Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Editorial Policies
    • Types of Papers
    • Contact for Questions
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Photographic Consent
    • Submission Information
    • Special Departments/Sections
    PREPARATION
    • Manuscript Preparation
    • Formatting Manuscripts
    • Essential title page information
    • Structured abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Illustrations and Figure Legends
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission Checklist
    • Checklist for Authors
    • General Information
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Editorial Policies

    The Journal of Emergency Nursing (JEN) welcomes unsolicited articles.

    Articles that are published as print articles in the JEN will also be published online in the correlating online issue of JEN.

    Articles that are designated by JEN as online-only will not be published in hardcopy, although they will be listed in the hardcopy table of contents. All JEN articles, print or online, are recognized as published articles. When an author is notified via email of the JEN issue to which his/her accepted article is assigned, he/she will also be notified whether his/her article will be published as online-only or in hardcopy.

    All submitted manuscripts must be original material that has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal at the time of submission to JEN.

    Types of Papers

    JEN publishes the following full-length and department articles. Submission information is provided below.

    Full-length Articles: Research, Clinical, Practice Improvement

    Department/Section Articles: Case Review, Clinical Nurses Forum, Danger Zone, Experience Talks, Geriatric Update, Injury Prevention, International Emergency Nursing, Letters to the Editor, Pediatric Update, Pharm/Tox Corner, Trauma Notebook, Triage Decisions

    Contact for Questions

    Direct questions to Managing Editor Annie Kelly at: anniebkelly@comcast.net or 413-427-3620.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Plagiarism is globally recognized as a serious academic offense. Please read and adhere to the guidelines for Ethics in Publishing. Please accept these guidelines (by checking the box in the last column) before you approve your paper and complete the submission of your paper.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Authors are required to disclose to the Editor, in a cover letter at the time of submission, any commercial associations that could pose a conflict of interest or financial bias. These include consultation fees, patent licensing arrangements, company stock, payments for conducting or publicizing a study, travel, honoraria, gifts, or meals. If the article is accepted for publication, the Editor will determine how any conflict of interest should be disclosed.

    Direct quotations, tables, and illustrations that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author and complete source information must be cited. Articles appear in both the print and online versions of the journal, and wording of the letter should specify permission in all forms and media. Failure to get electronic permission rights may result in images not appearing in the online version at www.JENonline.org.

    Authors are expected to fulfill the requirements of their employer's publication policy before submitting their manuscript.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    Articles published in JEN are copyrighted by the Emergency Nurses Association. Authors who wish to republish their work in part or in whole elsewhere must request permission to do so. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal cirulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $3000 applies (for further information on open access see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-options). Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/openaccessform.pdf). Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Photographic Consent

    Photographs of identifiable persons, whether patients or staff, must be accompanied by signed releases, such as the following: "I hereby give [author's name] permission to use the photograph of [subject's name] in the Journal of Emergency Nursing."

    Submission Information

    All submitted manuscripts must be original material that has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal at the time of submission to JEN. The review process customarily requires approximately 8 weeks, though there are exceptions. Enquiry calls or e-mails after 8 weeks to ask about the decision are welcomed.

    All new Clinical, Research, and Practice Improvement full-length manuscripts, as well as Case Reviews and Letters to the Editor, must be submitted through the JEN online submission and review Web site (http://ees.elsevier.com/jen/). The Web site guides authors stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. Authors are to submit the text, tables, and artwork in electronic form (not as a PDF) to this address. Submission items include a cover letter (save as a separate file for upload), the manuscript (including title page, abstract [for research and practice improvement manuscripts only], main text, references, tables, figures, and table/figure legends.) Authors are responsible for statistical analysis, which must be reviewed for accuracy prior to article submission. JEN does not publish pilot studies. Revised manuscripts should also be accompanied by a cover letter for comments to the editor. The submission order of files is as follows: cover letter, manuscript file(s), table(s), figure(s). Files are to be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (e.g., SmithText.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc). Upload text, tables, and graphics (figures) as separate files. (You can compress multiple figure files into a ZIP file and upload that in one step; the system will then unpack the files and prompt you to name each figure.) Do not import figures or tables into the text document and do not upload your text as a PDF.

    Authors must submit their articles electronically to this journal. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to a PDF file at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by via the Elsevier Editorial System.

    Special Departments/Sections

    Contributions to departments/sections are not peer reviewed as a rule. Contributing authors work directly with the section editor. The section editor makes the recommendation to the editor-in-chief regarding acceptance. The editor-in-chief then makes the final decision regarding publication.

