Guide for Authors

  • The Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation (JOTR) aims to publish high-quality scientific papers that contribute to orthopaedics, trauma, orthopaedic rehabilitation and related knowledge from all countries. Review articles, original articles, case reports and letters to the editor are accepted. The journal is published twice a year by Elsevier.

    The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.

    These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit www.e-jotr.com for the latest version of these instructions. Authors are requested to ensure that submissions adhere exactly to the stated instructions and format. Recent issues of the Journal should be consulted for specific examples. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

    1. Manuscript Submission

    1.1. Online Submission
    Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to the JOTR through the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at http://ees.elsevier.com/jotr. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

    Editorial Office
    Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation (JOTR)
    c/o The Hong Kong College of Orthopaedic Surgeons
    Room 905, 9th Floor
    Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Jockey Club Building
    99 Wong Chuk Hang Road, Aberdeen
    Hong Kong SAR, China
    Tel: (+852) 2871-8722
    Fax: (+852) 2873-4077
    E-mail: jotr@ejotr.org or hkcos@hkcos.org.hk
    Official websites: www.e-jotr.com and www.ejotr.org

    1.2. Important Information

    • Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal’s style.
    • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers.
    • Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.
    • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”. Please see section 9.8. for more information.

    1.3. Supporting Documents
    The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1) and (2) are mandatory. Items (3), (4) and (5) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.

    1. Cover Letter. This must include the following information:
      • title of the manuscript
      • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
      • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
      • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
      • list of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to the JOTR (and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that JOTR Editors can be assured there is no overlap)
      • the signature of the corresponding author
      • Optional: if you have a list of reviewers who you wish to review or not to review your manuscript, you may include this list in the cover letter
    2. Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, Copyright Transfer and Ethics Statement.
      •Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be confirmed.
      •Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should be listed (see Section 2 for more information).
      •In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the JOTR, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Hong Kong Orthopaedic Association and the Hong Kong College of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
      •Authors are required to certify that subjects'/patients' rights and confidentiality have been well protected in all aspects and they consented to the study described in the manuscript, and that all relevant ethical safeguards have been met in relation to subject/patient protection or animal experimentation.

      Please use the JOTR Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, Copyright Transfer and Ethics Statement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at www.e-jotr.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.

    3. Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.
    4. Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees in the manuscript must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 4 for more information. You may use the JOTR Consent Form for Publication of Photographs/Information of Identifiable Patients that is provided on the Journal's website at www.e-jotr.com if you do not have your own.
    5. Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

    2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

    A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. JOTR Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest (more information is available at www.icmje.org/ethical_4conflicts.html).

    Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

    Please ensure that all authors with any conflicts of interest are listed and the details of the conflict(s) described in the space provided on Page 1 of the JOTR Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, Copyright Transfer and Ethics Statement form.

    3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

    For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).

    For investigations in humans, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adults and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).

    For work involving animals, proper guidelines for their care and use should be observed. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm) should be followed.

    4. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

    A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. You may use the JOTR Consent Form for Publication of Photographs/Information of Identifiable Patients that is provided on the Journal's website at www.e-jotr.com if you do not have your own. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable.

    5. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

    Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

    6. Basic Criteria

    Articles should be written in English, using British English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

    7. Article Categories

    7.1. Review Articles
    These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical issue in research or clinical practice. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.

    The maximum length is 4000 words, and the number of references should not exceed 50. The format for review articles will be jointly decided by the Editors and the contributing author(s).

    7.2. Original Articles
    These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

    The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

    The Keywords should include not more than 5 important words that would facilitate Internet searching for the article.

    The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

    The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main outcome measures, and the main results.

    The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

    The maximum length is 3500 words, and the number of references should not exceed 30.

    7.3. Case Reports
    These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

    The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

    The Case Report should include statements of the problem, patient history, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and any other information pertinent to the case(s).

    The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

    The maximum length is 2000 words, and the number of references should not exceed 10.

    7.4. Letters to the Editor
    Brief letters of constructive comments in response to previously published JOTR articles are welcome. These may also include interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, and other communications of general interest. Letters should have a title, be no longer than 500 words, may include 1 table or figure and up to 10 references. Ensure that the corresponding author's mailing and e-mail addresses are included. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of JOTR Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, and space.

    8. Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts should be prepared in Microsoft word (doc or docx) format. Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (297 × 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, references, conflicts of interest statement (if any), acknowledgments (if any), and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively on the lower right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.

    8.1. Title Page
    The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

    • article category
    • article title
    • names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation
    • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, complete mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
    • running title not exceeding 50 characters

    * The name of each author should be written with the family name first, e.g., Cheung Yuen-Lam. There should normally not be more than 6 authors per paper. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

    8.2. Abstract and Keywords
    An abstract of no longer than 150 words and up to 5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles and Case Reports.

    Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured into the following sections.

    Background/Purpose : briefly explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.

    Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.

    Results: briefly present the significant results, with data and statistical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that information in the abstract matches that in the main text.

    Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.

    Abstracts for Review Articles and Case Reports should be unstructured (in one single paragraph with no section headings), and include information on the background/purpose of the report, methods, results (or case report), and conclusions.

    A Chinese version of the article title and abstract should also be included. Translation service (from English to Chinese) will be provided only to non-Chinese authors.

    Keywords should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html).

    No abstract or keywords are required for Letters to the Editor.

    8.3. Main Text
    The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. Subheadings in long papers are acceptable if needed for clarification and ease of reading. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, and References. Each section should begin on a new page.

