 high-quality illustrations. In some situations, the Editor may approve the publication of additional figures if they contribute significantly to the manuscript.

Abstract: Provide a short, nonstructured, 1-paragraph abstract that briefly summarizes the technique.

Introduction: Summarize relevant literature. Include references to standard methods and protocols. Please note that most, if not all, references should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Technique section.

Technique: In a numbered, step-by-step format, describe each step of the technique. The text should be written in command rather than descriptive form (“Survey the diagnostic cast” rather than “The diagnostic cast is surveyed.”) Include citations for the accompanying illustrations.

Discussion: Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, indicate the situations to which it may be applied, and describe any contraindications for its use. Avoid excessive claims of effectiveness. If the text will only be repetitive of previous sections, omit the Discussion.

Summary: Briefly summarize the technique presented and its chief advantages.

References: See Reference Guidelines and Sample Manauscript (

Legends for illustrations: Concisely describe each illustration without directly duplicating the main text.

Systematic Review

The author is advised to develop a systematic review in the Cochrane style and format. The Journal has transitioned away from literature reviews to systematic reviews. For more information on systematic reviews, please see An example of a Journal systematic review: Torabinejad M, Anderson P, Bader J, Brown LJ, Chen LH, Goodacre CJ, Kattadiyil MT, Kutsenko D, Lozada J, Patel R, Petersen F, Puterman I, White SN. Outcomes of root canal treatment and restoration, implant-supported single crowns, fixed partial dentures, and extraction without replacement: a systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2007;98:285-311.

The systematic review consists of:

An Abstract using a structured format (Statement of Problem, Purpose, Material and Methods, Results, Conclusions).

Text of the review consisting of an introduction (background and objective), methods (selection criteria, search methods, data collection and data analysis), results (description of studies, methodological quality, and results of analyses), discussion, authors’ conclusions, acknowledgements, and conflicts of interest. References should be peer reviewed and follow JPD format.

Tables and figures, if necessary, showing characteristics of the included studies, specification of the interventions that were compared, the results of the included studies, a log of the studies that were excluded, and additional tables and figures relevant to the review.

Tips From Our Readers

Tips are brief reports on helpful or timesaving procedures. They should be limited to 2 authors, no longer than 250 words, and include no more than 2 high quality illustrations. Describe the procedure in a numbered, step-by-step format; write the text in command rather than descriptive or passive form (“Survey the diagnostic cast” rather than “The diagnostic cast is surveyed”).

Contact Information

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Editorial Office
Georgia Regents University
College of Dental Medicine
1120 15th St., GC3094
Augusta, GA 30912-1255
Phone: (706) 721-4558
Fax: (706) 721-4571
Online submission:

Submission Guidelines

Thank you for your interest in writing an article for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. In publishing, as in dentistry, precise procedures are essential. Your attention to and compliance with the following policies will help ensure the timely processing of your submission.

Length of Manuscripts
Manuscript length depends on manuscript type. In general, research and clinical science articles should not exceed 10 to 12 double-spaced, typed pages (excluding references, legends, and tables). Clinical Reports and Technique articles should not exceed 4 to 5 pages, and Tips articles should not exceed 1 to 2 pages. The length of systematic reviews varies.

Number of Authors
The number of authors is limited to 4; the inclusion of more than 4 must be justified in the letter of submission. (Each author’s contribution must be listed.) Otherwise, contributing authors in excess of 4 will be listed in the Acknowledgments. There can only be one corresponding author.

General Formatting
All submissions must be submitted via the EES system in Microsoft Word with an 8.5×11 inch page size. The following specifications should also be followed:

  • Times Roman, 12 pt
  • Double-spaced
  • Left-justified
  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Half-inch tabs
  • Headers/Footers should be clear of page numbers or other information
  • Headings are upper case bold, and subheads are upper/lower case bold. No italics are used.
  • References should not be automatically numbered. Endnote or other reference-generating programs should be turned off.
  • Set the Language feature in MS Word to English (US). Also change the language to English (US) in the style named Balloon Text.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Conflict of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good American English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the MS Word program. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Embedded math equations

If you are submitting an article prepared with Microsoft Word containing embedded math equations then please read this related support information (

Essential title page information

  • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae. Trade names should not be used in the title.
  • Author names and affiliations. Author’s names should be complete first and last names. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' current title and affiliation, including the city and state/country of that affiliation. If it is private practice, indicate the city and state/country of the practice. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation.
  • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Title page format

