Guide for Authors

  • Editorial Policies and Procedures

    The American Dairy Science Association® (ADSA®)invites scientists from the global community to submitpapers for consideration to the Journal of Dairy Science.Authors need not be members of ADSA.

    These instructions detail the form and style requiredby the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS) for papers submittedfor publication. Papers that do not follow theform and style of the journal may be rejected withoutreview. It is recommended that authors refer to theseinstructions when preparing manuscripts, when incorporatingrequested changes into revisions after review,and when checking author proofs.

    Contact Information for Journal Staff

    For information on the scientific content of the journal,contact the editor-in-chief, Dr. Roger D. Shanks,Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois,308 Animal Science Lab, 1207 West Gregory Drive,Urbana, IL 61801; phone: (217) 344-7512;

    For assistance with Manuscript Central, ManuscriptSubmission/Copyright forms, and page charge/offprint orders contact Jennifer Gavel, Editorial Assistant,Headquarters Office, 1800 South Oak St., Suite 100,Champaign, IL 61820; FAX (217) 378-4083;

    For other information or to submit a paper, contactSusan Pollock, Managing Editor, Headquarters Office,American Dairy Science Association, 1800 South Oak St., Suite 100,Champaign, IL 61820; phone (217) 356-7641; FAX (217) 378-4083;

    Care and Use of Animals

    All research animals should be acquired, retained,and used in compliance with federal, state, and locallaws and regulations. The authors should state explicitlythat IACUC (or equivalent) approval was obtainedbefore commencement of the study. Authors shouldmake it clear that experiments were conducted in amanner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to theanimals by the use of proper management and laboratorytechniques. Experiments should be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelinespresented in Guidelines for the Care and Use of AgriculturalAnimals in Research and Teaching, 3rd ed.(available from Federation of Animal Science Societies,1800 South Oak St., Suite 100,Champaign, IL 61820, Methods of killing experimentalanimals must be described in the text. When describingsurgical procedures, the type and dosage of theanesthetic agent must be specified.

    Types of Articles

    Full-Length Research Papers. The majority of paperspublished in JDS are full-length research articles.The journal emphasizes the importance of good scientificwriting and clarity in presentation of the conceptsand methods, and sufficient background informationthat would be required for thorough understandingby scientists in other disciplines. The results of experimentspublished in the journal must be replicated,either by replicating treatments within experiments orby repeating experiments.
    In addition to full-length research papers, the followingtypes of articles appear in the journal:Our Industry Today. The Our Industry

    Our Industry Today. The Our Industry Todaysection includes interpretive applied summaries andrecommendations from research that are useful to thedairy industry. Syntheses and applications from technicalreports that contribute to solutions of problems inthe dairy industry especially are solicited. Authors ofreports for extension education of the nonscientist areencouraged to share their contributions with colleaguesand to achieve larger circulation of their conclusionsand recommendations through this section. In addition,papers that report on advances in teaching andoutreach techniques are suitable for this section. Theorganization of papers for Our Industry Today mayvary but should be logical and effective; an abstract isrequired. All other style and form instructions apply.

    Hot Topics. Papers submitted for this section mustreport on a completed experiment testing a timely,original hypothesis of importance to an area of dairyscience. The work may be preliminary in nature, butwith sufficient data so that the hypothesis is clearlytested. Results may point to avenues for fruitful, indepthanalyses. Reports must contain an explicitlystated hypothesis and objectives, with sufficient detailin methodology for repetition of the work, as well as a results section, a brief discussion, and references. Totalpage limits for text, tables, figures, and referencesmust be no more than 4 journal pages (approximately10 typewritten pages minus space for tables and figures).The manuscript should contain a title and shortabstract but not separate sections. The total number oftables and figures should be no more than 3; referencesshould be minimal. The first page must have HOTTOPICS in capital letters on the header line.
    These papers will be given priority for publication.An effort will be made to notify authors of a decisionwithin 1 mo of the date of receipt. Once accepted, thepaper should be published within 3 mo.Short Communications. Short communications

    Short Communications. Short communicationsare reports of limited experiments that test a timely,original hypothesis of importance to some area of dairyscience. The manuscript should be no more than 4journal pages in length (approximately 10 typewrittenpages minus space for tables and figures); "Short communication:"should precede the title on the title pageof the manuscript. The manuscript may report negativeresults. Reports must contain a hypothesis, objectives,sufficient detail in methodology for repetition of thework, results with brief discussion, and references.

    Technical Notes. Papers in this section should reporta method that is useful to some aspect of dairyscience. Submissions should include a brief justificationfor the technique, be it new or an improvementon a previously published technique. The report shouldstate a hypothesis, include a full description of proceduresthat can be repeated by researchers, and includeexplicit controls to indicate sensitivity, precision, andaccuracy of the technique.
    If the technique is an improvement on an existingtechnique, sufficient comparison of the previoustechnique should be included, and mean and dispersioninformation must be included. The page limit is4 printed pages (approximately 10 typewritten pagesminus space for tables and figures). Use of tables, figures,and references should be minimized. Requests forlonger technical notes may be made to the senior editorand editor-in-chief, but justification for a longer reportwill be required.

