Guide for Authors

The Journal of Medical Ultrasound (JMU) is the official peer reviewedpublication of the Asian Federation of Societies forUltrasound in Medicine and Biology, and the Chinese TaipeiSociety of Ultrasound in Medicine. It is published quarterly byElsevier.

The Journal aims to promote clinical and scientificresearch in ultrasonography, and to serve as a channel ofcommunication among sonologists, sonographers, and medicalultrasound physicians in the Asia-Pacific region and widerinternational community. Original contributions relating tothe clinical and laboratory investigations and applications ofultrasonography are welcome.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliancewith the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submittedto Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by theInternational Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE);current URMs are available at

These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically bythe Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issueof the Journal or visit for thelatest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not preparedaccording to these instructions will be returned immediatelyto the author(s) without review.

Manuscript Submission
Please use only one of the two following submission methodsbelow. Do NOT submit your manuscript using both methods

Submission by E-mail
Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text,tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures,and any other required documents/material as detailed inSection Supporting documents ) can be submitted by e-mail to the Editorial Officeat

Submission by Post
Three copies of the original manuscript, one copy of each of theapplicable supporting documents detailed in Section Supporting documents., twoChecklists (available at the end of these author instructions),and a disk (containing the electronic copies of the manuscriptand supporting documents) can be posted to the EditorialOffice, addressed to
Journal of Medical Ultrasound
The Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
8F.-1, No.207, Sec. 2, Chongqing N. Rd.,
Datong Dist., Taipei City 103, Taiwan
Tel: +886-2-2553-1757 ext.11 | Fax: +886-2-2553-1759

1.3. Important Information

  • Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format andprepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correctfont, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use otherkinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers andfooters. References especially should NOT be formatted usingthe MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes" function; instead, youmay use the commercially available EndNote® or ReferenceManager® software to manage your references.
  • Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legendsin one file.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correctresolution and named according to the figure number and format,e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg". Please see section 9.8. for more information.

1.4. Supporting Documents
The following documents must be included in your submission (refer alsoto the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2) and(3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they areapplicable to your manuscript.

(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:

  • title of the manuscript
  • Names (spelled out in full) of all the authors*, and theinstitutions with which they are affiliated; indicate allaffiliations with a superscripted number after theauthor's name and in front of the matching affiliation(*the name of each author should be written with thefamily name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang).
  • corresponding author's details (name, e-mail, mailing address,telephone and fax numbers)
  • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript hasnot been previously published and is not being concurrentlysubmitted elsewhere
  • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed asauthors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript(such as those who provided writing assistance, for example)should be disclosed
  • list of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, orare in press that are similar to the submission to the JMU(and include in your submission copies of those similarmanuscripts so that JMU Editors can be assured there is nooverlap)
  • the signature of the corresponding author
(2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author'scontribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and allpotential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (seeSection 2 for more information). Please use the JMU Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that follows these authorinstructions and that is also provided on the Journal's websiteat Your signature and those of ALL yourcoauthors must be included.
(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that yourmanuscript is accepted for publication in the JMU, you are requiredto transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasoundin Medicine. Please use the JMU Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's websiteat Your signature and those of ALL yourcoauthors must be included.
(4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animalsamples in research, or human or animal experiments must beaccompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant reviewcommittee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.
(5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flowchart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication.See Section 4 for more information.
(6) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where humansubjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigreesmust be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consentto publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs andpedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5for more information.
(7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adaptedmaterial from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permissionfrom the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrightedsources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must beremoved from your manuscript.

2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity ispotentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence,professional advancement or a successful outcome. JMU Editorsstrive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced,objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult todistinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceivedconflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all andany potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financialconflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria;educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership,employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equityinterest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Nonfinancial conflicts include personal or professional relationships,affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledgeor beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Please ensure that the name of each author listed in yourmanuscript appears in either Section I or Section II on page 2 ofthe JMU Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an author'sname cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).

3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriateinstitutional review board or ethics committee approval is required,and such approval should be stated in the methods section of themanuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethicsreview committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration ofHelsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declarationof Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving humansubjects. Available at:

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in themethods section of the manuscript that informed consent wasobtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents orlegal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together withthe manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral orwritten).

