Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    INTRODUCTION
    • Disclaimer
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Human and animal rights
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Reporting clinical trials
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Essential title page information
    • Structured abstract
    • Keywords
    • Acknowledgements
    • Original Research Article Guidelines
    • Other Article Types and Guidelines
    • Units
    • Database linking
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    The Journal of Endodontics is owned by the American Association of Endodontists. Submitted manuscripts must pertain to endodontics and may be original research (eg, clinical trails, basic science related to the biological aspects of endodontics, basic science related to endodontic techniques, case reports, or review articles related to the scientific or applied aspects of endodontics). Clinical studies using CONSORT methods (http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-statement/) or systematic reviews using meta-analyses are particularly encouraged. Authors of potential review articles are encouraged to first contact the Editor during their preliminary development via e-mail at JEndodontics@UTHSCSA.edu. Manuscripts submitted for publication must be submitted solely to JOE. They must not be submitted for consideration elsewhere or be published elsewhere.

    Disclaimer

    The statements, opinions, and advertisements in the Journal of Endodontics are solely those of the individual authors, contributors, editors, or advertisers, as indicated. Those statements, opinions, and advertisements do not affect any endorsement by the American Association of Endodontists or its agents, authors, contributors, editors, or advertisers, or the publisher. Unless otherwise specified, the American Association of Endodontists and the publisher disclaim any and all responsibility or liability for such material.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Human and animal rights

    If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Reporting clinical trials

    Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on http://www.consort-statement.org.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/joe/.

    General Points on Composition
    Authors are strongly encouraged to analyze their final draft with both software (eg, spelling and grammar programs) and colleagues who have expertise in English grammar. References listed at the end of this section provide a more extensive review of rules of English grammar and guidelines for writing a scientific article. Always remember that clarity is the most important feature of scientific writing. Scientific articles must be clear and precise in their content and concise in their delivery because their purpose is to inform the reader. The Editor reserves the right to edit all manuscripts or to reject those manuscripts that lack clarity or precision or that have unacceptable grammar or syntax. The following list represents common errors in manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Endodontics:

    a. The paragraph is the ideal unit of organization. Paragraphs typically start with an introductory sentence that is followed by sentences that describe additional detail or examples. The last sentence of the paragraph provides conclusions and forms a transition to the next paragraph. Common problems include one-sentence paragraphs, sentences that do not develop the theme of the paragraph (see also section “c,” below), or sentences with little to no transition within a paragraph.

    b. Keep to the point. The subject of the sentence should support the subject of the paragraph For example, the introduction of authors’ names in a sentence changes the subject and lengthens the text. In a paragraph on sodium hypochlorite, the sentence, “In 1983, Langeland et al, reported that sodium hypochlorite acts as a lubricating factor during instrumentation and helps to flush debris from the root canals” can be edited to: “Sodium hypochlorite acts as a lubricant during instrumentation and as a vehicle for flushing the generated debris (Langeland et al, 1983).” In this example, the paragraph’s subject is sodium hypochlorite and sentences should focus on this subject.

    c. Sentences are stronger when written in the active voice, that is, the subject performs the action. Passive sentences are identified by the use of passive verbs such as “was,” “were,” “could,” etc. For example: “Dexamethasone was found in this study to be a factor that was associated with reduced inflammation,” can be edited to: “Our results demonstrated that dexamethasone reduced inflammation.” Sentences written in a direct and active voice are generally more powerful and shorter than sentences written in the passive voice.

    d. Reduce verbiage. Short sentences are easier to understand. The inclusion of unnecessary words is often associated with the use of a passive voice, a lack of focus, or run-on sentences. This is not to imply that all sentences need be short or even the same length. Indeed, variation in sentence structure and length often helps to maintain reader interest. However, make all words count. A more formal way of stating this point is that the use of subordinate clauses adds variety and information when constructing a paragraph. (This section was written deliberately with sentences of varying length to illustrate this point.)