    Invited Reviews. The mechanism for considerationof invited reviews is to encourage additional publication(˜10 to 12 per year) of invited reviews in all sections ofthe journal. Section editors will advise the editor-in-chiefon suggested reviewers and justification for thereview. The editor-in-chief will make the invitationand the invited reviews editor will ensure the qualityof the review. The first 10 printed pages of an invitedreview are published at no cost to the author.
    Authors of symposium papers and invited papers presentedat the joint annual meeting of ADSA/American Society of Animal Science may be selected to contributeinvited review papers.

    Letters to the Editor. Short (300 words) letters tothe editor on topics of concern to readers, includingcomment on publications with rebuttals from authorsif needed, may be submitted to the editor-in-chief or toany of the editors. The letters should be titled, and thetitle and running head should include "Letter to theeditor." Letters will be published at the discretion ofthe editor-in-chief. Authors of letters are subject to thesame copyright release requirements as other authors.Letters are published at no charge to the author(s).

    Biographical Sketches. Occasionally, retiringor past scientists and educators should be subjects ofbiographical essays, both as a small honor to themand as an example and history for other readers. Thissection brings a sense of maturity and completeness toour field. Individuals who wish to submit biographicalsketches should contact the editor-in-chief or one of theeditors for additional instructions.


    Authors should submit their papers online at ManuscriptCentral ( instructions for submitting electronically areprovided online ( who are unable to submit online should mailone copy of the manuscript and a disk with all manuscriptmaterials (text, figures, and tables; preferablysaved as a Microsoft Word file) to Jennifer Gavel, EditorialAssistant, American Dairy Science Association,1800 South Oak St., Suite 100,Champaign, IL 61820. Staffat ADSA headquarters will post manuscripts by proxy,but authors who submit by mail should be aware thatdelays might occur in the review process.

    Copyright Agreement

    Data (including graphs, figures, tables, and illustrations)must not have appeared in print elsewhereexcept as abstracts, local or regional field day reports,extension letters, or non-peer-reviewed, noncopyrightedproceedings of conferences. Material submitted toJDS should not be submitted for publication to popularmagazines, company advertisements, or organizationalproceedings until the author has received notification ofacceptance of the manuscript. Before manuscripts aresubmitted, authors should have them read critically byothers well versed in English to facilitate review, andthe senior author should have authorization to publish.All coauthors should approve the manuscript before itssubmission to the journal.
    The Manuscript Submission and Copyright Releaseform (published in issues of the journal and available from the journal web site: should be submitted for each paper; faxedcopies are acceptable. The copyright agreement is includedin the Manuscript Submission and CopyrightRelease Form; manuscripts cannot be published withoutthis form. The corresponding author is responsiblefor obtaining the signatures of all coauthors. Authorswho are not permitted to release copyright must stillreturn the form with a statement of the reason for notreleasing the copyright.
    Requests to reproduce material published in JDSmust be made through Elsevier's Rights Department(, online via theElsevier homepage (, or via the Copyright Clearance Center( The Association grants tothe authors the right of republication of their own materialin any book, thesis, or dissertation of which theyare authors or editors subject only to giving propercredit in the book to the original JDS publication. Inaddition, authors may post abstracts of manuscriptson the web at the time of submission. Once an authorreceives notification of acceptance, the peer-reviewed,pre-typesetting manuscript can be posted to the author'swebsite. Authors may deposit their peer-reviewed, pretypesettingmanuscript into a repository upon paymentof the open access fee (see page 4 of these instructions).For more information, read the "Terms and Conditions"pages at


    Upon submission to JDS, a manuscript is assignedto an editor, who enlists reviewers to assist in theevaluation of the manuscript. The review process isconfidential, which infers a bond of trust among theauthors, editor, and reviewers. The editor is trustee ofthe manuscript until the review process is completedand ensures that the review process is fair, thorough,and confidential. Reviewers are asked not to share thecontents of the manuscript with anyone, except thatthey may ask a colleague to assist with the review withapproval of the editor. Communication with authorsshould only be through the editor. Reviewers shouldnotify the editor of conflicts of interest that may compromisetheir ability to provide a fair and unbiasedreview. Moreover, they must recognize their responsibilityin maintaining the confidential nature of thereview. Authors should suggest names of appropriatereviewers when submitting the manuscript to streamlinethe review process and may list reviewers whomthey consider unacceptable because of potential bias.These recommendations will be considered by the editorwhen assigning reviewers. Authors should read the statement on publication ethics, Journal of Dairy Science68:3124.
    A reviewed paper returned to authors for revisionmust be returned to the editor within 6 wk. If not, thepaper may be treated as a new submission. Under unusualcircumstances, editors may extend the revisiondeadline beyond 6 wk.


    Accepted manuscripts are forwarded by the sectioneditors to the editorial office for technical editing andtypesetting. At this point the technical editor maycontact the authors for missing information or figurerevisions. The manuscript is then typeset, figures reproduced,and author proofs prepared.