For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care anduse that were followed should be stated in the methods sectionof the manuscript. For those investigators who do not haveformal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments,the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments(available at should be followed and the sameshould be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

4. Reporting Clinical TrialsAl l randomized controlled trials submitted for publication shouldinclude a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials(CONSORT) flow chart (please go to formore information). The JMU has adopted the ICMJE proposal thatrequires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinicaltrials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at orbefore the onset of patient enrollment. The clinical trial registrationnumber should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any researchstudy that prospectively assigns human participants or groups ofhumans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluatethe effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventionsinclude any intervention used to modify a biomedical or healthrelatedoutcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices,behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-carechanges). Health outcomes include any biomedical or healthrelated measures obtained in patients or participants, includingpharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment ofthe medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator)will not require registration. Further information can be found

5. Identification of Patients in Descriptions,Photographs and Pedigrees
A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print andonline) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should beobtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors)who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) insuch written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such personsshould be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omittingdata or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable,but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly inthe methods section of the manuscript that informed consent wasobtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents orlegal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together withthe manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral orwritten).

6. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission
Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding thatthey have not been published previously in print or electronic format(except in abstract or poster form) and are not under considerationin totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

7. Basic Criteria
Articles should be written in English, using British English spelling,and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, theinformation is important, the writing is clear and concise, the studymethods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions arereasonable and supported by the data.

8. Article Categories
The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listedand described below. Please select the category that best describesyour paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories,please contact the Editorial Office.

8.1. Review Articles
These should aim to provide the reader with a balancedoverview of an important and topical subject related toultrasonography. They should cover aspects of a topic inwhich scientific consensus exists as well as aspects thatremain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientificresearch. All articles and data sources reviewedshould include information about the specific type ofstudy or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, andtests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should beselected systematically for inclusion in the review andcritically evaluated.

8.2. Original Articles
These articles typically include randomized trials, interventionstudies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, cohort studies,cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveyswith high response rates, which represent new andsignificant contributions to ultrasonography.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Materials(or Patients) and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts ofInterest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), andReferences.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to thesubject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, andstate a precise study question or purpose.

The Materials (or Patients) and Methods section shoulddescribe the study design and methods (including the study settingand dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusioncriteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, theessential features of any interventions, the main outcomemeasures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sourcesand how these were selected for the study), and state the statisticalprocedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presentedin a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/orfigures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that arepresented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarizethe essential features of the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the newand important aspects of the study, placing the results in contextwith published literature, the implications of the findings,and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

8.3. Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or cases with uniquefeatures not previously described that make an importantteaching point or scientific observation. They may describenovel techniques or use of equipment, or new informationon diseases of importance. Section headings should be:Abstract, Introduction, Case Report(s), Discussion,Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments(if any), and References.

The Introduction should describe the purpose of the presentreport, the significance of the disease and its specificity, andbriefly review the relevant literature.

The Case Report(s) should include the general data of thecase(s), medical history, family history, chief complaint, presentillness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment,and outcome.

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss thesimilarities and differences between the reported case(s) andsimilar cases reported in other published articles. The importanceor specificity of the case(s) should be restated when discussingthe differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of thedisease and possibility of prevention.

Typical length: not more than 2000 words and 25 references.

8.4. Brief Communications
These reports should be concise presentations of preliminaryexperimental results or technical aspects of clinical or experimentalpractice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfectedbut which may be of widespread interest or application.

A new method, procedure, technology, or treatment with apractical approach may be described, or a recommendation forimproving scanning may be presented, with a description ofhow the technique should be implemented, detailing the technique'slimitations, and explaining why the technique is importantand how it will enhance clinical practice.

The manuscript may be prepared according to the format oforiginal articles. Typical length: not more than 1500 words and12 references.

8.5. Letters to the Editor
Letters are welcome in response to previously published JMUarticles, or to present your views on a particular subject inultrasound. It may include some review of the literature in makinga point, although it is clearly an opinion piece rather than areview of the subject. Letters to the editor should be objective,constructive and educational.

Letters should have a title, include appropriate referencesand the corresponding author's mailing and e-mail addresses.Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen theirfocus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion ofJMU Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance,and space.

Typical length: not more than 500 words and 5 references (1table or figure may be included).

8.6. Commentaries
These are brief discussions focusing on 1 or 2 key points about asingle study–strengths, weaknesses, where it fits in the contextof other studies, controversies, how it should or should not change our clinical practice, or how it illustrates some important principle of science or methodology.

They are usually written by the Editors or Reviewers involvedin the evaluation of a submitted manuscript, and published concurrentlywith that manuscript.

Typical length: not more than 1500 words and 12 references.

8.7. Pictorial Essays
The message in a pictorial essay is contained in the images presented.The text is short (no more than 1000 words and 10 references),but the figure legends are key. No introduction, methodsor discussion sections are required as the message is conveyedthrough unique, exceptional and timely ultrasound images.

