Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Editorial Policies
    • Types of Papers
    • Contact for Questions
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Copyright
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Photographic Consent
    • Submission Information
    • Special Departments/Sections
    • Manuscript Preparation
    • Formatting Manuscripts
    • Essential title page information
    • Structured abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Illustrations and Figure Legends
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission Checklist
    • Checklist for Authors
    • General Information
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints

    Editorial Policies

    The Journal of Emergency Nursing (JEN) welcomes unsolicited articles.

    Articles that are published as print articles in the JEN will also be published online in the correlating online issue of JEN.

    Articles that are designated by JEN as online-only will not be published in hardcopy, although they will be listed in the hardcopy table of contents. All JEN articles, print or online, are recognized as published articles. When an author is notified via email of the JEN issue to which his/her accepted article is assigned, he/she will also be notified whether his/her article will be published as online-only or in hardcopy.

    All submitted manuscripts must be original material that has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal at the time of submission to JEN.

    Types of Papers

    JEN publishes the following full-length and department articles. Submission information is provided below.

    Full-length Articles: Research, Clinical, Practice Improvement

    Department/Section Articles: Case Review, Clinical Nurses Forum, Danger Zone, Experience Talks, Geriatric Update, Injury Prevention, International Emergency Nursing, Letters to the Editor, Pediatric Update, Pharm/Tox Corner, Trauma Notebook, Triage Decisions

    Contact for Questions

    Direct questions to Managing Editor Annie Kelly at: or 413-427-3620.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

    Plagiarism is globally recognized as a serious academic offense. Please read and adhere to the guidelines for Ethics in Publishing. Please accept these guidelines (by checking the box in the last column) before you approve your paper and complete the submission of your paper.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

    Authors are required to disclose to the Editor, in a cover letter at the time of submission, any commercial associations that could pose a conflict of interest or financial bias. These include consultation fees, patent licensing arrangements, company stock, payments for conducting or publicizing a study, travel, honoraria, gifts, or meals. If the article is accepted for publication, the Editor will determine how any conflict of interest should be disclosed.

    Direct quotations, tables, and illustrations that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author and complete source information must be cited. Articles appear in both the print and online versions of the journal, and wording of the letter should specify permission in all forms and media. Failure to get electronic permission rights may result in images not appearing in the online version at

    Authors are expected to fulfill the requirements of their employer's publication policy before submitting their manuscript.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here:


    Articles published in JEN are copyrighted by the Emergency Nurses Association. Authors who wish to republish their work in part or in whole elsewhere must request permission to do so. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal cirulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to:


    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

    Author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit
    After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
    • No open access publication fee payable by authors.

    Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

    For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
    For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)

    The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

    Photographic Consent

    Photographs of identifiable persons, whether patients or staff, must be accompanied by signed releases, such as the following: "I hereby give [author's name] permission to use the photograph of [subject's name] in the Journal of Emergency Nursing."

    Submission Information

    All submitted manuscripts must be original material that has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal at the time of submission to JEN. The review process customarily requires approximately 8 weeks, though there are exceptions. Enquiry calls or e-mails after 8 weeks to ask about the decision are welcomed.

    All new Clinical, Research, and Practice Improvement full-length manuscripts, as well as Case Reviews and Letters to the Editor, must be submitted through the JEN online submission and review Web site ( The Web site guides authors stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. Authors are to submit the text, tables, and artwork in electronic form (not as a PDF) to this address. Submission items include a cover letter (save as a separate file for upload), the manuscript (including title page, abstract [for research and practice improvement manuscripts only], main text, references, tables, figures, and table/figure legends.) Authors are responsible for statistical analysis, which must be reviewed for accuracy prior to article submission. JEN does not publish pilot studies. Revised manuscripts should also be accompanied by a cover letter for comments to the editor. The submission order of files is as follows: cover letter, manuscript file(s), table(s), figure(s). Files are to be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (e.g., SmithText.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc). Upload text, tables, and graphics (figures) as separate files. (You can compress multiple figure files into a ZIP file and upload that in one step; the system will then unpack the files and prompt you to name each figure.) Do not import figures or tables into the text document and do not upload your text as a PDF.