    8.3.1. Abbreviations
    No author information such as names, affiliations and contact information should appear in the main text. The text for Original Articles and Brief Communications should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Subheadings in long papers are acceptable if needed for clarification and ease of reading. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Each section should begin on a new page.

    8.3.2. Numbers
    Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

    8.3.3. Units
    Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

    8.3.4. Names of drugs, devices and other products
    Use the Recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

    When proprietary (brand) names of drugs, implants and instruments, etc. are necessary, complete manufacturing details including the name of the company, city, state and country should be provided the first time the product is mentioned in the text, for example, "¡KSPSS version 11 was used (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

    8.3.5. Gene nomenclature
    Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at http://www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

    8.3.6. Statistical requirements
    Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

    All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

    8.3.7. Personal communications and unpublished data
    These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

    8.4. Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement
    Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the JOTR requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (see Section 2 for more information) in a concise paragraph after the main text.

    All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

    8.5. Acknowledgments
    After the Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement, general acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.

    8.6. References
    Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

    8.6.1. In the main text, tables, figure legends

    • References should be identified using superscripted numbers, numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
    • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
    • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
    • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references. Also see Section 9.3.7.

    8.6.2. In the references list

    • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order.
    • References should include, in order, authors’ surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
    • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 3 should be included, but when authors number 4 or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by “et al”.
    • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
    • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
    • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

    Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

    Standard journal articles
    Van Houwelingen AP, Garbuz DS, Masri BA, et al. Methicillin-resistant infection after hip and knee replacement: reason to change practice? J Orthop Trauma Rehabil 2012;16:9-12.

    Tong CK, Ho YF. Use of minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus. J Orthop Trauma Rehabil 2012;16:16-21.

    Journal supplement
    Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78–80.

    Journal article not in English but with English abstract
    Hofele C, Schwager-Schmitt M, Volkmann M. Prognostic value of antibodies against p53 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-five years survival rate. Laryngorhinootologie 2002;81:342-5. [In German, English abstract]

    Book with edition
    Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72–95.

    Book with editors
    Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

    Book chapter in book with editor and edition
    Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615–72.

    Book series with editors
    Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-1978.

    Bulletin
    World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

    Electronic publications
    Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available at http://archpedi.amaassn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

    Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858. CD1001054.

    Item presented at a meeting but not yet published
    Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL, abstract 359.

    Item presented at a meeting and published
    Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004, abstract 337.

    Theses
    Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, 1971.

    Website
    Glueckauf RL, Whitton J, Baxter J. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy-project update. Telehealth News 1998. Available at http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr_4a.html#1. Accessed November 15, 2008.

    Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
    Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2–3.

    8.7. Tables
    Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text.
    Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using these superscripted symbols (in order of appearance in the table): *,†, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, #, **, ††, ‡‡. The footnotes themselves should be arranged under the table in the same order. (Note that if you have more than 10 footnotes, then use superscripted lowercase letters in alphabetical order, with the footnotes themselves arranged under the table in alphabetical order.) Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance.
    Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order.
    If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

    8.8. Figures

    8.8.1. General guidelines
    The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section 8.7.

    Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

    Figures must be submitted as separate picture files at the correct resolution (see Section 8.8.2 below). The files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”.

    8.8.2. Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

    • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”.
    • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones) — always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings — use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) — a minimum of 600 dpi.
    • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.

    9. The Editorial and Peer Review Process

    As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 1 week of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

    Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts. The submission will not be accepted if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.

    Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editors for an initial review to determine which articles will be considered for publication based on their scientific merit, readability, interest and suitability for the Journal. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Note that the rejection rate for case reports is higher than for other article categories due to the current situation of a large number of case reports being submitted.

    Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two expert consultants assigned by the Editors. The JOTR follows a double-blind peer review process. Authors may submit a list in their cover letter of reviewers who they wish to review or not to review their manuscript. However, the actual peer reviewers invited will remain anonymous and may or may not be the reviewers suggested by the authors as the selection of reviewers is at the sole discretion of JOTR Editors. The editors and reviewers will not disclose any information about a manuscript or its review to anyone except the manuscript's corresponding author. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to make the final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of manuscripts.

    The corresponding author will usually be notified within 4 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 30 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

    10. Preparation for Publication

    Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES. It is a basic requirement that the manuscript be prepared using good English. The Editorial Office reserves the right to edit poor English as suggested by the reviewer(s) and/or Editorial Board before the final version is decided. The editing fee will be charged to the authors.

    Accepted manuscripts are then presented to the Publisher to be copyedited according to the Journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor. Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

    11. Publication Charges and Reprints

    The Journal will bear the cost of publication for all articles. Colour figures, tables and illustrations will be accepted for electronic publication on the Journal's websites only; they may be converted into greyscale for publication in the print journal. If authors deem it essential that their figures appear in colour in the print journal also, please inform the Editorial Office of this requirement at the time of manuscript submission; note that the cost of colour printing will be charged to the authors at a cost of US$200 per page.

    For manuscripts that require English translation services or extensive English editing, authors will be charged at US$30/page; note that the processing of your manuscript will be prolonged.

    Authors will receive an electronic version (PDF file) of their article free of charge. No paper offprints will be provided. Professional reprints (which include a cover page) of your article may be ordered at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order and credit card payment form can be downloaded from the Journal's website at www.e-jotr.com.

    12. Copyright

    The JOTR is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Hong Kong Orthopaedic Association and the Hong Kong College of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Manuscripts published in the JOTR become the permanent property of the Hong Kong Orthopaedic Association and the Hong Kong College of Orthopaedic Surgeons. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JOTR article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Hong Kong Orthopaedic Association and the Hong Kong College of Orthopaedic Surgeons.• Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, Copyright Transfer and Ethics Statement

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