Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • INTRODUCTION
    • Special Features
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Human and animal rights
    • Standardized reporting guidelines
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of Funding Source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Language Services
    • Informed consent and patient details
    • Submission
    PREPARATION
    • Double-blind review
    • Organization of the manuscript
    • Essential Title Page Information
    • Abstract
    • Article structure
    • References
    • Tables
    • Artwork
    • Color artwork
    • Illustration Services
    • Figure captions
    • Video data
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    • Style
    • Journal abbreviations and acronyms
    • (Nomenclature and) units
    • Embedded math equations
    • Math formulae
    • Drug names
    • Permissions
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    • Offprints
    • Level of evidence for primary research question: types of clinical studies
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    INTRODUCTION

    Contact details for submission

    Submit articles to the Journal of Hand Surgery at http://ees.elsevier.com/jhs/.

    Aims and scope

    The Journal of Hand Surgery publishes original, peer-reviewed articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the upper extremity; these include both clinical and basic science studies along with case reports. Special features include History of Hand Surgery, A Touch of Humanity, Review Articles (including Current Concepts, Surgical Techniques, Evidence-Based Medicine, In Brief, Hand Syndromes, Hand Surgery Practice, Hand Surgery Complications, and Evidence-Based Medicine Article Reviews), Reviews of Books and Media, and Letters to the Editor. Accepted submissions will be published in the print journal as well as in the online version. Supplemental materials may be published in the online version with reference to it in the print version. Before beginning to write for The Journal of Hand Surgery, prospective authors should read these Instructions completely. Authors will also benefit from reading

    •Manske PR. Structures and format of peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. J Hand Surg Am. 2006;31(7):1051–1055.
    •Flatt AE. Words. J Hand Surg. 2000;25(2):201–210.

    The Journal uses anonymous peer review in evaluating manuscripts for publication. Authors must electronically submit new and revised manuscripts in all categories on the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at http://ees.elsevier.com/jhs. Send other correspondence relating to the editorial management of The Journal of Hand Surgery to the appropriate editor:

    Roy A. Meals, MD, Editor-in-Chief
    Ghazi M. Rayan, MD, Review Editor
    The Journal of Hand Surgery
    American Society for Surgery of the Hand
    822 West Washington Boulevard
    Chicago, IL 60607
    Phone: (312) 880-1900
    Fax: (847) 384-1435
    Email: jhs@assh.org

    Editorial policies: Statements and opinions expressed in The Journal of Hand Surgery are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Editor or Publisher. The Editor and Publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the Editor nor the Publisher guarantees, warrants, or endorses any product or service advertised in this publication; nor do they guarantee any claims made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

    Special Features

    Case Reports: The Journal receives far more case reports than space allows for publication. To be worthy of publication, a case report must have extraordinary teaching value to the readers. Typically we do not accept cases where 2 findings are associated since the findings are often coincidentally rather than causally related. Restrict the abstract to 150 words and highlight the unique features of the case. In sections identified as Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion and in fewer than 1,500 words, introduce the topic, present the case, and discuss its novelty and educational value. Limit references to 10 citations.

    History of Hand Surgery: Include a brief unstructured abstract, limit the manuscript length to 3,000 words, and follow the guidelines for original science submissions.

    A Touch of Humanity: As space allows, the Journal will publish selected submissions in the following categories:

    First Hand: Original essays or poetry that relate to the author's experience and insight as a health care provider or patient. If the description could be used to identify the patient, his signed authorization must accompany the submission. Omitting or generalizing information to mask a patient's identity is acceptable; changing information is not. Restrict essays to 1,500 words and poetry to 40 lines.

    The Hand in Art: Original, previously unpublished photographs of hands represented in established works of art such as paintings, sculpture, stamps, and coins. Follow the standards of photography cited in the section on Figures. A legend of no more than 150 words should describe the work, its materials, creator, location, date of creation, and context.

    Hand Crafted: Original, previously unpublished photographs of work created by readers. Possible objects include but are not limited to wood turning, cabinetry, painting, sculpture, car restoration, needle craft, and jewelry making. Follow the standards of photography cited in the section on Figures. Include a legend of no more than 150 words describing the work, its materials, and time required for completion.

    Review Articles: Please note that review articles must not include more than 3 authors.