    e. Use parallel construction to express related ideas. For example, the sentence, “Formerly, endodontics was taught by hand instrumentation, while now rotary instrumentation is the common method,” can be edited to “Formerly, endodontics was taught using hand instrumentation; now it is commonly taught using rotary instrumentation.” The use of parallel construction in sentences simply means that similar ideas are expressed in similar ways, and this helps the reader recognize that the ideas are related.

    f. Keep modifying phrases close to the word that they modify. This is a common problem in complex sentences that may confuse the reader. For example, the statement, “Accordingly, when conclusions are drawn from the results of this study, caution must be used,” can be edited to “Caution must be used when conclusions are drawn from the results of this study.”

    g. To summarize these points, effective sentences are clear and precise, and often are short, simple and focused on one key point that supports the paragraph’s theme.

    h. Authors should be aware that the JOE uses iThenticate, plagiarism detection software, to ensure originality and integrity of material published in the journal. The use of copied sentences, even when present within quotation marks, is highly discouraged. Instead, the information of the original research should be expressed by the new manuscript author’s own words, and a proper citation given at the end of the sentence. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and manuscripts will be rejected or papers withdrawn after publication based on unethical actions by the authors. In addition, authors may be sanctioned for future publication.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Structured abstract

    A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

    Abstract Headings
    Introduction, Methods, Results, Conclusions

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    The authors deny any conflicts of interest related to this study.

    Original Research Article Guidelines

    Title Page
    The title describes the major emphasis of the paper. It must be as short as possible without loss of clarity. Avoid abbreviations in the title because this may lead to imprecise coding by electronic citation programs such as PubMed (eg, use sodium hypochlorite rather than NaOCl). The author list must conform to published standards on authorship (see authorship criteria in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at www.icmje.org). Include the manuscript title; the names and affiliations of all authors; and the name, affiliation, and full mailing address (including e-mail) of the corresponding author. This author will be responsible for proofreading page proofs and ordering reprints when applicable. Also highlight the contribution of each author in the cover letter.

    Abstract
    The Abstract concisely describes the purpose of the study in 250 or fewer words. It must be organized into sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The hypothesis is described in the Abstract Introduction. The Abstract describes the new contributions made by this study. The Abstract word limitation and its wide distribution (eg, PubMed) make it challenging to write clearly. This section is written last by many authors. Write the abstract in past tense because the study has been completed. Provide 3-5 keywords.

    Introduction
    The introduction briefly reviews the pertinent literature in order to identify the gap in knowledge that the study is intended to address and the limitations of previous studies in the area. Clearly describe the purpose of the study, the tested hypothesis, and its scope. Many successful manuscripts require no more than a few paragraphs to accomplish these goals; therefore, do not perform extensive literature review or discuss the results of the study in this section.

    Materials and Methods
    The Materials and Methods section is intended to permit other investigators to repeat your experiments. There are 4 components to this section: (1) detailed description of the materials used and their components, (2) experimental design, (3) procedures employed, and (4) statistical tests used to analyze the results. Most manuscripts should cite prior studies that used similar methods and succinctly describe the essential aspects used in the present study. A "methods figure" will be rejected unless the procedure is novel and requires an illustration for comprehension. If the method is novel, then you must carefully describe the method and include validation experiments. If the study used a commercial product, the manuscript must either state that you followed manufacturer’s protocol or specify any changes made to the protocol. If the study used an in vitro model to simulate a clinical outcome, describe either experiments made to validate the model or previous literature that proved the clinical relevance of the model. The statistical analysis section must describe which tests were used to analyze which dependent measures; P values must be specified. Additional details may include randomization scheme, stratification (if any), power analysis as a basis for sample size computation, dropouts from clinical trials, the effects of important confounding variables, and bivariate versus multivariate analysis.

    Results
    Only experimental results are appropriate in this section; do not include methods, discussion, or conclusions. Include only those data that are critical for the study, as defined by the aim(s). Do not include all available data without justification; any repetitive findings will be rejected from publication. All Figures, Charts, and Tables must be cited in the text in numerical order and include a brief description of the major findings. Consider using Supplemental Figures, Tables, or Video clips that will be published online. Supplemental material often is used to provide additional information or control experiments that support the results section (eg, microarray data).