  • Title: Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. Do not use any special formatting. Abbreviations or trade names should not be used. Trade names should not be used in the title.
  • Authors: Directly under the title, type the names and academic degrees of the authors.
  • Institution(s): Under the authors’ names, type their individual institutional affiliations and the cities, states, and countries (if not the U.S.) where institutions are located. If necessary, provide the English translation of the name of the institution. If the authors are not affiliated with an institution, please list the city, state, and country where authors live.
  • Presentation/support information and titles: If research was presented before an organized group, indicate name of the organization and location and date of the meeting. If work was supported by a grant or any other kind of funding, supply the name of the supporting organization and the grant number.
  • Corresponding author: List the mailing address, business telephone, and e-mail address of the author who will receive correspondence.
  • Acknowledgments: Indicate special thanks to persons or organizations involved with the manuscript.
  • See Sample Manuscript (


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Embedded math equations
If you are submitting an article prepared with Microsoft Word containing embedded math equations then please read this related support information (


Figure Submission

All figures should be submitted as Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) files.
Figures should NOT be submitted as Microsoft Word, Corel Draw, Harvard Graphics, PowerPoint, Adobe Acrobat, or other presentation software formats. Line art and combination artwork is best created in native design format, such as EPS (Encapsulated PostScript), Adobe Illustrator, InDesign, etc., but should be saved as a TIF prior to submission to the Journal.

Image File Specifications

Figure dimensions must be 4 × 6 inches.
Figures should be size-matched (the same physical size) unless the image type prohibits size matching to other figures within the manuscript, as in the case of panoramic or periapical radiographs, SEM images, or graphs and screen shots. Do not “label” the faces of the figures with letters or numbers to indicate the order in which the figures should appear; such labels will be inserted during the publication process.

The figures should be of professional quality and high resolution. The following are resolution requirements:

  • Color and black-and-white photographs should be created and saved at 300 dots per inch (dpi).
    Note: A 4 × 6-inch image at a resolution of 300 dpi will be approximately 6 megabytes. A figure of less than 300 dpi must not be increased artificially to 300 dpi; the resulting quality and resolution will be poor.

  • Line art should be created and saved as 1200 dpi.
  • Combination artwork (an illustration containing both line art and photograph) should be created and saved as 600 to 1000 dpi.
  • Clarity, contrast, and quality should be uniform among the parts of a multipart figure and among all of the figures within a manuscript.
  • Composite figures (multiple images combined into a single frame) are unacceptable. Each image part should be a separate 4 × 6-inch, 300-dpi image.
  • A uniform background of nontextured, medium blue should be provided for color figures when possible.

Text within Images

If text is to appear within the figure, labeled and unlabeled versions of the figures must be provided. Text appearing within the labeled versions of the figures should be in Arial font and a minimum of 10 pt. The text should be sized for readability if the figure is reduced for production in the Journal. Lettering should be in proportion to the drawing, graph, or photograph. A consistent font size should be used throughout each figure, and for all figures, Please note: Titles and captions should not appear within the figure file, but should be provided in the manuscript text (see Figure Legends).

If a key to an illustration requires artwork (screen lines, dots, unusual symbols), the key should be incorporated into the drawing instead of included in the typed legend. All symbols should be done professionally, be visible against the background, and be of legible proportion should the illustration be reduced for publication.

All microscopic photographs must have a measurement bar and unit of measurement on the image.

Color Figures

Color illustrations may be submitted when their use considerably enhances the value of the manuscript. The Editor has final authority to determine whether color illustrations provide the most effective presentation. Generally, a maximum of 8 figures will be accepted for clinical report and dental technique articles, and 2 figures will be accepted for tips from our reader articles. However, the Editor may approve the publication of additional figures if they contribute significantly to the manuscript.

Clinical figures should be color balanced. Color images should be in CMYK (Cyan/Magenta/Yellow/Black) color format as opposed to RGB (Red/Green/Blue) color format.


Graphs should be numbered as figures and the fill for bar graphs should be distinctive and solid; shading and patterns should be avoided. Thick, solid lines should be used and bold, solid lettering. Times New Roman font is preferred. Place lettering on white background and avoid reverse type (white lettering on a dark background). 1200-dpi images should be provided if black and white.

The Journal reserves the right to standardize the format of graphs and tables.

File Naming

Each figure must be numbered according to its position in the text (Figure 1, Figure 2, and so on), using Arabic numerals. The electronic image files must be named so that the figure number and format can be easily identified. For example, a Figure 1 in TIFF format should be named fig1.tif. Multipart figures must be clearly identifiable by the file names: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, Fig. 1C, etc.