    **If you wish to submit a review article to The Journal of Hand Surgery but have not explicitly received an invitation to do so, please complete the Review Article Proposal and email it to the appropriate review editor (listed below and in Question 5 of proposal) for consideration. We ask that you do not submit your unsolicited review article to the journal unless the review editor accepts your review topic in writing.**

    • The Current Concepts section is designed to provide review articles focusing on up-to-date information covering 60 essential topics on a three-year rotation. Articles provide a clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and outcomes. Current Concepts authors are invited based upon their expertise. Unsolicited material is seldom considered, only after potential authors contact Ghazi Rayan at ouhsgmr@aol.com with a completed Proposal. Articles should be no more than 3,000 words.

    • The Surgical Techniques section provides step-by-step details of various surgical procedures relevant to clinical practice. Articles discuss indications and contraindications, surgical anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative management, pearls and pitfalls, and complications; many articles also provide a case illustration. Surgical Technique articles will be solicited from experts and are open for submission upon receipt of a Proposal. Interested authors should email their Proposal to David Netscher at netscher@bcm.tmc.edu. Articles should be no more than 2,500 words.

    • The Evidence-Based Medicine section uses case-based learning and applies this concept to all aspects of the management of a particular disease, including etiology, diagnosis, nonsurgical and surgical treatment, aftercare, and outcomes. Articles include a succinct clinical scenario, a question about diagnosis or treatment, a review of the evidence and its shortcomings, and directions for future research; articles may also include the authors’ personal current concepts. Volunteers interested in reviewing the evidence and writing a full article should contact David Ring at dring@partners.org with a complete Proposal. Articles should be no more than 1,500 words.

    In Brief articles are short summaries that focus on the relevant, recent peer-review literature pertaining to specific hand and upper extremity surgical conditions or medical problems relevant to our medical practices. Articles should be concise and focused on either (1) a narrow spectrum on a specific hand injury or disease or (2) a multidisciplinary theme from a musculoskeletal or systemic disorder along with its impact on the hand. Contact Dawn LaPorte at dlaport1@jhmi.edu with a completed Proposal. Articles should be no more than 1,000 words.

    Hand Syndromes articles are short summaries that offer brief but focused information about one specific syndrome that is associated with a congenital hand anomaly. They are published 3 times a year. The objectives are to increase awareness of the most common hand syndromes among hand surgeons and to help residents and fellows recognize these syndromes that may help in their in-training, self-assessment, and CAQ examinations. These articles are not intended to be a comprehensive overview of the hand anomaly or the syndrome itself, eg, treatment options are not to be included and no surgical techniques are described. The authors are invited. Unsolicited material is seldom considered, only after potential authors contact Ghazi Rayan at ouhsgmr@aol.com with a completed Proposal. Articles should be no more than 750 words.

    Hand Surgery Practice articles are published 3 times a year and are meant to increase awareness of the most common challenges that face hand surgeons at all stages of their careers—whether early, late, or after retirement—and propose solutions to these problems. The topics may include practice management issues, ethics and professionalism, legal matters, health care concern, social media, and education as related to hand surgery for residents, fellows, and practicing hand surgeons. Unsolicited material may be considered, only after potential authors contact Ghazi Rayan at ouhsgmr@aol.com with a completed Proposal. Articles should be no more than 750 words.

    Hand Surgery Complications articles are published 3 times a year and offer brief but focused information about one specific complication of hand surgery treatment, be it nonsurgical or surgical. These articles are not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all complications related to a particular problem. Articles discuss how and why the complication has occurred, its adverse effects, treatment, and, most importantly, precise strategies about preventing the complication. Unsolicited submissions may be considered after sending your Proposal to Ghazi Rayan at ouhsgmr@aol.com. Articles should be no more than 1,500 words.

    Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews are published 3 times a year and offer brief but focused information about a number of specific clinical research articles pertaining to the upper extremity that have been published recently in peer-reviewed journals. These articles should be of high level of evidence, ie, Levels I and II. These reviews are not intended to be a comprehensive overview of articles or their topics. The ASSH Evidence-Based Practice Committee will be submitting these reviews. Unsolicited articles are not accepted.

    If you would like to submit a review article, please email the appropriate review editor with a completed Proposal.

    Review of books and media: The Journal publishes reviews of books and other media that will enlarge a reader's perspective even beyond specialty core knowledge and technical skills. Acceptable media include educational material in electronic formats, practice management software programs, and software applications for smart phones. For authors and publishers wishing to have a work reviewed, send 2 copies to Dr. Meals. We will not return material selected for review. We will return material not selected for review only when the sender has prepaid the shipping charges.