    Author proofs will be sent by e-mail (in PDF format)to the corresponding author. Although the proof appearsin a 2-column page format, it should be considereda galley proof; page layout may change when thearticle is paginated into an issue. Author proofs shouldbe read carefully and checked against the typed manuscript,because responsibility for proofreading lies withthe authors. Corrections may be returned by fax, mail,or e-mail. The Comments feature in Adobe Acrobat orAdobe Reader may be used to insert changes and commentswithin the proof PDF. For faxed or mailed corrections,changes to the proof should be made neatly andclearly in the margins of the proof. If extensive editingis required, corrections should be provided on a separatesheet of paper with a symbol indicating location onthe proof. Changes sent by e-mail to the technical editormust indicate page, column, and line numbers foreach correction to be made on the proof. Author queriesshould be answered on the galley proofs; failure to doso may delay publication.
    Proof corrections should be made and returned tothe technical editor within 3 days of receipt. Publicationcannot proceed until proofs are returned. Contacta technical editor at if you havequestions about the proof correction process.

    Publication Costs

    The Journal of Dairy Science® offers two optionsfor publication of articles: Standard Page Charges andOpen Access.
    Standard Page Charges: The current charge forpublication is $85 per printed page in the journal forarticles if at least one author is a professional memberof ADSA. If no authors are ADSA members, thepublication charge is $140 per journal page. The cost
    Open Access: Under the new open access (OA)policy, authors may choose to pay the OA fee in lieuof standard page charges when author proofs arereturned so that their paper becomes freely availableupon publication in an online issue. The OA fee is $1750if at least one author is a professional member of ADSAor $3500 if no authors are ADSA members. Open accessarticles will be freely accessible through the journal'sweb site ( at thetime of publication. All other (non-OA) articles becomefreely available without a subscription 12 months afterpublication.
    Articles for Deposit: Author(s) publishing articlesunder open access shall bear sole responsibility formeeting the specific posting requirements of theirfunders. Upon payment of the OA fee, authors maydeposit the accepted (peer-reviewed pre-typeset only)manuscript in a repository. The embargo period beforedeposit in a repository is 12 months (or as specified bythe funder) after publication in a journal issue.
    By signing the Manuscript Submission andCopyright Release Form at the time of submission,the authors agree to bear responsibilityfor payment of publication charges. Invoices forpublication charges will be issued at the time an issuegoes to press (approximately 2 weeks before beingposted online). Payment is due within 30 days of receiptof the invoice. The preferred method of paymentis by credit card, with credit card details submitted onthe page charge form sent out with the author's proof.Payment may be made by check, drawn on a US bank.For payments by wire transfer, contact Vicki Paden at Manuscripts will be withheldfrom publication for authors with past-due pagecharge invoice(s) until all prior payment obligationshave been met.

    Page Charge Waivers

    Authors who must use personal funds to pay forpage charges and for whom such charges would entailhardship can request of the editor-in-chief that thesecharges be waived, under the following conditions: 1)the request must be made in writing at the time themanuscript is submitted; 2) the request should beaccompanied by a statement from a financial officer orother official from the institution with which the authoris affiliated, indicating the reasons why page chargescannot be paid; and 3) if the waiver is granted, theauthor is expected to become a professional member of ADSA. Only one waiver will be granted per institutionper twelve-month period. Authors who request waiverscannot order offprints.
    Offprints may be ordered at an additional charge.Offprints will be shipped approximately 1 month afterpublication of the issue. Invoices for offprints will besent to the author or institution shown on the pagecharge and offprint order form. There is a charge forall offprints.



    Papers must be written in English. The text andall supporting materials must use American spellingand usage as given in Merriam-Webster's CollegiateDictionary, 11th ed., Webster's Third International Dictionary,or the Oxford American English Dictionary.Authors should follow the style and form recommendedin Scientific Style and Format. The CSE Manual forAuthors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed., published bythe Council of Science Editors in cooperation with TheRockefeller University Press.
    Authors should prepare their manuscripts in MicrosoftWord (.doc or .docx format) and upload them usingthe fewest files possible to facilitate the review andediting processes.

    Preparing the Manuscript File

    Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced (inMicrosoft Word) with lines and pages numbered consecutively,using Times New Roman font at 12 points.Special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) shouldbe inserted using the symbols palette available in thisfont. Complex math should be entered using Math-Type from Design Science ( Note thatequations created using the new Equation Builder inMicrosoft Word 2007 may not be compatible with earlierversions of Word or other software used in our compositionsystem. Tables and figures should be placedin separate sections at the end of the manuscript (notplaced within the text). Failure to follow these instructionsmay result in immediate rejection of the manuscript.

    Interpretive Summary
    All authors of JDS papers should provide an interpretivesummary (IS) of 100 words or less that hasbeen written for nonspecialist readers. That summaryshould consist of a title, the first author's last name,and a summary, which must include a sentence or two to summarize the project's expected importance, or itseconomic, environmental, and/or social impact (similarto the CRIS Progress Report Statement for those whomust complete that form). Common abbreviations arepermitted (those from the JDS Unrestricted list). Thesummary should appear on top of the first page of themanuscript, before the running head and title. Interpretivesummaries will be peer reviewed. At publication,interpretive summaries will appear in a section at thebeginning of the journal. The summaries are intendedfor an audience who may not be familiar with work inthe author's area of expertise and for government ormedia researchers, and they will provide JDS readerswith a brief overview of the research presented in eachissue. Authors must make the summary readable bythe general public. The goal is to make JDS researchmore visible to a wider audience and to emphasize itsimpact.