    Queries and/or manuscripts should be e-mailed directly to the appropriate section editor.

    Authors of all column manuscripts will be asked to go to the JEN online author form at http://www.ena.org/publications/jen/Pages/AuthorAgreement.aspx and complete and submit the online author form once the paper is scheduled for publication.

    Clinical Nurses Forum Send to Andrew D. Harding at: ADHardingRN@gmail.com or Kate Whalen at: katewhalenrn@aol.com

    Danger Zone Send to Susan Paparella at: spaparella@ismp.org

    Experience Talks Send to AnnMarie Papa at: ampapa109@hotmail.com or Cindy Lefton at: clefton@q4solutions.com

    Geriatric Update Send to Joan Somes at: somes@black-hole.com or Nancy Stephens Donatelli at: question4gene@gmail.com

    Injury Prevention Send to Anna Maria Valdez at avaldez@santarosa.edu

    International Emergency Nursing Send to Pat Clutter at: prclutter@gmail.com or Nancy Bonalumi at: NBonalumi@comcast.net

    Pediatric Update Send to Joyce Foresman-Capuzzi at: joyceforesmancapuzzi@rcn.com or Sue M. Cadwell at: sue.cadwell@hcahealthcare.com

    Pharm/Tox Corner Send to Allison A. Muller at acri.muller@comcast.net

    Trauma Notebook Send to Kate Moore at kmmoor4@emory.edu

    Triage Decisions Send to Andi Foley at: andii42@yahoo.com or Patti Howard at: PKHoward@uky.edu

    Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts must be typed and double-spaced. Research and clinical articles are limited to 15 pages. Practice Improvement articles are limited to 12 pages. Articles for special departments/sections are limited to 3 to 5 pages. Letters to the Editor are limited to 1 page. Length restrictions for all manuscripts apply to text plus references, tables, charts, and illustrations.

    All lines on Research, Clinical, and Practice Improvement manuscripts must be numbered. To do this, submitting authors can open their manuscript in Word, then click on "File" at the top left of their computer screen to open selections, and then click on the selection that says "Page Setup." The page setup box will then appear, and they can click on the "Layout" option at the top of the box, and then go down to the bottom left of the box where it says "Line Numbers." Click on "Line Numbers" and a smaller box will appear. Click on the box where it says "Add Line Numbering," and then click on the box toward the bottom that says "Continuous Numbering." Then click "OK" at the bottom of that box, and then "OK" at the bottom of the remaining box.

    Title page The title page must include the manuscript title, full name(s) of author(s), academic degrees, position, institution, city, state, and ENA chapter name, if a member. Designate the corresponding author. Include home address, business, and home telephone numbers, and e-mail address.

    Body of Text Standard abbreviations are to be used consistently throughout the article. Spell out unusual or coined abbreviations at first mention, followed in parentheses by the abbreviation. The policy of JEN is to abbreviate the term "emergency department" when it modifies a word (eg, "ED procedure") and to spell it out when it is used as a noun (eg, "in the emergency department"). The term "emergency nurse" should be used.

    The generic name of a drug is to be used instead of the proprietary name whenever possible. If it is necessary to use a trade name for a drug, capitalize the name and insert it parenthetically after the generic name when first mentioned. Treat product names similarly, and the manufacturer's full name, city, and state should be cited in a footnote or in parentheses in the text.

    Weights and measurements are to be expressed in metric units and temperature in degrees centigrade, followed with Fahrenheit degrees in parentheses.

    References References are to be to the original sources of information in most instances. JEN requires AMA style, 10th Edition referencing. Cite references by number only in the text, consecutively, in the order of their mention. Type a numbered reference list double-spaced at the end of the text to correspond with the in-text reference citations.

    Research and Practice Improvement Manuscripts
    Preparation of Research Manuscripts

    Research manuscripts are to include the following headings: Introduction (describe the problem, significance, synthesize relevant literature, purpose of the study, research, questions or hypotheses), Methods (describe the study design, sample and setting, human subjects protection, measures, data analysis procedures), Results, Discussion, Limitations, Implications for Emergency Nurses, and Conclusions. All references must be cited in the text. References are to be the original sources of information in most instances. JEN requires AMA-style referencing. Cite references by number only in the text, consecutively, in the order of their mention. Type a numbered reference list double-spaced at the end of the text to correspond with the in-text reference citations. The length of the manuscript is not to exceed 15 double-spaced pages, including references, tables, charts, and figures. Reports of randomized controlled trials must address all items in the CONSORT checklist (http://www.consort-statement.org). Include a structured abstract of no more than 250 words in the following format: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Do not use abbreviations or referenced statements in the abstract. Please provide up to 6 key words. An electronic copy of the the actual IRB permission letter from the institution that granted permission to do the study must accompany the submission. An English translation must be submitted in addition, if applicable.

