Guide for Authors

  • The Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness is publishedtwice a year, in June and December, and requires authorsto be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements forManuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs);current URMs are available at

    1. Article Categories

    The categories of articles that are published are describedbelow.

    1.1. Review Articles
    These should aim to provide the reader with a balancedoverview of an important and topical subject in sport andexercise sciences and fitness, and should be systematic andcritical assessments of literature and data sources. Theyshould cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensusexists as well as aspects that remain controversial and arethe subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles anddata sources reviewed should include information about thespecific type of study or analysis, population, intervention,exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sourcesshould be selected systematically for inclusion in thereview and critically evaluated.

    Typical length: no more than 3000 words, 50-80references.

    1.2. Original Articles
    These may be randomized trials, intervention studies,studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory andanimal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses,case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates,which represent new and significant contributions toexercise science, physical fitness and physical education.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction,Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (ifapplicable), Conflicts of Interest (if any), and References.

    The Introduction should provide a brief backgroundto the subject of the paper, explain the importance of thestudy, and state the objective/hypothesis.

    The Methods section should describe the study designand methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or datasources and how these were selected for the study, patientsamples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratorymethods followed), and state the statistical proceduresemployed in the research.

    The Results section should comprise the study resultspresented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tablesand/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat datathat are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasizeand summarize the essential features of any interventions,the main outcome measures, and the main results.

    The Discussion section should be used to emphasize thenew and important aspects of the study, placing the resultsin context with published literature, the implications of thefindings, and the conclusions that follow from the studyresults.

    Typical length: no more than 3000 words, 40-80references.

    1.3. Case Reports
    These are short discussions of a case or case series withunique features not previously described that make animportant teaching point or scientific observation. Theymay describe novel techniques, novel use of equipment,or new information on conditions of importance. Sectionheadings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report,Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), Conflicts ofInterest (if any), and References.

    The Introduction should describe the purpose of thereport, the significance of the condition, and briefly reviewthe relevant literature.

    The Case Report should include the general data ofthe case, history, chief complaint, present illness, clinicalmanifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, andoutcome.

    The Discussion should compare, analyze and discussthe similarities and differences between the reported caseand similar previously reported cases. The importance orspecificity of the case should be restated when discussingthe differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis andpossibility of prevention.

    Typical length: no more than 1300 words, 10-30references.

    1.4. Communications
    These are research notes on topics such as test or equipmentdevelopment, profile evaluations, data reanalysis, anddocument verification. Section headings should be:Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion,Acknowledgments (if applicable), Conflicts of Interest (ifany), and References.

    Typical length: no more than 1000 words, 10-20references. The Editors reserve the right to decide whatconstitutes a Communication.

    2. Manuscript Submission

    Manuscripts should be submitted online through Elsevier'sEditorial System (EES). This system can be accessed at This site will guide authorsstepwise through the submission process. If assistanceis required, please refer to the tutorials and/or customersupport that are available on the website, or e-mail theEditorial Office at

    2.1. Important Information

    • Articles submitted should be in Microsoft Worddocument format and prepared in the simplest formpossible. We will add in the correct font, font size,margins and so on according to the Journal's style.
    • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT useother kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes,headers and footers.
    • Put text, references, tables and table/figure legends inone file.
    • Figures must be submitted separately as picture files,at the correct resolution. The files should be namedaccording to the figure number, e.g., "Article1_Fig1","Article1_Fig2". Also see Section 6.9.2. below.

    2.2. Supporting Documents
    The following documents must be included (refer alsoto the Publication Checklist that follows these authorinstructions):

    (1) Cover Letter. This must include the name, address,telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of thecorresponding author. The letter should state that: (1) allauthors agree with the content of the article and approveof its submission to the Journal; and (2) the experimentsreported in the article were undertaken in compliance withthe current laws of the country in which the experimentswere performed. Please note that authors will be heldresponsible for false statements.

    (2) Authorship Statement. Please use the form that isprovided on the Journal's website at ALLthe authors' signatures must be included.

    (3) Conflicts of Interest Statement. Please use the form thatis provided on the Journal's website at see Section 3 below.

    (4) Copyright Transfer Agreement. Please use the form thatis provided on the Journal's website at

    (5) Ethics Statement. Articles covering human or animalexperiments must be accompanied by a letter of approvalfrom the relevant review committee or authorities. Also seeSection 4 below.

    (6) Articles where human subjects can be identifiedin descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must beaccompanied by a signed statement of informed consent topublish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographsand pedigrees from each subject who can be identified.Also see Section 5 below.