    Major Headings. Major headings are centered(except ABSTRACT), all capitals, boldface, and consistof ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS ANDMETHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTSAND DISCUSSION), CONCLUSIONS (optional), APPENDIX(optional), and REFERENCES.
    First Subheadings. First subheadings are placedon a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first letterof all important words is capitalized, and the headingsare boldface and italic. The heading is not followedby punctuation. Text that follows a first subheadingshould be in a new paragraph.
    Second Subheadings. Second subheadings beginthe first line of a paragraph. They are indented, boldface,italic, and followed by a period. The first letter ofeach important word should be capitalized. The textfollows immediately after the final period of the subheading.Title Page

    Across the top of the title page (first page), indicatea running head (abbreviated title) of 45 characters orless. The running head is centered and all uppercase.Our Industry Today and Hot Topic serve as the runningheads for those respective article types. ShortCommunications, Technical Notes, Invited Reviews,and Letters to the Editor use a running head beginningwith the appropriate designation (i.e., SHORT COMMUNICATION:)followed by a short title.
    The title should be in boldface; the first letter of thearticle title and proper names are capitalized and theremainder of the title is lowercase. The title shouldcontain words or phrases used for indexing the article.
    Under the title, names of authors should be typedupper and lowercase (e.g., T. E. Smith) and in boldface.Institutional addresses are displayed below the authornames; footnotes referring from author names to displayedaddresses should be symbols in the followingorder: *,†, ‡, #, §, ∥, and ¶. The full name, mailing address,phone number, fax number, and e-mail addressof the corresponding author should appear directlybelow the affiliation lines on the title page. The correspondingauthor will be identified by a numberedfootnote and e-mail address below the accepted lineon the first page of the published article (e.g., 1Correspondingauthor: Note thatno period follows the corresponding author's e-mailaddress. Supplementary address information may begiven in footnotes to the first page; use numerals forthese footnotes. Acronyms (except USDA) for affiliationsare discouraged unless the acronym is the officialname. State or provincial postal code abbreviation isnot included between city and zip code if the state orprovince is previously mentioned in the address (seeexample). Acceptable format is shown below:

    J. E. Smith,* R. A. Jones,† and A. T. Peters‡

    *Department of Animal Science, and
    †Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin,Madison 53706
    ‡Department of Animal Science, Utah State University,Logan 84321

    Abstract. Abstracts should be limited to 2,500keystrokes (i.e., characters plus spaces). The abstractshould review important objectives, materials, results,conclusions, and applications as concisely as possible.The abstract disseminates scientific informationthrough abstracting journals and is a convenience forreaders. Open the abstract with objectives and makethe abstract intelligible without reference to the manuscript.Use complete sentences and standard terms.Limit the use of abbreviations in the Abstract. Refer tothe list on the inside front cover of JDS or Appendices1 and 2 of this document for those terms that shouldbe defined in the abstract. If a term is used less than 3times in the abstract, it should be spelled out at eachuse.
    Minimize the amount of data in the abstract andexclude statements of statistical probability (e.g., P <0.05). Exclude references to other work because theabstracts will appear online and in indexing serviceswithout the reference list.

    Key Words. After the abstract, list 2 to 4 key wordsor phrases; they should be typed in lowercase letters and separated by commas. Key words should be singular(e.g., "dairy cow" not "dairy cows").

    Abbreviation Key

    An abbreviation key will no longer appear in JDS articles.Author-derived abbreviations should be definedat first use in the abstract and again in the body ofthe manuscript. The abbreviation will be shown in boldtype at first use in the body of the manuscript. Refer tothe Miscellaneous Usage Notes for more informationon abbreviations.

    Body of the Paper

    The body of the paper should contain an introductionto the problem (questions, objectives, reasons forresearch, and related literature); materials, methods,experimental design, and procedures; and results, discussion,conclusions, and applications.
    Results and discussion may be combined into a singlesection. If not, the results section should not containdiscussion of previously published work. Results andreferences to tables and figures already described inthe results section should not be repeated in the discussionsection.


    A technical appendix, if desired, shall follow the Referencessection. The appendix may contain supplementarymaterial, explanations, and elaborations that arenot essential to other major sections but are helpful tothe reader. Novel computer programs or mathematicalcomputations would be appropriate. The appendix willnot be a repository for raw data.


    List only pertinent references. No more than 3 referencesshould be needed to support a specific concept.Research papers and reviews should cite a reasonablenumber of references. Abstracts and articles from nonpeer-reviewed magazines and proceedings should becited sparingly. Citation of abstracts published morethan 3 yr ago is strongly discouraged.
    Citations in Text. In the body of the manuscript,refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) orSmith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structurerequires that the authors' names be included in parentheses,the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982;Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993) with citations listedchronologically and then alphabetically within a year.Where there are more than 2 authors of one article, the first author's name is followed by the abbreviation et al.Work that has not been accepted for publication shallbe listed in the text as: "J. E. Jones (institution, city,and state, personal communication)." The author's ownunpublished work should be listed in the text as "(J.Smith, unpublished data)." Personal communicationsand unpublished data (including papers under review)must not be included in the references section.
    References Section. To be listed in the referencessection, papers must be published or accepted for publication.Manuscripts submitted for publication can becited as "unpublished data" in the text. In the referencessection, references shall first be listed alphabetically byauthor(s)' last name(s), and then chronologically. Theyear of publication follows the authors' names. As withtext citations, two or more publications by the sameauthor or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiatedby adding lowercase letters after the date. Thedates for papers with the same first author that wouldbe abbreviated in the text as et al., even though thesecond and subsequent authors differ, shall also be differentiatedby letters. All authors' names must appearin the reference section. Journals shall be abbreviatedaccording to the conventional ISO abbreviations usedby PubMed ( A short list of journal title abbreviationsis provided in Appendix 3 of this document. Onewordtitles are spelled out. Inclusive page numbers mustbe provided and digital object identifiers (doi) shouldbe provided whenever possible. Sample references aregiven below.


