Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Contributors
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Chemical compounds
• Acknowledgements
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• AudioSlides
• Supplementary material
• Database linking
• Submission checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods publishes articles on methods used in pharmacology, safety pharmacology and toxicology. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods is the leading international journal devoted exclusively to the elaboration and validation of experimental methods.

Please visit our Pharmacology Author Resources page for guidance on manuscript preparation.

Types of paper
The Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods publishes papers in a range of categories:

  1. "Original articles": description and characterization of a new or modified disease model, method, technique, apparatus or approach to analysis of data. This may include interspecies comparisons that contrast drug actions from a model relevance perspective;
  2. "Brief communications" detailing simple modifications of an existing model, method, technique, apparatus or approach to analysis of data;
  3. "How To" articles that provide step-by-step guidance on the execution of a specific technique;
  4. "Appraisal of state-of-the-art" or "Historical review" of particular models, methods, techniques or apparatus;
  5. "Methods in drug discovery" - perhaps the most important category. Here, by showing how a method was used to select a drug that was eventually found to be clinically effective, the author establishes validation of the method.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/sharingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

Contributors

Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article by signing the submission cover letter: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

Open access
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access).
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3250, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information (http://elsevier.com/greenopenaccess). Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Additional information
Manuscripts will be evaluated by a member of the board of editors of the Journal, and a panel of international reviewers. An editorial decision will normally be made within 4 weeks of receipt of the manuscript, and publication will normally take place within 3 months of final acceptance.



Note that papers focused on the actions of drugs are beyond the scope of the journal.

Specific instructions for "regular articles":

Introduction

This must outline the reason for the study and justify the approach taken.

Methods

This section should be sufficiently detailed to permit the reader to replicate the study. It should be a full recipe, with step by step instructions. We prefer the bulk of the descriptions in prose, but tables summarising sequences of procedures are a good accompaniment to the text. Subcomponents of the method that have been described in detail in the literature should be described in full, but appropriate citation of the original source method is mandatory.

Results

This section should be concise and must not contain repetition of the methods. Data in the text must not replicate data in tables or figures. SI units must be used.

Discussion

The potential value of the data to pharmacological or toxicological or safety pharmacology research methods must be clearly explained, with appropriate reference to existing methods and their limitations. This section must not contain paragraphs dealing with topics that are beyond the scope of the study. Use subheadings for clarity.

Specific instructions for "How To" articles:

" How To" articles provide step-by-step guidance on the execution of specific techniques.

Introduction

For "How To" articles, this section will be very brief, and will simply identify the therapeutic area, the goal of the method, and give mention to published alternatives descriptions if available. It is unlikely that many papers will be cited in this section.

Methods

This section should be sufficiently detailed to permit the reader to replicate the study. It should be a full recipe, with step by step instructions. We prefer the bulk of the descriptions in prose, but tables summarising sequences of procedures are a good accompaniment to the text. Subcomponents of the method that have been described in detail in the literature should be described in full, but appropriate citation of the original source method is mandatory.

Methods
This section should be sufficiently detailed to permit the reader to replicate the study. It should be a full recipe, with step by step instructions. We prefer the bulk of the descriptions in prose, but tables summarising sequences of procedures are a good accompaniment to the text. Subcomponents of the method that have been described in detail in the literature should be described in full, but appropriate citation of the original source method is mandatory.

Results

This section should be concise and must not contain repetition of the methods. Data in the text must not replicate data in tables or figures. SI units must be used.

Discussion

The potential value of the data to pharmacological or toxicological research methods must be clearly explained, with appropriate reference to existing methods and their limitations. This section must not contain paragraphs dealing with topics that are beyond the scope of the study.

Specific instructions for "How To" articles:

" How To" articles that provide step-by-step guidance on the execution of specific techniques.

Introduction

For "How To" articles, this section will be very brief, and will simply identify the therapeutic area, the goal of the method, and give mention to published (less detailed, presumably) descriptions if available. It is unlikely that many papers will be cited in this section.

Methods

This section should be sufficiently detailed to permit the reader to replicate the study. It should be a full recipe, with step by step instructions. I prefer the bulk of the descriptions in prose, but tables summarising sequences of procedures are a good accompaniment to the text. Subcomponents of the method that have been described in detail in the literature should be described in full, but appropriate citation of the original source method is mandatory.

Results

This section should be concise and must not contain repetition of the methods. Data in the text must not replicate data in tables or figures. SI units must be used. For "How To" articles, some representative data showing that the method works is essential. It would be especially useful, too, if data are contrasted with data using other methods (if no author-derived comparative data is available, please reproduce data from the literature in a table, citing the source). It is essential for the reader to know that the method works, and works well.

