Guide for Authors

  • Manuscript submissions Authors are requested to submit their original manuscripts and figures online via the electronic Elsevier system at, together with a covering letter which should be signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors, and should include:

    • A statement that all authors have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. The specific contribution of each author to the work should also be listed in the Acknowledgement section. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should also be listed in the Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
    • A statement that the manuscript, including related data, figures and tables has not been previously published and that the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere.
    • A statement of disclosure of financial conflict of interest for all authors. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. These statements will be treated confidentially, although a general statement regarding any conflicts will be published.
    • The names and contact addresses (including e-mail) of 3 potential reviewers that have not been involved in the design, performance and discussion of the data and are not a co-worker. You may also mention persons who you would prefer not to review your paper.
    During submission stage, authors are requested to select between 2 - 4 classifications for their manuscript which will later help Editors with choosing the most relevant and specialized people to review your manuscript.

    Role of the funding source
    All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.

    Randomised controlled trials
    All randomised controlled trials submitted for publication in JCC should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at and for more information. JCC has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt. Further information can be found at .

    Work on human beings that is submitted to JCC should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki; Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Patients' and volunteers' names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.

    Conflict of interest
    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also . A standard disclosure stating conflict of interests can be downloaded here: Conflict of Interest form.

    Manuscript preparation and format
    Manuscripts may be submitted from any country and must be written in clear, concise English. Manuscripts should be double-spaced (including references, tables, and figure legends). Pages should be numbered in succession in the upper right-hand corner, beginning in the title page. Lines should be numbered continuously, beginning in the title page. Each section in the manuscript should start on a separate page. The number of figures and tables should be in balance with the length of the manuscript, and carefully prepared to avoid duplication of data in the text, tables and figures. Standard abbreviation may be used without definition, while non-standardized abbreviations should be explained in the text (as well as tables and figures) and should be listed on the title page.

    Original articles should be organized in the following successive sections: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods (including statistical considerations and ethical statement), Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Legends, Tables, Figures.

    Case reports should be organized in the following successive sections: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Case report, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Legends, Tables, Figures. The length of Case report + Discussion should not be more than 1500 words

    Letters to the Editor are considered for publication provided they do not contain material that has been submitted or published elsewhere. The text, not including references, must not exceed 450 words. The letter must have no more than five references and one figure or small table and should not be signed by more than three authors. When a letter refers to an article recently published in JCC, the opportunity for reply will be given to the authors of the original article. Such a reply will be published along with the letter.

    Review papers should be organized in the following successive sections: Title Page, Abstract, main text, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Legends, Tables, Figures. At least 2 figures and 2 tables must be proposed to summarize the most important data and/or concepts.

    Title Page must include the following elements:

    • Title. It should be brief (no more than 25 words) and specific and must not include abbreviations or trade names.
    • Authors. Include first name of the author(s) and name of the institution(s) where the work was performed. Omit degrees of the authors. Provide contact details for all authors.
    • Short title. A short title (no more than 50 characters) for the purposes of running head must be provided. Non-standard abbreviations. Define abbreviations that are not standard in the field at their first occurrence in the article and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. List all non-standard abbreviations on the title page.
    • Address for correspondence. Give the name, complete address, telephone and fax numbers, and E-mail address of the corresponding author (to whom requests for reprints should be addressed).
    • Conference presentation. When applicable, indicate the conference (name, location and year) where (part of) the work was presented.

    This should be typed, double-spaced on a separate page and must not exceed 250 words. The abstract must be organized to the following headings: Background and Aims, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. No abbreviations and references should be used in the abstract. For randomized controlled trials, the clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract.

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords for indexing purposes.