    Lane, M. A., R. L. Baldwin, and B. W. Jesse. 1995. Sheep rumenmetabolic development in response to different dietarytreatments. J. Dairy Sci. 78(Suppl. 1):310. (Abstr.)

    Tyrrell, H. F., and P. W. Moe. 1975. Effect of intake on digestiveefficiency. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1151-1163.

    Huntington, G. B., D. L. Harmon, N. B. Kristensen, K. C. Hanson,and J. W. Spears. 2006. Effects of a slow-release urea sourceon absorption of ammonia and endogenous productionof urea by cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.012


    AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I (or Vol. II). 15th ed.Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.

    Goering, H. K., and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analyses(Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications).Agric. Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC.

    Lengemann, F. W., R. A. Wentworth, and C. L. Comar. 1974.Physiological and biochemical aspects of the accumulation ofcontaminant radionuclides in milk. Pages 159-170 in Lactation:A Comprehensive Treatise. Nutrition and Biochemistry of Milk/Maintenance. Vol. 3. B. L. Larson and V. R. Smith, ed. AcademicPress, London, UK.

    National Research Council. 1989. Nutrient Requirements of DairyCattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.


    Barbano, D. M. 1996. Mozzarella cheese yield: Factors to consider.Page 29 in Proc. Wisconsin Cheese Makers Mtg. Ctr. Dairy Res.,Univ. Wisconsin, Madison.

    National Mastitis Council. 1995. Summary of peer-reviewedpublications on efficacy of premilking and postmilking teatdisinfections published since 1980. Pages 82-92 in Natl. MastitisCounc. Reg. Mtg. Proc., Harrisburg, PA. Natl. Mastitis Counc.,Inc., Madison, WI.


    Biernoth, G., and W. Merk, inventors. 1985. Fractionation of milk fatusing a liquified gas or a gas in the supercritical state. UnileverNV-PLC, assignee. US Pat. No. 4,504,503.

    FASS. 2010. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animalsin Research and Teaching. 3rd ed. Federaton of Animal ScienceSocieties, Champaign, IL.

    Interbull. 2005. Genetic evaluation. Direct longevity. Accessed Dec.20, 2005.

    Kelly, M. G. 1977. Genetic parameters of growth in purebred andcrossbred dairy cattle. MS Thesis. North Carolina State Univ.,Raleigh.

    Department of Agriculture, Plant and Animal Health InspectionService. 2004. Blood and tissue collection at slaughtering andrendering establishments, final rule. 9CFR part 71. Fed. Regist.69:10137-10151.



    The use of tables should be minimized. When used,tables should be self-explanatory and may be the mosteffective way to organize extensive data. Refer to ScientificStyle and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors,Editors, and Publishers for more information on effectiveuse of tables. Table 1 in this document may beused as an example.
    Tables must be prepared using the table featurein Microsoft Word; tables prepared in otherprograms (e.g., Excel) or by using spaces, tabs, andhard returns will not convert accurately and errors canresult. When possible, tables should be organized to fitacross the page without running broadside. Be awareof the dimensions of the printed page when planningtables (use of more than 15 columns will create layoutproblems).
    Place table number and title on the same line abovethe table (as shown in sample table). The table titledoes not require an ending period.
    Do not use vertical lines and use few horizontal lines.Bold and italic typefaces should not be used in tables.When it is necessary to do so, such use must be definedin a footnote. Limit the data field to the minimumneeded for meaningful comparison within the accuracyof the methods.
    For each table, spell out the first use of abbreviationsin parentheses or in numbered footnotes. Abbreviationsshould conform to journal style and be consistent withthose used in the text. Avoid reference to other tables,figures, or text.
    Footnotes to tables should be numerals. Each footnoteshould begin a new line (see sample table). Fordifferences among means within a row or column,superscript letters should be used as appropriatesequentially (e.g., a, ab, b, c, cd) consistently fromlargest to smallest means. Probability may be indicatedthus: †P < 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.