In the article, clearly reference each illustration by including its number in parentheses at the end of the appropriate sentence before closing punctuation. For example: “The sutures were removed after 3 weeks (Fig. 4).”

Figure Legends

The figure legends should appear within the text of the manuscript on a separate page following References and Tables and should appear under the heading “LEGENDS.” Journal style requires that the articles (‘a’, ‘an’, and ‘the’) are omitted from the figure and table legends. If an illustration is taken from previously published material, the legend must give full credit to the source (see Permissions).

Authors are obligated to disclose whether illustrations have been modified in any way.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


  • Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text.
  • Provide all tables at the end of the manuscript after the reference list and before the Legends. There should be only one table per page. Omit internal horizontal and vertical rules (lines). Omit any shading or color.
  • Do not list tables in parts (Table Ia, Ib, etc.). Each should have its own number. Number the tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
  • Supply a concise legend that describes the content of the table. Create descriptive column and row headings. Within columns, align data such that decimal points may be traced in a straight line. Use decimal points (periods), not commas, to mark places past the integer (eg, 3.5 rather than 3,5).
  • In a line beneath the table, define any abbreviations used in the table.
  • If a table (or any data within it) was published previously, give full credit to the original source in a footnote to the table. If necessary, obtain permission to reprint from the author/publisher.
  • The tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word. If a table has been prepared in Excel, it should be imported into the manuscript.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not permitted in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Acceptable references and their placement

  • Most, if not all, references should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Material and Methods section. Only those references that have been previously cited or that relate directly to the outcomes of the present study may be cited in the Discussion.

  • Only peer-reviewed, published material may be cited as a reference. Manuscripts in preparation, manuscripts submitted for consideration, and unpublished theses are not acceptable references.

  • Abstracts are considered unpublished observations and are not allowed as references unless follow-up studies were completed and published in peer-reviewed journals.

  • References to foreign language publications should be kept to a minimum (no more than 3). They are permitted only when the original article has been translated into English. The translated title should be cited and the original language noted in brackets at the end of the citation.

  • Textbook references should be kept to a minimum, as textbooks often reflect the opinions of their authors and/or editors. The most recent editions of textbooks should be used. Evidence-based journal citations are preferred.

Reference formatting

  • References must be identified in the body of the article with superscript Arabic numerals. At the end of a sentence, the reference number falls after the period.

  • The complete reference list, double-spaced and in numerical order, should follow the Conclusions section but start on a separate page. Only references cited in the text should appear in the reference list.

  • Reference formatting should conform to Vancouver style as set forth in “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47).

  • References should be manually numbered.

  • List up to six authors. If there are seven or more, after the sixth author’s name, add et al.

  • Abbreviate journal names per the Cumulative Index Medicus. A complete list of standard abbreviations is available through the PubMed website:

  • Format for journal articles: Supply the last names and initials of all authors; the title of the article; the journal name; and the year, volume, and page numbers of publication. Do not use italics, bold, or underlining for any part of the reference. Put a period after the initials of the last author, after the article title, and at the end of the reference. Put a semicolon after the year of publication and a colon after the volume. Issue numbers are not used in Vancouver style.

    Ex: Jones ER, Smith IM, Doe JQ. Uses of acrylic resin. J Prosthet Dent 1985;53:120-9.

  • Book References: The most current edition must be cited. Supply the names and initials of all authors/editors, the title of the book, the city of publication, the publisher, the year of publication, and the inclusive page numbers consulted. Do not use italics, bold, or underlining for any part of the reference.

    Ex: Zarb GA, Carlsson GE, Bolender CL. Boucher’s prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients. 11th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1997. p. 112-23.

References should not be submitted in Endnote or other reference-generating software. Endnote formatting cannot be edited by the Editorial Office or reviewers, and must be suppressed or removed from the manuscript prior to submission. Nor should references be automatically numbered. Please number manually.

See sample manuscript (

Approved Abbreviations for Journals
Because the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry is published not only in print but also online, authors must use the standard PubMed abbreviations for journal titles. If alternate or no abbreviations are used, the references will not be linked in the online publication. A complete list of standard abbreviations is available through the PubMed website:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:

If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (


  • All quoted material must be clearly marked with quotation marks and a reference number. If more than 5 lines are quoted, a letter of permission must be obtained from the author and publisher of the quoted material.
  • All manuscripts are submitted to software to identify similarities between the submitted manuscript and previously published work.
  • If quotations are more than 1 paragraph in length, open quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and close quotation mark at the end of the final paragraph only. Type all quoted material exactly as it appears in the original source, with no changes in spelling or punctuation. Indicate material omitted from a quotation with ellipses (3 dots) for material omitted from within a sentence, 4 dots for material omitted after the end of a sentence).
  • If any submitted photographs include the eyes of a patient, the patient must sign a consent form authorizing use of his/her photo in the Journal. If such permission is not obtained, the eyes will be blocked with black bars at publication.
  • Illustrations that are reprinted or borrowed from other published articles/books cannot be used without the permission of the original author and publisher. The manuscript author must secure this permission and submit it for review. In the illustration legend, provide the full citation for the original source in parentheses.