Discussion

The potential value of the data to research methods must be clearly explained, with appropriate reference to existing methods and their limitations. This section must not contain paragraphs dealing with topics that are beyond the scope of the study.

Specific instructions for "Appraisal of State of the Art"-articles:

Appraisal articles are reviews about the current best models. The article should identify and describe the current best model, and discuss the evidence (or lack of) to support this. A good model should demonstrably detect drugs that work (or cause adverse effects) in humans, and demonstrably have few false positives or negatives. This evidence should be presented. The review should contrast the current best model with other available but inferior models, thereby illustrating why one is the state-of-the-art model.

Text to be divided into sections according to author choice.

Specific instructions for "Historical review" articles:

Historical reviews can be more personal and less formal. Senior figures in a field may have decades of experience with models, methods, techniques of apparatus. It is of immense value and interest to the research community to learn the history of the development of a model, understand why one model was abandoned and another developed, and get insight into the thinking behind a model, and the impact of good and bad models in drug development in a particular field. In addition, in many fields many models are still used that are transparently inadequate - it would be of great value to obtain a candid expose from an experienced practitioner as to why this might be, including insight into personal perspective as it changed over the years.

Text to be divided into sections according to author choice

Specific instructions for "Methods in drug discovery" articles:

These articles are specifically intended to showcase, for the wider audience, exactly how methods were applied by a pharmaceutical company in the preclinical development of one of their own drugs. While it is appreciated that companies may wish to keep certain information confidential, it would be of great interest to the reader to be able to understand the logic (or lack of) behind the choice of each preclinical test used in the drug's development. Demonstration that use of a series of models, methods, techniques and apparatus gave rise to a drug that works in man is the closest we can get to a methods validation - a much neglected area. The reader would also benefit by having revealed the logic behind the decision-making that allowed the successful drug to proceed in development, while analogues and other compounds were dropped. Consideration of whether this decision was making based on proof, or on the exercise of judgment, or a mixture of both will be of value to the author as well as the reader as it will identify weak areas in the process for future improvements in pharmacological and toxicological methods.

Text to be divided into the following sections


  • Brief overview of evidence that drug X is now established as being clinically effective
  • Original hypothesis that triggered the search for a drug if type X
  • Preclinical models used in defining drug X's properties (subsections in sequence, explaining logic behind choice)
  • Outcome of tests (subsections in sequence, explaining logic behind successive decision making)
  • Conclusions

Specific instructions for all articles:

Essential title page information for all articles

  • Title. Please be concise and informative. Titles are used in information-retrieval systems so avoid abbreviations.
  • Author names and affiliations. Please type the family name last (e.g., Michael J Curtis) . Type the authors' affiliation addresses below the names. Use letters in lower-case superscript immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address if there are multiple addresses. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and , the e-mail address of each author.
  • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate the corresponding author and ensure their telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided.
  • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a " Present address" (or " Permanent address" ) may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Abstract
This must not exceed 250 words and should be subdivided into four subsections headed: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion.

Keywords
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 10 keywords (one of which should be "methods") in alphabetical order, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, " and" , " of" ). These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Abbreviations
Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

Chemical compounds

You can enrich your article by providing a list of chemical compounds studied in the article. The list of compounds will be used to extract relevant information from the NCBI PubChem Compound database and display it next to the online version of the article on ScienceDirect. You can include up to 10 names of chemical compounds in the article. For each compound, please provide the PubChem CID of the most relevant record as in the following example: Glutamic acid (PubChem CID:611). The PubChem CIDs can be found via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound. Please position the list of compounds immediately below the 'Keywords' section. It is strongly recommended to follow the exact text formatting as in the example below:
Chemical compounds studied in this article
Ethylene glycol (PubChem CID: 174); Plitidepsin (PubChem CID: 44152164); Benzalkonium chloride (PubChem CID: 15865)
More information is available at: http://www.elsevier.com/PubChem.

Acknowledgements

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork, and select a font as large as possible
• Use a ‘sans serif’ fonts in your illustrations such as: Arial, Helvetica, Tahoma or Calibri and use only one font throughout the figures
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files
• Do not put legends in the figures
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version
• Submit each illustration as a separate file

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley (http://www.mendeley.com/features/reference-manager) and also others like EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/journal-of-pharmacological-and-toxicological-methods
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit http://citationstyles.org.

Reference style
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from http://books.apa.org/books.cfm?id=4200067 or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK.
List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4).
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281–304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

Database linking

Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
• For reproduction in black-and-white, please supply black-and-white versions of the figures for printing purposes.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



You can track your submitted article at http://www.elsevier.com/track-submission. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.