8.8. Imaging for Residents
These are diagnostic images of real cases that aim to be an exercise for residents to practice diagnosis. Hence, Imaging for Residents should be structured into two separate parts that willbe published in two consecutive issues of the Journal: Section 1-Quiz; Section 2-Answer.
Section 1-Quiz must include the following information:

  • article title
  • author name(s) and affiliation(s)
  • case (description)
  • figures
  • conflicts of interest statement
The word count limit for Section 1-Quiz is 800 words.

Section 2-Answer must include the following information:

  • article title
  • author name(s) and affiliation(s)
  • case (description)
  • figures
  • interpretation
  • discussion (if any)
  • references (not more than 10)
  • conflicts of interest statement
The word count limit for Section 2-Answer is 800 words.

* JMU accept video clips as the supplementary material attached to the articles and please note that the video clips will only be shown online.

9. Manuscript Preparation
Text should be typed double-spaced on white A4 (297 x 210 mm)paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript shouldinclude a title page, abstract, key words, main text, acknowledgments(if any), references, and figures and tables asappropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on anew page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginningwith the title page.

9.1. Title Page
The title page should contain the following information (in order,from the top to bottom of the page):

  • article category
  • article title
  • declaration of any potential financial and non-financialconflicts of interest
  • running title not exceeding 50 characters

9.2. Abstract and Keywords
An abstract of no more than 500 words and 3-5 relevant keywords(in alphabetical order) are required for the following articlecategories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Case Reports,and Brief Communications.

Abstracts for Review Articles, Case Reports and BriefCommunications should be unstructured (i.e., in one single paragraphwith no subheadings), and include information on thebackground/purpose of the report, methods, results (or casereport), and conclusions.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured into thesections listed below:Background: briefly explain the importance of the study topicand state a precise study question or purpose.Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform thestudy; include information on the study design, setting, subjects,interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.

Results: briefly present the significant results, with data andstatistical details such as p values where appropriate; be surethat information in the abstract matches that in the main text.

Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful toaddress the study question directly and to confine your conclusionsto aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis topositive and negative findings.

Key words should be taken from the Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (

No abstract or key words are required for Letters to the Editor,Commentaries, Pictorial Essays, and Imaging for Residents.

9.3. Main Text

The text for Original Articles and Brief Communications shouldbe organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods,Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any),Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Sections for CaseReports are: Introduction, Case Report(s), Discussion, Conflictsof Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), andReferences. Each section should begin on a new page.

9.3.1. Abbreviations
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it mustbe written in full when it first appears in the text, followed bythe subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, theabbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be firstdefined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previouslybeen defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used ina subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviationsto those that are absolutely necessary.

9.3.2. Numbers
Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decadesshould be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century.Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass,and volume should be expressed using digits.

9.3.3. Units
Systeme International (SI) units must be used, with the exceptionof blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg.Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass,and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

9.3.4. Names of drugs, devices and other products
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN)for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drugis directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names shouldappear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drugneeds to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in themanuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first timethe drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name,the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) shouldbe provided the first time the device or product is mentionedin the text, for example, &...IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used(IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (ifappropriate) should be used.

9.3.5. Gene nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should beadhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbolsapproved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( You may also refer to the resources available onPubMed at TheHuman Genome Variation Society has a useful site that providesguidance in naming mutations at In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font andinclude the accession number.

9.3.6. Statistical requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers. Use correctnomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, notunpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used indata description. Inferential statistics are important for interpretingresults and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place foraccuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largestp value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

9.3.7. Personal communications and unpublished data

These sources cannot be included in the references list but maybe described in the text. The author(s) must give the full nameand highest academic degree of the person, the date of thecommunication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

9.4. Funding/ Support Statement
All financial and material support for the research, work, writingand editorial assistance from internal or external agencies,including commercial companies, should be clearly and completelyidentified in a Funding/Support Statement.

9.5. Acknowledgements
General acknowledgments for consultations and statisticalanalyses should be listed concisely, including the names of theindividuals who were directly involved. Consent should beobtained from those individuals before their names are listed inthis section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial,clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to theperformance of their normal duties.

9.6. References
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of theirreferences and for correct in-text citation.

9.6.1. In the main text, tables and figure legends

  • References should be indicated by numbers in square brackets inline with the text, numbered consecutively in order of appearance,and placed before punctuation. [The actual authors can be referredto, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included insequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentionedin the main text.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available referenceto an important concept.
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet beenaccepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references. Also see Section 9.3.7.

9.6.2. In the references list

  • References should be compiled at the end of the manuscriptaccording to the order of citation in the text.
  • References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
  • Journal references should include, in order, authors' surnamesand initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volumeand inclusive page numbers.
  • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 3 should beincluded, but when authors number 4 or more, list the first 3authors only followed by "et al".
  • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those usedin MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title,website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journalname and, if possible, the year and volume.
Examples of the most common reference types are providedbelow. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, wordcapitalization, spacing and style.)