    Acknowledgements should be included at the end of the manuscript text, just before the list of references and should include:

    • Acknowledgement to all sources of funding and the role of the funding source. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.
    • Acknowledgement to all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
    • Statement of authorship: each author must have participated sufficiently, intellectually or practically, in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the article, including the conception, design, and conduct of the experiment and for data interpretation (authorship). Therefore, each author is required to list his or her specific contribution to the work (such as design of the experiment, collection of data, analysis of data, writing of the manuscript, or provision of significant advice or consultation), according to the Vancouver rules: . We suggest the following format, using initials to refer to each author' s contribution: "AA carried out the studies and data analyses and drafted the manuscript. BB carried out the samples analyses. CC participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. DD conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript".

    References have to be cited in the text by Arabic numerals in superscript, and numbered in the order in which they are cited. The reference section should be typed double-spaced at the end of the text, following the sample format given below. Abbreviate journal titles according to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (available from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 91-267; ISSN 0093-3821. Provide all authors' names. Provide article titles and inclusive pages. "Unpublished data" and "personal communications" do not qualify as References and 3821. Provide all authors' names. Provide article titles and inclusive pages. "Unpublished data" and "personal communications" do not qualify as References and should be placed in parentheses in the text. Accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of the author.

    Sample References
    Article in a journal: 1. Cummings J H, MacFarlane G T. Role of intestinal bacteria in nutrient metabolism. Clin Nutr 1997; 16: 3-11. Book: 1. McLaren D S, Meguid M M. Nutrition and its disorders, 4th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1988.
    Chapter in a book: 1. Goodwin S C, Liu S. Radiologic techniques for enteral access. In: Rombeau J L, Rolandelli R H, Eds. Enteral and tube feeding, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders, 1997: 193-206.
    Website: 1. U.S. positions on selected issues at the third negotiating session of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Washington, D.C.: Committee on Government Reform, 2002. (Accessed March 4, 2002, at )
    Online journal article: 1. Tenesa A, Noble C, Satsangi J et al. Association of DLG 5 and inflammatory bowel disease across human populations. Eur Journal Hum Genet 2006: published online Jan 4. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201516

    Figure legends should be typed double-spaced in consecutive order on a separate sheet, using Arabic numbers (for example, Figure 1). Provide a short title (in the legends, not on the figure itself) and brief but sufficient information to permit interpretation of figures without reference to text. Do not exceed 250 words for each legend and provide a key for each symbol used.

    Tables should be typed double-spaced, each on a separate sheet, and contain only horizontal rules. The tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals and contain a brief specific title. Data presented in tables must be logically and clearly organized; they should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text. Use superscript capitals starting from "a" and in alphabetical order for footnotes and provide a key for each symbol used.

    Figures and photographs should be submitted as separate files. Photographs, photomicrographs, electron micrographs, roentgenograms, and (professionally drawn) drawings are not required to accompany online submission, but should be submitted as black-and-white high-quality glossy prints once the manuscript is accepted for publication. A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: .

    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide all illustrations as separate files.

    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
    TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
    Captions: Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately (in figure legends), not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    NEW AudioSlides!
    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Line drawings: The lettering and symbols, as well as other details, should have proportionate dimensions, so as not to become illegible or unclear after possible reduction; in general, the figures should be designed for a reduction factor of two to three. The degree of reduction will be determined by the Publisher. Illustrations will not be enlarged. Consider the page format of the journal when designing the illustrations. Do not use any type of shading on computer-generated illustrations.

    Colour illustrations: Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for colour in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see .

    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to "grey scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the colour illustrations.

    Units and Abbreviations
    Headings in the body of the paper should be appropriate to the nature of the paper and enhance readability. Usually, only two categories of heading should be used, but not be numbered. Abbreviations may be used when the term is used at least three times in the text, but the full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use unless it is a standard unit of measurement. Abbreviations used only in a table or figure may be defined in the legend. Identify drugs and chemicals used by generic name (if trademarks are mentioned, manufacturer name and city should be given). The metric system should be used for all measurements (weight, length, etc.). Temperatures should be expressed as Celsius (centigrade). Metric abbreviations should be expressed in lower case without periods and with no distinction between singular and plural. Both SI and traditional units may be used.

    Online proof correction
    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our ProofCentral system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.


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