    Figures
    There are 2 general types of figures: type 1 includes photographs, radiographs, or micrographs; type 2 includes graphs. Type 1: Include only essential figures and use composite figures containing several panels of photographs, if possible. Each panel must be clearly identified with a letter (eg, A, B, C), and the parts must be defined in the figure legend. A figure that contains many panels counts as 1 figure. Type 2: Graphs (ie, line drawings including bar graphs) that plot a dependent measure (on the Y axis) as a function of an independent measure (usually plotted on the X axis). One example is a graph depicting pain scores over time. Use graphs when the overall trend of the results is more important than the exact numeric values of the results. A graph is a convenient way to report that an ibuprofen-treated group reported less pain than a placebo-treated group over the first 24 hours, but pain reported was the same for both groups over the next 96 hours. In this case, the trend of the results is the primary finding; the actual pain scores are not as critical as the relative differences between the NSAID and placebo groups.

    Tables
    Tables are appropriate when it is critical to present exact numeric values; however, not all results need be placed in either a table or figure. Instead of a simple table, the results could state that there was no inhibition of growth from 0.001%-0.03% NaOCl, and a 100% inhibition of growth from 0.03%-3% NaOCl (N=5/group). If the results are not significant, then it is probably not necessary to include the results in either a table or as a figure.

    Acknowledgments
    All authors must affirm that they have no financial affiliation (eg, employment, direct payment, stock holdings, retainers, consultantships, patent licensing arrangements, or honoraria), or involvement with any commercial organization with direct financial interest in the subject or materials discussed in this manuscript, nor have any such arrangements existed in the past 3 years. Disclose any potential conflict of interest. Append a paragraph to the manuscript that fully discloses any financial or other interest that poses a conflict. Disclose all sources and attribute all grants, contracts, or donations that funded the study. Specific wording: "The authors deny any conflicts of interest related to this study."

    References
    The reference style can be learned from reading past issues of JOE. References are numbered in order of citation. Place text citation of the reference Arabic number in parentheses at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause that requires a literature citation. Do not use superscript for references. Original reports are limited to 35 references. There are no limits in the number of references for review articles.

    Other Article Types and Guidelines

    Manuscripts submitted to JOE that are not Original Articles must fall into one of the following categories. Abstract limit: 250 words. Note that word limits, listed by type, do not include figure legends or References. If you are not sure whether your manuscript falls within one of the categories listed or if you would like to request pre-approval to submit additional figures, contact the Editor at JEndodontics@uthscsa.edu.

    CONSORT Randomized Clinical Trial
    Must strictly adhere to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials—CONSORT—minimum guidelines for publication of randomized clinical trials (http://www.consort-statement.org). Word limit: 3500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

    Review Article
    Either narrative articles or systemic reviews/meta-analyses. Case Report/Clinical Techniques articles, even when they include an extensive review of the literature, are categorized as Case Report/Clinical Techniques. Word limit: 3500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

    Clinical Research
    Prospective or retrospective studies of patients or patient records, research on biopsies excluding the use of human teeth for technique studies. Word limit: 3500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

    Basic Research—Biology
    Animal or culture studies of biological research on physiology, development, stem cell differentiation, inflammation, or pathology. Primary focus is on biology. Word limit: 2500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

    Basic Research—Technology
    Focus primarily on research related to techniques and materials used, or on potential clinical use, in endodontics. Word limit: 2500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 3. Maximum number of tables: 3.

    Case Report/Clinical Techniques
    Reports of an unusual clinical case or use of a cutting edge technology in a clinical case. Word limit: 2500. Headings: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments. Maximum number of figures: 4. Maximum number of tables: 4.

    Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not allowed in the reference list, but they may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web References
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references are included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by Arabic numerals in parentheses, numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. List 3 authors then et al.
    Examples:
    Journal article:
    1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Book:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style, 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
    Chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York: E-Publishing; 2009:281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names are abbreviated according to Index medicus.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to the Journal Manager at Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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