    To facilitate review, figures should be placed at theend of the manuscript (separated by section breaks).Each figure should be placed on a separate page, andidentified by the last name of the first author and figurenumber. Figure captions should be typed (doublespaced) on a separate page.
    Figure size. Prepare figures at final size for publication.Figures should be prepared to fit one column(8.9 cm wide), 2 columns (14 cm wide), or full-pagewidth (19 cm wide).
    Font size. Ensure that all type within the figureand axis labels are readable at final publication size. Aminimum type size of 8 points (after reduction) shouldbe used.
    Fonts. Use Helvetica, Times New Roman, Arial,and the symbols palette within those fonts only.
    Line weight. For line graphs, use a minimumstroke weight of 1 point for all lines. If multiple linesare to be distinguished, use solid, long-dash, shortdash,and dotted lines. Avoid the use of gray or shadedlines, as these will not reproduce well. Lines with differentsymbols for the data points may also be used todistinguish curves.
    Axis labels. Each axis should have a descriptionand a unit. Units may be separated from the descriptorby a comma or parentheses, and should be consistentwithin a manuscript.
    Shading and fill patterns. For bar charts, usedifferent fill patterns if needed; e.g., black, white, gray,diagonal stripes. Avoid the use of multiple shades ofgray, as they will not be easily distinguishable in print.Remove unnecessary backgrounds and gridlines fromgraphs.
    Symbols. Identify curves and data points usingthe following symbols only: symbols Symbols should be defined in the figurecaption or in a key on the figure (but not both).
    File formats. Figures can be submitted in Word,PDF, EPS, TIFF, and JPEG formats.
    Grayscale figures. If figures are to be reproducedin grayscale (black and white), submit in grayscale. Oftencolor will mask contrast problems that are apparentonly when the figure is reproduced in grayscale.
    Color figures. If figures are to appear in color inthe print journal, files must be submitted in CMYKcolor (not RGB).)
    Resolution. Minimum resolution is 300 dpi forgrayscale and color figures, and 600 dpi for line art.
    Photomicrographs. Photomicrographs musthave their unmagnified size designated, either in thecaption or with a scale bar on the figure. Reduction for publication can make a magnification power designation(e.g., 100x) inappropriate.
    Captions. The caption should provide sufficientinformation that the figure can be understood withoutexcessive reference to the text. All author-derived abbreviationsand symbols used in the figure should bedefined in the caption.
    General tips. Avoid the use of three-dimensionalbar charts, unless essential to the presentation of thedata. Use the simplest shading scheme possible topresent the data clearly. Ensure that data, symbols,axis labels, lines, and key are clear and easily readableat final publication size.
    Color Charge. The cost to publish each color figureis $995; a surcharge for offprints will also be assessed.At the time of submission on Manuscript Central, authorswill be asked to approve color charges for figuresthat they wish to have published in color in the printjournal. Color versions of figures will be included in theonline PDF and full-text article at no charge.
    Online-Only Data Supplements. Authors are nowable to present material online that cannot physicallybe displayed in the print journal (e.g., Excel files, video),or that might be cost-prohibitive (e.g., extra tables orlarge data sets), or that is too detailed for publicationin the print issue. A note will appear in the print versionthat more material can be found online. A smallcharge may be levied for preparing data supplements;contact journal headquarters ( more information. Material posted online only mustgo through the review process, and consequently shouldbe in an application or format easily accessible by mostreviewers and readers.