    We encourage readers to submit unsolicited reviews of books and media that they think would be of interest to other readers. Limit reviews to 800 words and include the work's title, publisher, city, date of publication, and retail price. Such submissions will go through the same review and selection process as unsolicited scientific manuscripts.

    Letters: Letters to the editor are encouraged. They may be independent observations, or they may relate to a previously published article. Letters must not duplicate information submitted elsewhere for publication or previously published. Letters are subject to editing and abridgement without the author's review. Limit the body of the letter to 300 words, authors to 3, references to 5, and tables or figures to 1. We are more likely to publish a letter relating to a previously published article when we receive it promptly after the article is published. We will forward the letter to the author(s) for comment (maximum 300 words and 5 references). The policies regarding conflicts and disclosures for full manuscripts apply to letters as well.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    The Journal of Hand Surgery adheres to the ethical standards described by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html). Authors are expected to adhere to these standards.

    Human and animal rights

    Human subjects: Articles involving research conducted in human subjects must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section indicating approval by the institutional review board and noting that informed consent, as well as any necessary HIPAA consent, was obtained from each patient. For reports of research using human subjects, provide assurance that (a) necessary and appropriate consent was obtained from each patient and (b) the study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a prior approval by the appropriate institutional review committee. Identify patients by number, not by initials. Clinical trials must be registered in a public trials registry. Denote the registry and registry number. Articles emanating from a particular institution must have approval by the requisite authority.

    Animal experimentation: Manuscripts reporting animal experiments must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section that animal care complied with the guidelines of the authors' institution and the National Institutes of Health and any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals.

    Standardized reporting guidelines

    The Journal is committed to standardized reporting of clinical trials, meta-analyses, and other studies:

    • Case reports, cohort studies, and patient series: Authors should adhere to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines (www.strobe-statement.org) and indicate in the manuscript that they have done so.
    • Diagnostic measure research: Authors should adhere to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines (www.stard-statement.org) and indicate in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that they have done so.
    • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Authors should adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (www.prisma-statement.org) and indicate in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that they have done so.
      • A worthy meta-analysis will follow the PRISMA guidelines, be hypothesis driven to address a specific aspect of a topic, include sufficient (ideally at least 10) Level I and II evidence studies that can be supplemented with comparative Level III studies, and not include Level IV studies. The result should clarify the issue addressed.
      • A repeat meta-analysis should follow the original study by at least 5 years, analyze at least 50% more data, and follow the above guidelines.
      • A worthy systematic review will follow the PRISMA guidelines, be hypothesis driven, focus on a specific aspect of a topic, and may include low level evidence. The results should clarify the issue addressed.
    • Randomized clinical trials: Authors should adhere to the Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines (www.consort-statement.org) and indicate in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that they have done so.

    Conflict of interest

    The Conflict of Interest Statement (http://ees.elsevier.com/jhs/img/conflict_of_interests.doc), signed by all listed authors, is required on submission of the manuscript. This form requires disclosure from each author indicating that (a) no financial conflict of interest exists with any commercial entity whose products are described, reviewed, evaluated, or compared in the manuscript, except for that disclosed under “Acknowledgments” or (b) a potential conflict of interest exists with one or more commercial entities whose products are described, reviewed, evaluated, or compared in the manuscript. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    All material published in the Journal of Hand Surgery is vested in the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. In accordance with the Copyright Act of 1976, the corresponding author of each manuscript will be required to complete a copyright assignment form (http://ees.elsevier.com/jhs/img/copyright_transfer.doc) on acceptance of the manuscript. When submitting a paper the author(s) must make a full statement to the Editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior or duplicate publication of the same or similar work. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper to help the Editor decide how to deal with the matter. The Journal of Hand Surgery may use and permit others to use data generated from the initiation to the completion of manuscript review, eg, race, sex, and nationality of authors; time from submission to decision(s); time to receipt of revision(s); times to publication; and final decisions.

    Role of Funding Source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Language Services

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information. Authors are responsible for the cost associated with using an editing service. Use of an editing service does not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript.

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/jhs/.