    Authors must submit their articles electronically to this journal. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to a PDF file at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by via the Elsevier Editorial System.

    Special Departments/Sections

    Contributions to departments/sections are not peer reviewed as a rule. Contributing authors work directly with the section editor. The section editor makes the recommendation to the editor-in-chief regarding acceptance. The editor-in-chief then makes the final decision regarding publication.

    Queries and/or manuscripts should be e-mailed directly to the appropriate section editor.

    Authors of all column manuscripts will be asked to go to the JEN online author form at and complete and submit the online author form once the paper is scheduled for publication.

    Clinical Nurses Forum Send to Andrew D. Harding at: or Kate Whalen at:

    Danger Zone Send to Susan Paparella at:

    Experience Talks Send to AnnMarie Papa at: or Cindy Lefton at:

    Geriatric Update Send to Joan Somes at: or Nancy Stephens Donatelli at:

    Injury Prevention Send to Anna Maria Valdez at

    International Emergency Nursing Send to Pat Clutter at: or Nancy Bonalumi at:

    Pediatric Update Send to Joyce Foresman-Capuzzi at: or Sue M. Cadwell at:

    Pharm/Tox Corner Send to Allison A. Muller at

    Trauma Notebook Send to Kate Moore at

    Triage Decisions Send to Andi Foley at: or Patti Howard at:

    Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts must be typed and double-spaced. Research and clinical articles are limited to 15 pages. Practice Improvement articles are limited to 12 pages. Articles for special departments/sections are limited to 3 to 5 pages. Letters to the Editor are limited to 1 page. Length restrictions for all manuscripts apply to text plus references, tables, charts, and illustrations.

    All lines on Research, Clinical, and Practice Improvement manuscripts must be numbered. To do this, submitting authors can open their manuscript in Word, then click on "File" at the top left of their computer screen to open selections, and then click on the selection that says "Page Setup." The page setup box will then appear, and they can click on the "Layout" option at the top of the box, and then go down to the bottom left of the box where it says "Line Numbers." Click on "Line Numbers" and a smaller box will appear. Click on the box where it says "Add Line Numbering," and then click on the box toward the bottom that says "Continuous Numbering." Then click "OK" at the bottom of that box, and then "OK" at the bottom of the remaining box.

    Title page The title page must include the manuscript title, full name(s) of author(s), academic degrees, position, institution, city, state, and ENA chapter name, if a member. Designate the corresponding author. Include home address, business, and home telephone numbers, and e-mail address.

    Body of Text Standard abbreviations are to be used consistently throughout the article. Spell out unusual or coined abbreviations at first mention, followed in parentheses by the abbreviation. The policy of JEN is to abbreviate the term "emergency department" when it modifies a word (eg, "ED procedure") and to spell it out when it is used as a noun (eg, "in the emergency department"). The term "emergency nurse" should be used.

    The generic name of a drug is to be used instead of the proprietary name whenever possible. If it is necessary to use a trade name for a drug, capitalize the name and insert it parenthetically after the generic name when first mentioned. Treat product names similarly, and the manufacturer's full name, city, and state should be cited in a footnote or in parentheses in the text.

    Weights and measurements are to be expressed in metric units and temperature in degrees centigrade, followed with Fahrenheit degrees in parentheses.

    References References are to be to the original sources of information in most instances. JEN requires AMA style, 10th Edition referencing. Cite references by number only in the text, consecutively, in the order of their mention. Type a numbered reference list double-spaced at the end of the text to correspond with the in-text reference citations.