    Statistical Analysis

    Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrector inadequate statistical methods to analyze andinterpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultationwith a statistician is recommended. Statistical methodscommonly used in the animal sciences need not bedescribed in detail, but adequate references should beprovided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, andexperimental unit must be designated. Any restrictionsused in estimating parameters should be defined.Reference to a statistical package without reportingthe sources of variation (classes) and other salient featuresof the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonalcontrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the resultsof statistical analysis should justify the interpretationsand conclusions. When possible, results of similar experimentsshould be pooled statistically. Do not reporta number of similar experiments separately.
    The experimental unit is the smallest unit to whichan individual treatment is imposed. For group-fed animals,the group of animals in the pen or the paddock isthe experimental unit; therefore, groups must be replicated.Repeated chemical analyses of the same sampleusually do not constitute independent experimentalunits. Measurements on the same experimental unitover time also are not independent and must not beconsidered as independent experimental units. Foranalysis of time effects, use time-sequence analysis.
    Usual assumptions are that errors in the statisticalmodels are normally and independently distributedwith constant variance. Most standard methods arerobust to deviations from these assumptions, but occasionallydata transformations or other techniquesare helpful. Most statistical procedures are based onthe assumption that experimental units have been assignedto treatments at random. If animals are stratifiedby ancestry or weight or if some other initial measurementshould be accounted for, the model shouldinclude a blocking factor, or the initial measurementshould be included as a covariate.
    A parameter [mean (&mgr;), variance (&sgr;2)], which definesor describes a population, is estimated by a statistic (x,s2). The term parameter is not appropriate to describe avariable, observation, trait, characteristic, or measurementtaken in an experiment.
    Standard designs are adequately described by nameand size (e.g., "a randomized complete block design with6 treatments in 5 blocks"). For a factorial set of treatments,an adequate description might be as follows:"Tryptophan at 0.05 or 0.10% of the diet and niacin at5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of diet were used in a 2 x 3 factorialarrangement in 5 randomized complete blocks, eachblock consisting of littermates." Note that a factorialarrangement is not a design; the term "design" refersto the method of grouping experimental units into homogeneousgroups or blocks (i.e., the way in which therandomization is restricted).
    Standard deviation refers to the variability in asample or a population. The standard error (calculatedfrom error variance) is the estimated sampling error ofa statistic such as the sample mean. When a standarddeviation or standard error is given, the number of degreesof freedom on which it rests should be specified.When any statistical value (as mean or difference of 2means) is mentioned, its standard error or confidencelimit should be given. The fact that differences arenot "statistically significant" is no reason for omittingstandard errors. They are of value when results fromseveral experiments are combined in the future. Theyalso are useful to the reader as measures of efficiencyof experimental techniques. A value attached by "∓" toa number implies that the second value is its standarderror (not its standard deviation). Adequate reportingmay require only 1) the number of observations,2) arithmetic treatment means, and 3) an estimate ofexperimental error. The pooled standard error of themean is the preferred estimate of experimental error.Standard errors need not be presented separately foreach mean unless the means are based on differentnumbers of observations or the heterogeneity of the errorvariance is to be emphasized. Presenting individualstandard errors clutters the presentation and can misleadreaders.
    For more complex experiments, tables of subclassmeans and tables of analyses of variance or covariancemay be included. When the analysis of variance containsseveral error terms, such as in split-plot and repeatedmeasures designs, the text should indicate clearlywhich mean square was used for the denominator ofeach F statistic. Unbalanced factorial data can presentspecial problems. Accordingly, it is well to state howthe computing was done and how the parameters wereestimated. Approximations should be accompanied bycautions concerning possible biases.
    Contrasts (preferably orthogonal) are used to answerspecific questions for which the experiment wasdesigned; they should form the basis for comparingtreatment means. Nonorthogonal contrasts may beevaluated by Bonferroni t statistics. The exact contraststested should be described for the reader. Multiplerangetests are not appropriate when treatments areorthogonally arranged. Fixed-range, pairwise, multiplecomparison tests should be used only to compare meansof treatments that are unstructured or not related. Infactorial treatment arrangements, means for maineffects should be presented when important interactionsare not present. Means for individual treatmentcombinations also should be provided in table or textso that future researchers may combine data from severalexperiments to detect important interactions. Aninteraction may not be detected in a given experimentbecause of a limitation in the number of observations.
    The terms significant and highly significant traditionallyhave been reserved for P < 0.05 and P < 0.01,respectively; however, reporting the P-value is preferredto the use of these terms. For example, use "... therewas a difference (P < 0.05) between control and treatedsamples" rather than "... there was a significant (P <0.05) difference between control and treated samples."When available, the observed significance level (e.g., P= 0.027) should be presented rather than merely P <0.05 or P < 0.01, thereby allowing the reader to decidewhat to reject. Other probability (alpha) levels may bediscussed if properly qualified so that the reader is notmisled. Do not report P-values to more than 3 placesafter the decimal. Regardless of the probability levelused, failure to reject a hypothesis should be based onthe relative consequences of Type I and II errors. A"nonsignificant" relationship should not be interpretedto suggest the absence of a relationship. An inadequatenumber of experimental units or insufficient control ofvariation limits the power to detect relationships. Avoidthe ambiguous use of P > 0.05 to declare nonsignificance,such as indicating that a difference is not significant atP > 0.05 and subsequently declaring another differencesignificant (or a tendency) at P < 0.09. In addition, readersmay incorrectly interpret the use of P > 0.05 as theprobability of a beta error, not an alpha error.
    Present only meaningful digits. A practical rule isto round values so that the change caused by roundingis less than one-tenth of the standard error. Suchrounding increases the variance of the reported valueby less than 1%, so that less than 1% of the relevantinformation contained in the data is sacrificed. In mostcases, 2 or 3 significant digits (not decimal places) aresufficient.

    Sensory Data

    Sensory data should comply with the "Statement ofPolicy in the Report of the Committee on Sensory Datato the Journal Management Committee of the AmericanDairy Science Association, 1986," Journal of DairyScience 69:298.


    Genes and Proteins. The journal recommendsusing internationally accepted symbols for genes andproteins; such symbols may be used without definition.Symbols for specific genes and proteins can be obtainedby querying the gene database of PubMed ( Nomenclature rules for humans,nonhuman primates, and livestock are availableat, and rules for mice andrats are at Gene symbols should be shownin italics (e.g., SERPINA14) and proteins in romantext (e.g., SERPINA14). Gene symbols are generallyshown in all uppercase letters (e.g., LHB), except inmice and rats, where only the first letter is capitalized(e.g., Lhb)
    Microorganisms. All microorganisms must benamed by genus and species. The name of the genusmust appear in full the first time that the microorganismis cited in the abstract, in the body of the paper,and in each table and figure legend. Thereafter, thegenus can be abbreviated by its first initial unless itwill be confused with other microorganisms cited in thepaper, in which case each genus should be abbreviatedto use enough letters to avoid confusion (e.g., Strep. vs.Staph.). The formal, binomial names of all microorganismsshould be in italics. Specific strain designationsand numbers should be used when appropriate. Authoritiesare not required.
    For microorganisms that are genetic variants of aparent strain, the genotypic and phenotypic propertiesshould be cited according to the procedures describedby Demerec et al. (1966) in Genetics 54:61-76. Phenotypesshould be identified by 3 letters; the first iscapitalized. Genotypes should be identified by 3 lowercaseitalic letters. Superscript plus (+) signs are usedto refer to a wild-type. The serial isolation number isplaced after the locus symbol for mutations. The deltasymbol is used to indicate deletions. Nomenclature forbacterial plasmids should be cited according to Novicket al. (1976) in Bacteriological Reviews 40:168-189.
    Enzymes. Mention of an enzyme should include theEC number.