    Double-blind review

    This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. For more information please refer to http://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
    Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including telephone and e-mail address.
    Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any Acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

    Organization of the manuscript

    Manuscripts not complying with these requirements will be returned to the author(s) for appropriate formatting modifications prior to review. Since the authors' identities are withheld from the reviewers, include the authors' names only on the title page. For blinding purposes, submit the manuscript as 2 separate files: the title page as 1 file and the manuscript, without author names, as another file. Double space lines throughout (including the list of references, tables, and figure legends) with 2.5-cm margins all around. Use continuous numbering to number each line in the margin. Arrange the manuscript as follows: title page, abstract, body of the manuscript, references, figure legends, tables, figures. Organize the body of the manuscript as follows: for peer-reviewed scientific studies, the sections are introduction, materials and methods, results, and discussion. JHS scientific articles do not include a conclusion section. For review articles, include historical background (introduction), specific subheadings for the main body of the text, and a summary.

    Essential Title Page Information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Manuscripts should have no more than 6 authors. A greater number requires justification. Where the family name may be ambiguous (eg, a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Author degrees. Include the authors' highest academic degrees, both abbreviated and spelled out (maximum two). Exclude professional certifications such as CHT, RN, and RPT. The sequence of the authors' degrees is of the authors' choosing.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication and also postpublication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "present address" (or "permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
    Running head. On the title page, provide a short title of no greater than 45 characters, including spaces, for the running head.
    Key words. On the title page, list up to 5 key words in alphabetical order. Use American spelling and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
    Acknowledgements. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (eg, providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc). The person(s) receiving the proposed acknowledgement must give approval to the author for the publication of their name(s).
    Note: If you received a grant from the American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand, then please acknowledge that grant on your Title Page.

    Abstract

    Do not include footnotes, statistical results, or references in the abstract. Type the abstract on a separate page. For peer-reviewed clinical studies, submit a structured abstract limited to 300 words and divided into 5 sections: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, and Level of Evidence (see table http://cdn.elsevier.com/promis_images/jhsachart.gif). For peer-reviewed basic science studies, submit a structured abstract limited to 300 words divided into 5 sections: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions, and Clinical Relevance. For review articles and case reports, submit a brief one-paragraph description of the manuscript contents.

    Article structure

    Restrict the manuscript to fewer than 3,000 words. In both the abstract and in the main body, avoid claiming priority of findings. For example, avoid statements such as, "This paper is the first to report..." Formatting, such as Greek letters, italics, superscripts, and subscripts, may be used. The coding scheme for such elements must be consistent throughout.

    Articles may use section subheadings within the following headings to clarify content.

    Introduction
    In fewer than 500 words and in 3 to 4 paragraphs, include the study's background, rationale, questions or hypotheses posed, and novelty. Each of the questions or hypotheses should be sufficiently important to appear in the abstract.

    Materials and methods
    Present the study design clearly. Identify and describe the measurement parameters. Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid sole reliance on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fails to convey important quantitative information. Do not identify the statistical software used unless the analysis was dependent on a particular software program.

    Results
    In less than 500 words, present the findings in the same order that you pose the questions or hypotheses in the Introduction. Data should be presented only once, in a text, table, or graph.

    Discussion
    In fewer than 1,000 words, briefly restate the rationale and the questions, then explore major limitations and compare and contrast the study's results with previous work. Include 1 paragraph for each question or hypothesis. Synthesize the current results with those previously published. It is the Journal of Hand Surgery's style not to include a Conclusion section since this is typically redundant with the abstract.

    References

    Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of references. References should not be merely a listing of the results of a computerized literature search but should have been read by the author and deemed pertinent to the manuscript. Type references double-spaced on pages separate from the text and number them consecutively by the order of their citation in the text. Identify references in the text by Arabic numerals within parentheses. Do not use an automated end notes system or automatic list numbering because these features are lost when converting the manuscript into the form necessary for publication.

    As of October, 2012, the Journal of Hand Surgery requires references to be formatted according to the latest edition of the American Medical Association's Manual of Style (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com).

    Do not cite meeting abstracts, personal communications, or unpublished material (including oral and poster presentations, correspondence club letters, and manuscripts not yet accepted for publication) in the reference list. If critical to the manuscript's message, cite this material in the text within parentheses.

    If a reference source is not yet published but has been accepted for publication, include the source in the reference list and submit the letter of acceptance along with the manuscript.

    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).

    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

    Citations in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).

    Reference linking requirements
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL and the date when the reference was last accessed should be given. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (eg, after the reference list) under a different heading if desired or can be included in the reference list.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with a superscript symbol, not letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Double-space table data. Each table should be on a separate page. Submit lengthy tables and extended data for publication as supplementary material in the online journal.