    (7) Where material has been reproduced from other copyrightedsources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s)to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.

    3. Disclosure of Conflicts of InterestAll authors are required to sign and submit a financialdisclosure statement at the time of manuscript submission,e.g.,

    I certify that all my affiliations with or financialinvolvement in, within the past 5 years and foreseeablefuture, any organization or entity with a financialinterest in or financial conflict with the subject matteror materials discussed in the manuscript are completelydisclosed (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria,stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants orpatents received or pending, royalties).

    Authors who have no relevant financial interests shouldprovide a statement indicating that they have no financialinterests related to the material in the manuscript. Anynon-financial conflicts of interest should also be explicitlydeclared in your own words.

    4. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

    For human or animal experimental investigations,appropriate institutional review board or ethics committeeapproval is required, and such approval should be statedin the methods section of the manuscript. For thoseinvestigators who do not have formal ethics reviewcommittees, the principles outlined in the Declaration ofHelsinki should be followed (World Medical Association.Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medicalresearch involving human subjects. Available at:

    For investigations in humans, state explicitly in themethods section of the manuscript that informed consentwas obtained from all participating adults and from parentsor legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults,together with the manner in which informed consent wasobtained (ex. oral or written).

    For work involving experimental animals, theguidelines for their care and use should be in accordancewith European Commission Directive 86/609/EECfor animal experiments (available at;this should be stated in the methods section of themanuscript.

    5. Identification of Patients in Descriptions,Photographs and Pedigrees

    A signed statement of informed consent to publish (inprint and online) patient descriptions, photographs andpedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parentsor legal guardians for minors) who can be identified(including by the subjects themselves) in such writtendescriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such personsshould be shown the manuscript before its submission.Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identifypatients is acceptable, but changing any such data is notacceptable.

    6. Manuscript Preparation

    6.1. Basic Criteria
    Articles should be written in English (using AmericanEnglish spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: thematerial is original, the information is important and of highscientific interest, the writing is clear and concise (clinicalor laboratory jargon is to be avoided), the study methodsare appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions arereasonable and supported by the data.

    Submitted manuscripts are considered with theunderstanding that they have not been published previouslyin print or electronic format (except in abstract or posterform) and are not under consideration in totality or in partby another publication or electronic medium.

    Text should be typed double-spaced on one side ofwhite A4 (297 x 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a "first title page", a"second title page", abstract and keywords, the main text,acknowledgments (if any), conflicts of interest statement(if any), references, and figures (with legends) andtables (with legends) as appropriate. Each section of themanuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should benumbered consecutively.

    The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to rejectmanuscripts that do not comply with these basic criteria.

    6.2. First Title PageThe first title page should contain the following information(in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

    • category of paper
    • article title
    • names (spelled out in full)* of all the authors, and theinstitutions with which they are affiliated; indicate allaffiliations with a superscript lowercase letter after theauthor's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation
    • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailingaddress, telephone and fax numbers)

    *The name of each author should be written with thefamily name last, e.g., Yuen-Lam Cheung. Authorship isrestricted only to direct participants who have contributedsignificantly to the work.

    6.3. Second Title Page
    The second title page should contain the article title only.

    6.4. Abstract and Keywords
    The third page should contain a concise and factual Englishabstract of no more than 250 words. Abstracts should bein one single paragraph with no subheadings. Thosefor Original Articles should include the rationale for thestudy, methods used, most important/significant results,and conclusions. Those for Case Reports should includethe significance and purpose of the case presentation, thediagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and briefcomments and suggestions with regard to the case. Wherea term/definition will be continually referred to in theabstract, it must be written in full when it first appears,followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses.

    Up to 5 relevant keywords/index terms should beprovided in alphabetical order for indexing purposes.These should not simply be taken from the manuscript titlebut should be representative of the content of the articleand be characteristic of the terminology used within theparticular field of the study. They should be taken fromIndex Medicus (Medical Subject Headings, MeSH) or becomposed by analogy on the same principle.

    6.5. Main Text
    The text for Original Articles should be organized into thefollowing sections: Introduction, Methods, Results andDiscussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction,Case Report, and Discussion. Each section should beginon a new page.

    6.5.1. Abbreviations
    Where a term/definition will be continually referred to,it must be written in full when it first appears in the text,followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses.Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviationshould not be first defined in any section heading; if anabbreviation has previously been defined in the text, thenthe abbreviation may be used in a subsequent sectionheading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those thatare absolutely necessary. Author-invented abbreviationsshould be avoided.