Standard journal article:
Carrara S, Petrone MC, Testoni PA, et al. Tumors and new endoscopicultrasound-guided therapies.World J Gastrointest Endosc 2013;5:141-7.

Journal supplement:
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutictarget: What criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract:
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutictarget: What criteria should we apply? J CardiovascPharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract:
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellarmalignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36:799-805.[In Japanese, English abstract]

Book with edition:
Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed.Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982.

Book with editors:
Liu J, Peck G, editors. Chinese dietary therapy. London:Churchill Livingstone; 1995.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition:
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: UnderwoodJCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London:Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.

Book series with editors:
Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4.New York: Plenum Press; 1977-197.8

World Health Organization. World health report 2002: Reducingrisk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World HealthOrganization; 2002.

Electronic publications:
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save usfrom pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Availableat June 12, 2004.

Gartlehner G, Thaler K, Chapman A, et al. Mammography incombination with breast ultrasonography versus mammographyfor breast cancer screening in women at average risk. CochraneDatabase Syst Rev 2013;4:CD009632. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009632.pub2.

Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enameletching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University, Indianapolis,1971.

American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practiceguideline for the performance of a thyroid and parathyroidultrasound examination. Guideline developed in conjunctionwith the American College of Radiology (ACR), the Society forPediatric Radiology (SPR), and the Society of Radiologists inUltrasound (SRU). Laurel, MD: AIUM, 2013. Available at Accessed May2, 2013.

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet:Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalogno. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.

9.7. Tables
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They shouldhave a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numberedconsecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiringexplanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscriptedlowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged underthe table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only toindicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviationsused in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotesin alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table fromanother source, whether published or unpublished, you mustacknowledge the original source.

9.8. Figures
9.8.1. General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessaryto support the textual material. Figures should have aninformative figure legend and be numbered in the order of theircitation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should bedefined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiringexplanatory footnotes should follow the same style as thatfor tables as described in Section 9.7.

Patient identification should be obscured. All letteringshould be done professionally and should be in proportion to thedrawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must includean internal scale marker, and the legend should state the typeof specimen, original magnification and stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at thecorrect resolution (see Section 9.8.2.) and named according tothe figure number and format, e.g.,"Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".

9.8.2. Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artworkis finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of thefollowing formats (note the resolution requirements for linedrawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS: vector drawings. Embed the font or save thetext as "graphics".
  • TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones)–usea minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF: bitmapped line drawings–use a minimum of1000 dpi.
  • TIFF: combination of bitmapped line/halftone (coloror grayscale)–use a minimum of 600 dpi.
  • DOC, XLS or PPT: if your electronic artwork is createdin any of these Microsoft Office applications, pleasesupply "as is".
Please do not:
  • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirementsdetailed above;
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (suchas GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large forthe content.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is availableat Please notethat the cost of color illustrations will be charged tothe author (see Section 12 for more information).

10. The Editorial and Peer Review Process
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledgedwithin 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be providedwith a manuscript reference number for futurecorrespondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in areasonable period of time, the author should contact theEditorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensurethat it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if theauthor has not supplied all the material and documents as outlinedin these author instructions.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, whomakes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does notappear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for theJournal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review.Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unlessrequested.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for theJournal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board membersor expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief.

The corresponding author will usually be notifiedwithin 10 weeks of whether the submitted article isaccepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revisionbefore acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 30 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed orif you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

11. Preparation for Publication
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authorsshould submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Wordformat, with all tables/figures as applicable, via e-mail to theEditorial Office.

Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to theJournal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file aresent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for finalapproval. Authors are responsible for all statements made intheir work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note thatthe Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to themanuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publicationof your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

11.1. Changes to Authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement ofauthor names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before theaccepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or removean author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to theJournal Manager from the corresponding author of the acceptedmanuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should beadded or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) anupdated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal orrearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names,this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added orremoved. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding authorwill be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the correspondingauthor, who must follow the procedures as described above.

Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editorsof any such requests and (2) online publication of the acceptedmanuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requeststo add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article willfollow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.

12. Publication Charges and Reprints
Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article)may be ordered at prices based on the cost of production. Areprint order and credit card payment form can be downloadedfrom the Journal's website at

13. Copyright
The JMU is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Asian Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicineand Biology, and the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasoundin Medicine. Manuscripts published in the JMU become thepermanent property of Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the ChineseTaipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine. All articles publishedin the Journal are protected by copyright, whichcovers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute thearticle, as well as translation rights. No JMU article, inpart or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without prior written permission from ElsevierTaiwan LLC and the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound inMedicine.

Updated Oct 2014