    In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests

    Please refer to the JDS policy in Appendix 4 of thisdocument.

    Miscellaneous Usage Notes

    Abbreviations. Abbreviations should not be used inthe title, key words, or to begin sentences, except whenthey are widely known throughout science (e.g., DNA,RNA) or are terms better known by their abbreviation(e.g., IgG, CD). Abbreviations may be used in headswithin the paper if they have been first defined withinthe text. The inside front cover of every issue of thejournal lists abbreviations that can be used withoutdefinition. The list is subject to revision at any time,so authors should always consult the most recent issueof the journal (or the updated list at for relevant information. Abbreviationsare allowed when they help the flow of themanuscript; however, excessive use of abbreviations canconfuse the reader. The suitability of abbreviations willbe evaluated by the reviewers and editors during the reviewprocess and by the technical editor during editing.As a rule, author-derived abbreviations should be in allcapital letters. Terms used fewer than 3 times after firstuse must be spelled out in full rather than abbreviated.Do not use abbreviations that replace single words, orsingle-letter abbreviations that could be confused withchemical elements (e.g., P, C, S). All terms are to bespelled out in full with the abbreviation following in bold type in parentheses the first time they are mentioned inthe main body of the text. Abbreviations shall be usedconsistently thereafter.
    The abstract, text, each table, and each figure mustbe understood independently of each other. Therefore,abbreviations shall be defined within each of theseunits of the manuscript.
    Plural abbreviations do not require "s." Chemicalsymbols and 1-letter and 3-letter abbreviations foramino acids do not need definition. Units of measure,except those in the standard JDS abbreviation list,should be abbreviated according to standard SI usageand do not need to be defined. See Appendix 2 for a listof commonly used terms.
    International Words and Phrases. Non-Englishwords in common usage (i.e., recent editions of standarddictionaries) will not appear in italics (e.g., invitro, in vivo, ad libitum, in situ, a priori). However,genus and species of plants, animals, or bacteria andviruses should be italicized. Authors must indicateaccent marks and other diacriticals on internationalnames and institutions. German nouns shall beginwith capital letters.
    Capitalization. Breed and variety names are to becapitalized (e.g., Holstein, Danish Red). Trademarkedor registered names should be capitalized, but no ™or ® symbols should be used. Proper nouns should becapitalized.
    Numbers and Units. The Journal of Dairy Scienceuses the Council of Science Editors' numberstyle given in the seventh edition of Scientific Styleand Format.
    Numbers less than 1 shall be written with precedingzeros (e.g., 0.75). All numbers shall be written as digits;a comma separator must be used in numbers greaterthan 999. Measures must be in the metric (SI) system;however, US equivalents may be given in parentheses.Units of measure not associated with a numeric valuemust be written out rather than abbreviated (e.g.,lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogramof diet) unless used parenthetically. Measures ofvariation must be defined in the Abstract and in thebody of the paper at first use.
    General Usage. Note that "and/or" is not permitted;choose the more appropriate meaning or use "x or y orboth."
    Use the slant line only when it means "per" withnumbered units of measure or "divided by" in equations.Use only one slant line in a given expression: e.g.,g/cow per day. The slant line may not be used to indicateratios or mixtures.
    Use "to" instead of a hyphen to indicate a range ofvalues.
    Insert spaces around all signs (except slant lines) ofoperation (=, -, +, x, >, or <) when these signs occurbetween 2 items.
    Items in a series should be separated by commas:e.g., a, b, and c.
    Restrict the use of "while" and "since" to meaningsrelated to time. Appropriate substitutes include "and,""but," or "whereas" for "while" and "because" or "although"for "since."

    Commercial Products. The use of names of commercialproducts should be minimized. When a commercialproduct is being tested as part of the experiment,the manufacturer and location should be givenparenthetically at first mention in text, tables, andfigures, but, when possible, the generic name shouldbe used thereafter. Only generic names should be usedin article titles. Trademark symbols and registrationmarks should not be used and will be removed.
    Avoid describing a method as "per manufacturer'sinstructions." If the product goes out of production, themethod will be lost to readers. Many products comewith literature references; try to use references thatcan be found by other researchers to describe a methodbeing used.

    Supplemental Information

    The following information is available online andupdated regularly. Please refer to these pages whenpreparing a manuscript for submission.
    Journal Title Abbreviations. A list of standard abbreviationsfor common journal titles and words usedin citations is available in Appendix 3.
    SI Units. TThe following site (National Institute ofStandards and Technology) provides a comprehensiveguide to SI units and usage:
    Figure and Table Preparation Guidelines. Currentinformation on figure and table preparation can befound at
    Manuscript Central Instructions. Manuscriptsare submitted at user instructions for using the Manuscript Centralsystem are available at

    • Appendix 1: Abbreviations

    • Appendix 2: Selected Units and Terms

    • Appendix 3: Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Journals

    • Appendix 4: Policy on In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests

    Updated December 2011


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