The Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy is the official peer reviewed journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy – India Section and is published quarterly (March, June, September and December) by Elsevier, a division of Reed Elsevier (India) Private Limited. The Journal publishes original basic/ research articles, short communication, and case reports. The Journal has also been given the status of Category 1 journal as per Dental Council of India. The Journal aims to elevate the professional ability of dental surgeons by making available to them dental literature, presenting the latest developments and opinions in dentistry, adding educational value to clinicians as well as postgraduate students.
The Journal of PFA is the scientic organ of Pierre Fauchard Academy, India Section Edited by Chief Editor – Prof. V.P. Jalili, Kala Niwas, 5 Mishra Vihar Colony, Near Gita Bhawan, Indore – 452001, M.P., India. This journal is edited and published under the direction of the Chief Editor and the Editorial Board who reserve the right to reject or modify any material without giving explanations.The Journal is placed under Category I by Dental Council of India.
Manuscripts submitted should not have been published ear- lier or be under simultaneous consideration for publication by any other Journal. Violation may lead to a retraction of the published article by the Journal and other actions as deemed necessary by the editor. All articles (including invited ones) will be peer-reviewed, and the accepted articles shall be edited and formatted according to the Journal’s style. Accepted manu- scripts become the permanent property of the Journal and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written per- mission of the editor.Studies involving intervention in human subjects or animals should have received the approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee. A statement to this effect and an informed consent obtained from participating human subjects must be included in the manuscript text. If the institution has no formal ethics committee, a statement by the authors confirming adherence to the terms of the Helsinki Agreement will be necessary. Contact details for submission
If assistance is required by the authors, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.
Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy
Prof. VP Jalili
Kala Niwas, 5 Mishra Vihar Colony,
Near Gita Bhawan, Indore – 452001,
Ethics in publishing
For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.
If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
Conflict of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/sharingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on http://www.consort-statement.org.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.
Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information (http://elsevier.com/greenopenaccess). Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submission of Manuscripts
Two hardcopies of the manuscript with figures, illustrations, photographs, along with one soft copy in a CD should be sent to the Chief Editor at the address mentioned for correspondence. In addition, the manuscript also needs to be submitted online in electronic format through Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy, India Section online and review Website (http://ees.elsevier. com/jpfa).
Please follow the following steps to submit your manuscript online:
1. Open the homepage of the Journal’s website http://ees. elsevier.com/jpfa.
2. Register yourself for free by clicking on ‘Register’ on the top and create a user profile with a desired username and mandatory details. On submission of the information, you will receive an E-mail confirming your registration along with the password.
3. Click ‘Log in’ on the main navigation menu at the top of the journal screen to open the login page.
4. Enter your username and password in the appropriate fields (e-mailed to you at the time of registration).
5. Click ‘Author Log in’, this takes you to the ‘Author Main Menu’.
By submitting a manuscript online, the author agrees to the following:
1. The work is original and free from plagiarism.
2. It has not been submitted for publication/is not under consideration for publication by another Journal.
3. All authors are aware of the order of authorship. The submitting author shall be solely responsible in case disputes arise.
4. Once published, copyright of manuscript shall stand transferred to the Journal.
5. ‘CONFLICT OF INTEREST’ if any, must be explicitly stated at the end of the manuscript
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/jpfa/. General
Type the manuscript (using ‘Times New Roman’ font size 10) with single space throughout. Please arrange the manuscript as follows: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Figures and Tables must be referred to in the manuscript. Consult a recent issue of the Journal for details. Only the Title page should bear the names and addresses of the author(s).
Authors Names: Authors are advised to include names of only those who have substantially contributed and have actually participated in the study and not to oblige or reciprocate. All submissions should include a declaration of contribution of each author in the study.Length of articles
Text of original articles should be between 2000 and 4000 words. Case Reports should have about 500 words. Case reports and other short submissions need not have an abstract or all the headings of a full article. These may have a short introduction, case description followed by discussion. Please keep the number of illustration and references to minimum. Only 5 references are permitted. Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
In animal studies, the title should state the species; all other titles will refer to human studies. State names of authors (including first names), the departments, and the institution where the work was done. The Journal reserves the right to ask for the contribution of each author to an article. A short, running title, not exceeding 40 characters, should be provided. Please provide the name, postal address with PIN code, facsimile number and E-mail address of the author to whom communications and proofs are to be sent.Abstract
The abstract should summarize the most important points in the study. Original articles should include a structured abstract of about 250 words under the following headings: Background/Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions [see Ann Intern Med 1990;113:69– 76]. References should not be included. Less than 10 keywords, not present in the title, to assist indexing, should be typed in alphabetical order below the Abstract; these may be obtained from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database of ‘Pubmed’.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Units: All measurements must be in metric units, preferably with corresponding SI units in parentheses
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Illustrations should be clear enough and of appropriate size (5 inch x 7 inch or larger) for better reproduction. If illustrations are scanned, then they should be scanned at minimum of 300 dpi. Color images must be CMYK. Line art drawing must have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi. Photographs and X-rays should be sent as black and white glossy prints. Photographs may be submitted as ‘jpeg’, or ‘tiff’ files in a zipped folder. In clinical photographs, identity of the subjects should be suitably masked, in case this is not possible, a written permission from the concerned person should accompany the manuscript. Permission to reproduce any borrowed illustration must be obtained from the author and the publisher.
The Figure number (numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals), title and explanations of the Figures should appear in the legend (not on the Figure). Type the legends on a separate page. Enough information should be included in the legend to interpret the Figure without reference to the text.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Though there are no processing charges for article, as per the journal’s policy, in order to maintain quality printing the color photographs present in a manuscript shall be charged at the rate of Rs.5000/- per color page printing.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.
Each table should be typed on a separate page and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Necessary explanatory notes and expanded abbreviations, if any, may be given below the Table.
Number the references in the order in which they first appear in the text and identify the reference numbers in the text in superscript. References may be placed at the end of the manuscript. Publications as abstract should be so identified in parentheses. The responsibility for accuracy of references lies with the respective authors. The Journal is in agreement with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). The general arrangement, abbreviations of Journal names and punctuations followed are as per the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals (www.icmje.org). Please pay attention to the style of references and punctuations as follows:
Journal articleList all authors when six or less as shown in the example below:
Jalili VP, Sidhu SS., Kharbanda OP. Status of Malocclusion in Tribel Children of Mandu (Central India) J Ind Ortho Soc 1993:24:41-46When there are seven or more authors, list only the first three and add et al.
Book or monograph
Orossamn LI. Endodontic Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1981;176-9.
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
• For reproduction in black-and-white, please supply black-and-white versions of the figures for printing purposes.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com. Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.
Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints/myarticlesservices/booklets).
You can track your submitted article at http://www.elsevier.com/track-submission. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.