Interest in Commercial Companies and/or Products

  • Authors may not directly or indirectly advertise equipment, instruments, or products in which they have a personal investment.
  • Statements and opinions expressed in the manuscripts are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. The editors and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the editors nor the publisher guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in the Journal; neither the editors nor the publisher guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of said product or service.
  • Authors must disclose any financial interest they may have in products mentioned in an article. This disclosure should be typed after the Conclusions section.

Writing Guidelines

General Policies and Suggestions

  • Authors whose native language is not English should obtain the assistance of an expert in English and scientific writing before submitting their manuscripts. Manuscripts that do not meet basic language standards will be returned before review.
  • The Journal does not use first person (I, we, us, our, etc.). “We conducted the study” can be changed easily to “The study was conducted.”
  • Avoid the use of subjective terms such as “extremely”, “innovative” etc.
  • The JPD uses the serial comma which is the comma that precedes the conjunction before the final item in a list of three or more items: The tooth was prepared with a diamond rotary instrument, carbide bur, and carbide finishing bur.
  • We prefer the nonpossessive form for eponyms: the Tukey HSD test rather than Tukey’s HSD test, Down syndrome rather than Down’s syndrome and so on.
  • Describe experimental procedures, treatments, and results in passive tense. All else should be written in an active voice.
  • Describe teeth by name (eg, maxillary right first molar), not number.
  • Hyphens are not used for common suffixes and prefixes, unless their use is critical to understanding the word. Some prefixes with which we do not use hyphens include: pre-, non-, anti-, multi-, auto-, inter-, intra-, peri-.
  • Eliminate the use of i.e. and e.g. as they are not consistent with Journal style.
  • Spell out seconds, minutes, hours, etc.
  • Only use abbreviations in the Tables.
  • Avoid the repeated use of Product names in the manuscript. Please initially identify all the products used in the experiment and subsequently refer to them by generic terms.
  • It is generally better to paraphrase information from a published source than to use direct quotations. Paraphrasing saves space. The exception is a direct quotation that is unusually pointed and concise.
  • When long terms with standard abbreviations (as in TMJ for temporomandibular joint) are used frequently, spell out the full term upon first use and provide the abbreviation in parentheses. Use only the abbreviation thereafter. Even very common acronyms should still be defined at first mention.
  • We do not italicize foreign words such as “in vivo”, “in vitro.”
  • Abbreviate units of measurement without a period in the text and tables (9 mm). Insert a nonbreaking space between all numbers and their units (100 mm, 25 MPa) except before % and °C. There should never be a hyphen between the number and the abbreviation or symbol except when in adjectival form (100-mm span).
  • Spell out “degrees” for angles. Use the degree symbol only for temperature.
  • Contractions such as don’t, it’s, wouldn’t, etc are not used in scientific writing.
  • Avoid using the words ""respectively"" or ""former/latter."" Both force the reader to stop and backtrack.
  • For the common statistical outcomes P, a, ß omit the zero before the decimal point as these cannot be greater than 1.
  • Proprietary names function as adjectives. Nouns must be supplied after their use, as in Vaseline petroleum jelly. Wherever possible, use only the generic term.
  • Do not use trademark symbols as they are not consistent with Journal style.

Some Elements of Effective Style

  • Short words. Short words are preferable to long ones if shorter word is equally precise.
  • Familiar words. Readers want information that they can grasp easily and quickly. Simple, familiar words provide clarity and impact.
  • Specific rather than general words. Specific terms pinpoint meaning and create word pictures; general terms may be fuzzy and open to varied interpretations.
  • Brisk opening. Plunge into your subject in the first paragraph of the article.
  • Limited use of modifying words and phrases. Check your adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. If they are not needed, strike them out.
  • No unnecessary repetition. An idea may be repeated for emphasis—so long as that repetition is effective.
  • Short sentence length. Twenty words or less is recommended. Rambling sentences cluttered with subordinate clauses and other modifiers are hard to read and may cause readers to lose their train of thought. Short sentences should, however, be balanced with somewhat longer ones to avoid monotony.
  • Paragraphs. Break up long sections into paragraphs but avoid the use of single sentence paragraphs.
  • Restraint. Writers who use flamboyant words or overstate their proposition or conclusions discredit themselves. Facts speak for themselves.
  • Clearly stated conclusions. Don’t hedge. If you don’t know something, say so.