    6.5.2. Units
    Système International (SI) units must be used. Where theSI unit is not the conventional unit, then the conventionalunit should be included in parentheses.

    Use the metric system for the expression of length, area,mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degreesCelsius. Blood pressure values are to be reported in mmHg.

    Unit abbreviations should use the power convention,e.g., kg*E(m2)-1.

    6.5.3. Names of drugs, devices and other productsUse the recommended international non-proprietary name(rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific tradename of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Fordevices and other products, the generic term should beused, unless the specific trade name is directly relevantto the discussion. If the trade name is given, then themanufacturer name and the city, state and country locationof the manufacturer must be provided the first time it ismentioned in the text, for example, "...SPSS version 11was used (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)."

    6.5.4. Statistical requirements
    Statistical analysis is essential for all research papersexcept case reports. Use correct nomenclature of statisticalmethods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test).Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used indata description. Inferential statistics are important forinterpreting results and should be described in detail.All p values should be expressed to 2 digits to the right ofthe decimal point, unless p < 0.01, in which case the p valueshould be expressed to 3 digits to the right of the decimal point.The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001,since additional zeros do not convey useful information; thelargest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

    6.5.5. Personal communications and unpublished data
    These sources cannot be included in the references list butmay be described in the text. The author(s) must give the fullname and highest academic degree of the person, the dateof the communication, and indicate whether it was in oralor written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement ofpermission should be included from each person identifi edas a source of information in a personal communication oras a source for unpublished data.

    6.5.6. Footnotes
    Footnotes should be avoided within the text. Suchexplanatory material can usually be incorporated into thetext in parentheses.

    6.6. Acknowledgments and Conflicts of InterestStatement
    General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis,etc., should be listed concisely at the end of the text, includingthe names of the individuals who were directly involved.Consent should be obtained from those individuals beforetheir names are listed in this section. All financial and materialsupport for the research and work from internal or externalagencies, including commercial companies, should be clearlyand completely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest(financial and/or non-financial) are explicitly declared.

    6.7. References
    6.7.1. In the main text, tables, figure legends

    • References should be identified using superscriptednumbers, and numbered consecutively in order ofappearance in the text; the numbers should be placed afterperiods and commas and before colons and semicolons.
    • References cited in tables or figure legends should beincluded in sequence at the point where the table orfigure is first mentioned in the main text.
    • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has notyet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublishedobservation", "personal communication") as references.Also see Section 6.5.5. above.
    • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only availablereference to an important concept.

    6.7.2. In the references section
    • References should be limited to those cited inthe text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabeticalorder.
    • References should include, in order, author surnamesand initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year,volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names andinitials of all the authors up to 3 should be included, butwhen authors number 4 or more, list the first 3 authorsonly followed by "et al".
    • Abbreviations for journal names should conform tothose used in MEDLINE.
    • If citing a website, provide the author information,article title, website address and the date you accessedthe information.
    • Reference to an article that is in press muststate the journal name and, if possible, the year andvolume.

    Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completenessof their references and for correct text citation.

    Examples are given below.

    Standard journal articles
    van Sluijs EM, Kriemler S, McMinn AM. The effect ofcommunity and family interventions on young people'sphysical activity levels: a review of reviews and updatedsystematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:914-922.

    Ebben WP, Wurm B, VanderZanden TL, et al. Kineticanalysis of several variations of push-ups. J Strength CondRes. 2011;25:2891-2894.

    Journal supplement
    Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factorand therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply?J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(suppl 3):S78-80.

    Journal article not in English but with English abstractKawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient withcerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka.2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

    BookBradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management.Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982:72-95.

    Book chapter in book with editor and edition
    Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In:Underwood JCE, ed. General and Systematic Pathology.4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004:615-672.

    BulletinWorld Health Organization. World Health Report2002: Reducing Risk, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva,Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

    Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
    Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals.Catalog No. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977:2-3.

    Electronic publications
    Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorismsave us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2004;158:106-107. Available from: Accessed June 5,2004.

    Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visualimpairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2002(2):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

    Items presented at a meeting but not yet published
    Durbin D, Kallan M, Elliott M, et al. Risk of injuryto restrained children from passenger air bags. Paperpresented at: 46th Annual Meeting of the Association forthe Advancement for Automotive Medicine; September2002; Tempe, AZ.

    Greenspan A, Eerdekens M, Mahmoud R. Is there anincreased rate of cerebrovascular events among dementiapatients? Poster presented at: 24th Congress of theCollegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum(CINP); June 20-24, 2004; Paris, France.

    Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects onhead and neck cancer recurrence and second primarytumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society ofClinical Oncology; May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL.Abstract 359.

    Item presented at a meeting and published
    Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on Cataract, IOL, andRefractive Surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society ofCataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004. Abstract 337.

    Material accepted for publication but not yet published
    Carrau RL, Khidr A, Crawley JA, et al. The impact oflaryngopharyngeal reflux on patient-reported quality oflife. Laryngoscope. In press.

    Ofri D. Incidental Findings: Lessons from my Patients inthe Art of Medicine. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. In press.

    Theses and dissertations
    Undeman C. Fully Automatic Segmentation of MRI BrainImages Using Probabilistic Diffusion and a WatershedScale-Space Approach [master's thesis]. Stockholm,Sweden: NADA, Royal Institute of Technology; 2001.

    Ayers AJ. Retention of Resin Restorations by Means ofEnamel Etching and by Pins [MSD thesis]. Indianapolis:Indiana University; 1971.

    American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.Wisdom Teeth. AAOMS Web site. Accessed November 15, 2009.

    6.8. Tables
    Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order oftheir citation in the text, have a concise table heading, andbe comprehensible without reference to the text. Tablesshould be typed double-spaced in as simple a form aspossible, and data from tables should not be repeated in thetext or figures. Information requiring explanatory footnotesshould be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters inalphabetical order (a, b, c, etc.). Asterisks (*, **) are usedonly to indicate the probability level of tests of significance.Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placedafter the footnotes. If you include a block of data or tablefrom another source, whether published or unpublished,you must acknowledge the original source.

    6.9. Figures

    6.9.1. General guidelines
    The number of figures should be restricted to the minimumnecessary to support the textual material. Figures should benumbered in the order of their citation in the text (figuresthat are to appear together should be grouped togetherwhenever possible). Each figure should have a concise,self-sufficient figure legend, and information given in thelegends should not be repeated in the text. All symbolsand abbreviations used in the figure should be defined inthe legend. Patient identification should be obscured. Alllettering should be in proportion to the drawing, graph orphotograph. Previously published figures are not usuallyaccepted.

    Figures must be submitted as separate electronic picturefiles at the correct resolution (see Section 6.9.2. below).The files should be named according to the figure number,e.g., "Article1_Fig1", "Article1_Fig2".

    6.9.2. FormatsRegardless of the application used, when your electronicartwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the imagesto one of the following formats (note the resolutionrequirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftonecombinations given below).

    • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the textas "graphics".
    • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones):always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000dpi.
    • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (coloror grayscale): a minimum of 600 dpi is required.
    • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is createdin any of these Microsoft Office applications, pleasesupply "as is".

    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF,BMP, PICT, WPG), as the resolution is too low;
    • Supply files that are lower in resolution than therequirements listed above;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for thecontent.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at

    7. The Editorial and Peer Review Process

    As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will beacknowledged within 1 week of submission, and authorswill be provided with a manuscript reference number forfuture correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is notreceived in a reasonable period of time, the author shouldcontact the Editorial Office.

    Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office toensure that it contains all parts. The Editorial Office willnot accept a submission if the author has not supplied allthe material and documents as outlined in these authorinstructions.

    Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief,who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript doesnot appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate forthe Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected withoutreview.

    Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriatefor the Journal are subjected to double-blind review andseen by at least two Editorial Board members or expertconsultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. Authors maybe required to answer open questions or to supply missinginformation. Authors will usually be notified within6 weeks of whether the submitted article is acceptedfor publication, rejected, or subject to revision beforeacceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimesunavoidable.

    8. Preparation for Publication

    Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, theauthors should submit the final version of their manuscript(and final versions of all tables/figures as applicable).

    Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to theJournal's style and PDF page proofs are e-mailed by thePublisher to the corresponding author for final approval.Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work,including changes made by the copy editor.

    9. Reprints

    Authors receive 20 stapled offprints of their articles free ofcharge, which are sent to the corresponding author.

    Professional reprints (which include a cover page for thearticle) may be ordered from the Publisher at prices based onthe cost of production. Reprint order and credit card paymentforms can be downloaded from the Journal's website

    10. Copyright

    Published manuscripts in the Journal of Exercise Science& Fitness become the permanent property of The Societyof Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology and Fitness.All articles published in the Journal are protected bycopyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduceand distribute the article, as well as translation rights. Nopart of this publication may be reproduced, stored in anyretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording,or otherwise, without prior written permission from TheSociety of Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology andFitness.



advert image