    Research and Practice Improvement Manuscripts
    Preparation of Research Manuscripts

    Research manuscripts are to include the following headings: Introduction (describe the problem, significance, synthesize relevant literature, purpose of the study, research, questions or hypotheses), Methods (describe the study design, sample and setting, human subjects protection, measures, data analysis procedures), Results, Discussion, Limitations, Implications for Emergency Nurses, and Conclusions. All references must be cited in the text. References are to be the original sources of information in most instances. JEN requires AMA-style referencing. Cite references by number only in the text, consecutively, in the order of their mention. Type a numbered reference list double-spaced at the end of the text to correspond with the in-text reference citations. The length of the manuscript is not to exceed 15 double-spaced pages, including references, tables, charts, and figures. Reports of randomized controlled trials must address all items in the CONSORT checklist ( Include a structured abstract of no more than 250 words in the following format: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Do not use abbreviations or referenced statements in the abstract. Please provide up to 6 key words. An electronic copy of the the actual IRB permission letter from the institution that granted permission to do the study must accompany the submission. An English translation must be submitted in addition, if applicable.

    Preparation of Practice Improvement Manuscripts

    Original articles reporting quality improvement (QI) or evidence-based practice (EBP) projects or capstone projects may not be generalized beyond the author’s organization but they may be of interest to JEN readers who have similar clinical issues in comparable institutions. Authors should use the SQUIRE guidelines ( to prepare the manuscript. Please be advised that while much of the content in the Squire Guidelines is appropriate for inclusion, every numbered subject headings (1-19) may not be applicable to every manuscript.

    Reports of projects involving human participants must include a statement explaining what type of oversight is required, or the ethical standards followed, at the author’s organization to conduct QI or EBP projects. This may or may not include Institutional Review Board (IRB) review.

    Practice Improvement manuscripts should be written in the first person. An abstract (250 words or less) should be included and should contain a brief description of the problem, methods, results, and implications for practice. The manuscript is not to exceed 12 pages, including references, tables, and figures. Do not use abbreviations or referenced statements in the abstract.

    References are to be the original sources of information in most instances. JEN requires AMA-style referencing. Cite references by number only in the text, consecutively, in the order of their mention. Type a numbered reference list double-spaced at the end of the text to correspond with the in-text reference citations.

    Formatting Manuscripts

    The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Structured abstract

    A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.


    Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Illustrations and Figure Legends

    Illustrations are to be sent in separate files. All images should be at least 5-inches wide. Graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator, not presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics, should be used in the creation of the art. Grayscale images are to be at least 300 DPI. Combinations of grayscale and line art should be at least 1200 DPI.

    Number figures consecutively in the order of their mention in the text. Indicate the figure number and name of the corresponding author.

    Legends must accompany each figure. List legends in the body of the manuscript after the references. If an illustration was previously published, the legend must give full credit to the original source.

    References used only in a figure but not in text must be listed in chronogical order in the references cited section. Refer to the AMA Manual of Style, 10th Edition for more information.

    Further instructions can be found at

    Color Artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS [or PDF], or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, please indicate at the time of submission if there is a strong reason your figures should also print in color. JEN has a small budget of print color pages per issue and the editor-in-chief will decide what artwork will print in color free of charge when articles are selected for issues. If you are willing to pay for your artwork to print in color, please also let the editor know at submission, or let the Journal Manager know during the production process and a color art estimate can be sent to you. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) you may be asked to submit usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


    Tables are to be typed double-spaced in separate files. They should be numbered in order of their mention in the text. Be sure that a title is included for each table and that full credit is given (in the form of a footnote to the table) to the original source of previously published material. Complete instructions for submitting tables can be found on the JEN online submission and review Web site (


    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged. For additional information regarding DOI, see "Use of the Digital Object Identifier" below in the "After Acceptance" section.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference style
    Reference style

    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see
    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Reference to a journal publication:
    1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

    Submission Checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    • One author has been designated as the corresponding author, with contact details
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    • All text pages
    • Keywords
    • Original artwork (high-quality prints)
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at:

    Checklist for Authors

    ___Submission letter (including home and work addresses and phone numbers of corresponding author)

    ___Online Author Form to be completed and submitted by going to:

    ___Title page (add reprint request line if desired or specify no reprints)

    ___References (double-spaced; JEN requires AMA style, 10th Edition referencing. Cite references by number only in the text)

    ___Tables (double-spaced)

    ___Illustrations, properly labeled

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