Objectionable Terms
The following are selected objectionable terms and their proper substitutes. For a complete list of approved prosthodontic terminology, consult the eighth edition of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 2005;94:10-92).

Or visit JPD and click on Collections/Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms.

  • Alginate use Irreversible hydrocolloid
  • Bite use Occlusion
  • Bridge use Partial fixed dental prosthesis
  • Case use Patient, situation, or treatment as appropriate
  • Cure use Polymerize
  • Final use Definitive
  • Freeway space use Interocclusal distance
  • Full denture use Complete denture
  • Lower(teeth, arch) use Mandibular
  • Model use Cast
  • Modeling compound use Modeling plastic impression compound
  • Muscle trimming use Border molding
  • Overbite, overjet use Vertical overlap, horizontal overlap
  • Periphery use Border
  • Post dam, postpalatal seal use Posterior palatal seal
  • Prematurity use Interceptive occlusal contact
  • Saddle use Denture base
  • Study model use Diagnostic cast
  • Take impressions, photographs, radiographs use Make
  • Upper (teeth, arch) use Maxillary
  • X-ray, roentgenogram use Radiograph

In addition, specimen should be used rather than sample when referring to an example regarded as typical of its class.

Additional Terminology Guidelines

An adjective form that requires a noun, as in acrylic resin.

Affect, effect
Affect is a verb; effect is a noun.

African American
Spelled thus and preferred over Negro and black in both adjective (African American patients) and noun (… of whom 20% were African Americans) forms.

Average, mean, median
Mean and average are synonyms. Median refers to the midpoint in a range of items; the midpoint has many items above as below it.

Like fundamental, this word is often unnecessary. An example of unnecessary use: Dental implants consist of two basic types: subperiosteal and endosteal.

Between, among
Use between when 2 things are involved and among when there are more than 2.

This noun should NOT be used as a verb. A biopsy was performed on the Tissue, rather than: The tissue was biopsied.

An adjective that requires a noun, as in centric relation.

Currently, now, at present, etc.
These expressions are often unnecessary, as in: This technique is currently being used…

Use as a plural, as in: The data were…

Should not become an elegant variation of use, as in This method is employed …

Preferred over insure in the sense of to make certain.

Fewer, less
Use fewer with nouns that can be counted (fewer patients were seen) and less with nouns that cannot be counted (less material was used).

After is preferred.

Imply, infer
The speaker implies; the listener infers.

The rate at which a disease occurs in a given time; sometimes confused with prevalence (the total number of cases of a disease in a given region).

Means more than half; use most when you mean almost all. Male, female
For adult humans, use men and women. For children, use boys and girls.

Must, should
Must means that the course of action is essential. Should is less strong and means that the course of action is recommended.

Spell out numbers used in titles or headings and numbers at the beginning of a sentence. The spelled version may also be preferable in a series of consecutive numbers that may confuse the reader (eg, 2 3.5-inch disks should be written two 3.5-inch disks). In all other cases, use Arabic numerals.

Proper form; avoid orientate.

Use instead of pathological. Other words in which the suffix -al has been dropped include biologic, histologic, and physiologic.

The study of disease; often mistaken for pathosis (the condition of disease)

Use the percent sign in the text, as in The distribution of scores was as follows: adequate, 8%; oversized, 23%; and undersized, 69%. But spell out when the percent opens a sentence, as in Twenty percent of the castings …

Prior to
Before is preferred.

Rare, infrequent, often not, etc.
Whenever possible, these vague terms should be backed up with a specific number.

Like very, this word should be avoided.

A planned program for taking medication, dieting, exercising, etc. Not to be confused with regime, meaning a system of government or management.

Use “sex” rather than “gender” unless you are referring to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.

The science or study of symptoms; this word is not a synonym for the word symptoms.

Preferred over technic.

Avoid the dangling modifier in sentences such as “The impression was made using vinyl polysiloxane impression material.” Write “with” or “by using” instead.

Use is preferred.

An adjective that needs a noun, as in vertical relation.

Use through, with, or by means of.

Preferred over Caucasian. This is true only if the patient is from the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe. If not, use the term, white to describe the patient.

Sample Manuscript

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via