    Preparation of Practice Improvement Manuscripts

    Original articles reporting quality improvement (QI) or evidence-based practice (EBP) projects or capstone projects may not be generalized beyond the author’s organization but they may be of interest to JEN readers who have similar clinical issues in comparable institutions. Authors should use the SQUIRE guidelines (http://www.squire-statement.org) to prepare the manuscript. Please be advised that while much of the content in the Squire Guidelines is appropriate for inclusion, every numbered subject headings (1-19) may not be applicable to every manuscript.

    Reports of projects involving human participants must include a statement explaining what type of oversight is required, or the ethical standards followed, at the author’s organization to conduct QI or EBP projects. This may or may not include Institutional Review Board (IRB) review.

    Practice Improvement manuscripts should be written in the first person. An abstract (250 words or less) should be included and should contain a brief description of the problem, methods, results, and implications for practice. The manuscript is not to exceed 12 pages, including references, tables, and figures. Do not use abbreviations or referenced statements in the abstract.

    References are to be the original sources of information in most instances. JEN requires AMA-style referencing. Cite references by number only in the text, consecutively, in the order of their mention. Type a numbered reference list double-spaced at the end of the text to correspond with the in-text reference citations.

    Formatting Manuscripts

    The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Structured abstract

    A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

    Highlights

    Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Illustrations and Figure Legends

    Illustrations are to be sent in separate files. All images should be at least 5-inches wide. Graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator, not presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics, should be used in the creation of the art. Grayscale images are to be at least 300 DPI. Combinations of grayscale and line art should be at least 1200 DPI.

    Number figures consecutively in the order of their mention in the text. Indicate the figure number and name of the corresponding author.

    Legends must accompany each figure. List legends in the body of the manuscript after the references. If an illustration was previously published, the legend must give full credit to the original source.

    References used only in a figure but not in text must be listed in chronogical order in the references cited section. Refer to the AMA Manual of Style, 10th Edition for more information.

    Further instructions can be found at www.elsevier.com/authors.

    Color Artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS [or PDF], or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, please indicate at the time of submission if there is a strong reason your figures should also print in color. JEN has a small budget of print color pages per issue and the editor-in-chief will decide what artwork will print in color free of charge when articles are selected for issues. If you are willing to pay for your artwork to print in color, please also let the editor know at submission, or let the Journal Manager know during the production process and a color art estimate can be sent to you. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) you may be asked to submit usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Tables are to be typed double-spaced in separate files. They should be numbered in order of their mention in the text. Be sure that a title is included for each table and that full credit is given (in the form of a footnote to the table) to the original source of previously published material. Complete instructions for submitting tables can be found on the JEN online submission and review Web site (ees.elsevier.com/jen).

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged. For additional information regarding DOI, see "Use of the Digital Object Identifier" below in the "After Acceptance" section.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).
    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission Checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    • One author has been designated as the corresponding author, with contact details
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    • All text pages
    • Keywords
    • Original artwork (high-quality prints)
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
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    Checklist for Authors

    ___Submission letter (including home and work addresses and phone numbers of corresponding author)

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    ___Title page (add reprint request line if desired or specify no reprints)

    ___References (double-spaced; JEN requires AMA style, 10th Edition referencing. Cite references by number only in the text)

    ___Tables (double-spaced)

    ___Illustrations, properly labeled

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    ___Patient consent letters (photographic and informed consent) and permission letters to reproduce previously published material in all forms and media

    General Information

    The editor(s) and publisher of JEN believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal "code of conduct," these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should:

    A) be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere

    B) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner

    C) properly credit the meaningful contributions of coauthors and co-researchers

    D) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration (ensuring it is not under redundant simultaneous peer review)

    E) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. For a full description of the standards of expected ethical behavior by all parties involved in the publishing process (the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher and the society for society-owned or sponsored journals) please see: www.elsevier.com.

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    While it may not be possible to draft a "code" that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that JEN will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. Relevant conflicts of interest should be disclosed (see www.elsevier.com).

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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