Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Aims and Scope
• Categories of Articles
• Basic Criteria
• Ethics in Publishing
• Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
• Changes to Authorship
• Copyright
• Article structure
• Abstracts and Key Words
• Acknowledgments
• Figures
• Tables
• References
• Preparation for Publication

Aims and Scope

The Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection JMII aims to publish high quality scientific research in the field of microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases, and parasitology, with the goal of promoting and disseminating medical science knowledge to improve global health.

Articles on clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases, parasitology and other related fields that are of interest to the medical profession are eligible for consideration.Review articles, original articles, case reports, short communications, and letters to the editor are accepted. The journal is published every 2 months, with a total of 6 issues a year.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at

Manuscript Submission

Online submission
Authors may submit manuscripts to the Editorial Office at:
If assistance is needed, the Editorial Office can be contacted for any help necessary.

Editorial Office
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital
No. 7, Zhongshan S. Road, Zhongzheng District
Taipei City 100, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
Tel: 886-2-23123456 ext 65396
Fax: 886-2-23955072

Important Information

  • The corresponding author will be notified by the editorial office when the manuscript is accepted and sent to the Publisher. The corresponding author will receive a PDF proof by e-mail from the Publisher within the next 2 months. JMII reserves the right to rescind our provisional decision of acceptance if no response is received from the author by the dategiven by the Publisher.
  • Articles submitted should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal's style.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, endnotes, headers and footers.
  • Put text, references, and table/figure legends in one file.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution of a minimum of 600 dpi. The files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".

Please ensure that the following documents are included (refer also to the checklist that follows these author instructions):
(1) A cover letter. It must include your name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address (both of the first author and corresponding author), and state that the manuscript has never been submitted, in whole or in part, to other journals. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
(2) An authorship and conflicts of interest statement. Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see relevant section below for more information). Please use the JMII Authorship and Conflicts of Interest Statement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at The corresponding author must sign on behalf of all the listed authors in the manuscript.
(3) A copyright transfer agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the JMII, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Please use the JMII Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at corresponding author must sign on behalf of all the listed authors in the manuscript.
(4) An ethics statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities (see relevant section below).
(5) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).
(6) Copyright permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

Categories of Articles

1. Perspectives
These are comments on recent news or groundbreaking work and should provide a short review of the current state of research and explain the importance of the new findings. Perspectives on papers previously published in the JMII should add a different viewpoint to the research and should not merely be a repetitive summary of the original paper. Although many of the Perspectives published in the Journal are normally invited, unsolicited Perspectives are welcome and will be given due consideration. As these are meant to express a personal commentary, with rare exceptions, Perspectives should have no more than 3 authors.

Format guide:

• Word limit: 1000 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• References: 10 or less.
• Tables/Figures: 1 table or figure.

2. Review Articles
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field, and should be systematic and critical assessments of literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. We welcome viewpoints that present the opinions of the authors rather than new experimental data or literature reviews.

Format guide:

• Word limit: 3500 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• References: 50 or less.
• Abstract: Up to 250 words, unstructured.
• Tables/Figures: Data in the text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures.

3. Original Articles
These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.
Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any) and References.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.
The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, patient samples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratory methods followed), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeatdata that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, and the main results.
The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implicationsof the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Format guide:

• Word limit: 3000 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• References: 40 or less.
• Abstract: Up to 250 words, structured.
• Tables/Figures: Data in the text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures.

4. Brief Reports
Brief reports should present unusual aspects of common problems or novel perspectives upon, or solutions to, clinically relevant issues.

Format guide:

• Word limit: 1500 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• References: 10 or less.
• Abstract: Up to 50 words, unstructured format
• Tables/Figures: 1 table and figure.

5. Correspondence
Correspondences include short case reports, letter to Editor, and comments that respond to a recently published article in JMII or address an issue of interest to JMII readers. Replies will be published in the same issue as the letter, and are invited at the discretion of the Editor.

Format guide:

• Word limit: 500 words.
• Tables/Figures: 1 figure or table.
• References: 5 or less.
• No subheadings.
• Begin with 'Dear Editor'.

Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

Ethics in Publishing

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at:

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).

Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons(parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the persons themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. JMII Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Please ensure that any conflicts of interest and sources of funding are fully declared on page 2 of the JMII Authorship and Conflicts of Interest Statement form.

Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.


The JMII is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Manuscripts published in the JMII become the permanent property of the Taiwan Society of Microbiology. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JMII article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Taiwan Society of Microbiology.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Manuscript Preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (297 × 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, conflicts of interest statement (if any), acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

Title Page

The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

  • category of paper
  • article title
  • names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated
  • running title not exceeding 50 characters
  • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
*The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g. Jing-Long Huang. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

Article structure

Main Text

The text for Original Articles should be organized in sections as follows: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.


Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century . Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.


Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of Drugs, Devices and Other Products

Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, KIBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

Gene nomenclature

Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

Statistical Requirements

Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail. All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

Personal communications and unpublished data

These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

Abstracts and Key Words

Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background/Purpose(s), Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. For all article categories, 3-5 relevant key words should also be provided in alphabetical order.


After the Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement, general acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.

All financial and material support for the research and work from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest are explicitly declared.


The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. They should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that described for tables.
Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details (such as their name and date of birth) of the patient must be removed. If their face is shown, use a black bar to cover their eyes so that they cannot be identified (for further information, see
All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture files (ex. TIF, JPG, etc.) at the correct resolution of a minimum of 600 dpi. The files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif ", "Fig2.jpg".


Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Information requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged alphabetically by the superscripts. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

In the main text, tables, figure legends

  • References should be identified using superscripted numbers, and numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text and placed after punctuation.
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
In the references list
  • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order.
  • References should include, in order, author names, article title, journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al".
  • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2000;163:51-59.

Reference to a book:
2. Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan; 1979.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book
3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age. New York: E- Publishing Inc; 1999, p. 281-304.

Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement

Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the JMII requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest in a concise paragraph after the main text.
All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts. The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. Authors will usually be notified within 10 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, the authors should submit the final version of their manuscript through Elsevier's online submission system-EES.

Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to the journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are e-mailed by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Please note that the proof corrections are to be returned within 3 days of receipt of the proof. A reminder letter will be sent on the 4th day. If the proof corrections are not returned by the 5th day, then the article will be processed further without any notification.

Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order and credit card payment form is available here.