    Artwork

    All figures and illustrations should be oriented so the distal component (eg, the fingertip) is at the top. The names of the subject, author, or institution must not appear anywhere on the figure.
    Figure numbers must correspond with the order in which figures occur in the text.
    Obscure the identity of any person included in a photograph or include the person's written permission to be identified.
    If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the original copyright holder to reproduce the material before the manuscript is submitted to production. Authors are responsible for applying for permission for both print and electronic rights for all borrowed materials and are responsible for paying any fees related to the applications of these permissions.

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork

    Submit color illustrations as original photographs, high-quality computer prints, or transparencies, close to the size expected in publication. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format TIFF (or JPEG) or EPS format. Color images must be CMYK and at least 300 DPI. Gray scale images should be at least 300 DPI. Apply any digital manipulation of an image (eg, brightness, color, or contrast) to the whole image in order not to misrepresent the original image. Enhancement or masking of a portion of an image is unacceptable unless clearly and completely explained in the legend. Use professionally produced arrows or other markers placed directly on the figure to identify important features. Do not write on the illustrations. Crop figures as necessary to emphasize the subject material. Do not include photographs or x-rays of normal findings. Submit line art with no gradations of shading, as they will not reproduce well. Use cross-hatching or patterns where shading is necessary. Artwork and photographs submitted in color will be reproduced in full color in the Journal at no charge to the authors. Please see instructions for submitting digital art at http://ees.elsevier.com/jhs. To create the art, use graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator, not presentation software such as PowerPoint, Corel-Draw, or Harvard Graphics. Combinations of gray scale and line art should be at least 1,200 DPI. Line art (black and white or color) should be at least 1,200 DPI. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (eg, ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Illustration Services

    Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions

    Number figures consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Ensure that each illustration has a caption. On a page separate from the body of the manuscript, type figure legends double-spaced. Number the figures with Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Provide sufficient explanation to render the figure intelligible without reference to the text. Define all symbols and all abbreviations not yet spelled out in the text. For reproduction of any copyrighted material, include written permission from the copyright holder.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    All video clips will be subject to peer review. The American Society for Surgery of the Hand will hold the copyright on all video clips published on the Journal's website. Each coauthor of a video clip must sign a form, obtainable from the Editorial Office, expressly transferring copyright in the event that we publish the video clip on the Journal's website. Peer review will proceed when the Editorial Office has received the signed copyright releases. The Journal can accept only video submissions that meet the Journal's formatting and image quality requirements. Authors will be notified if there are any problems with submitted files and asked to resubmit modified files. Image editing and correct formatting are the author's responsibility.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the Journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Key words
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, and footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been spell-checked and grammar-checked
    • References are in the correct format for this Journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web).
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Style

    When not otherwise specified in these Instructions to Authors or in the Journal of Hand Surgery style guide, defer to the guidelines specified in the latest edition of the American Medical Association's Manual of Style (www.amamanualofstyle.com).

    As a final step before submitting your manuscript, turn on the "Display Readability Statistics" function in Microsoft Word. Instructions to do so are in the Help Menu. Then subject the manuscript to Microsoft Word's Spelling and Grammar checker and consider making the changes it recommends. For instance, JHS encourages active verb forms. On completion of the spelling and grammar check, Microsoft Word will give you the percentage of sentences with passive verb forms, the Flesch Reading Ease score, and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. Please indicate these 3 scores in your cover letter. Going through this process and reporting the results will make the writing stronger and will facilitate the review process.

    Journal abbreviations and acronyms

    If an abbreviation or acronym appears more than 3 times in the abstract or more than 3 times in the article, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used, followed by the shortened version in parentheses. Spell out all abbreviations and acronyms at the beginning of sentences.

    (Nomenclature and) units

    Use Système International (SI) measurements. For clarity, nonmetric equivalents may be included in parentheses following the SI measurements.

    Embedded math equations

    If you are submitting an article prepared with Microsoft Word containing embedded math equations then please read this related support information (http://support.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/302/).

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Drug names

    Use generic names. You may cite proprietary names in parentheses along with the name and location of the manufacturer.

    Permissions

    Obtain and submit written permission for use from the original copyright holder for any lengthy direct quotations, tables, or illustrations taken from copyrighted material. Include the permission in the text, table footnote, or figure legend and provide complete information as to source. Photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by a signed release that indicates informed consent.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    Paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form, which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and coauthors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints/myarticlesservices/booklets).

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

    Level of evidence for primary research question: types of clinical studies



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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