Guide for Authors
The Journal of Colloid and Interface Science publishes original research on fundamental principles in chemistry, chemical engineering, physics, applied mathematics, materials science, polymer science, electrochemistry, geology, agronomy, biology, medicine, fluid dynamics, and related fields. The following categories are used to identify articles published in the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science:
- A. Colloidal Materials and Nanomaterials
- B. Surfactants and Soft Matter
- C. Adsorption, Catalysis and Electrochemistry
- D. Interfacial Processes, Capillarity and Wetting
- E. Biomaterials and Nanomedicine
- F. Novel Phenomena and Techniques
Sufficient detail must be included to enable others to repeat the work. The experimental, theoretical, and numerical procedures must be clearly described; however, methods should be given in extenso only if they represent a new approach. Trade name identification alone is generally insufficient; if commercial materials identified by trade name are the subject of experiment, the authors bear the burden of establishing additional characterization, such as purity, adequate to the purposes of their study. For apparatus and equipment used for experiments, manufacturers' names and model numbers are usually desirable.Editorial guidelines on length, quality, and readability of manuscripts
Manuscripts must be written in clear, concise, grammatical English. Authors who require information about or assistance with language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission should visit http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorshome.authors/languagepolishing or contact email@example.com for more information. Please note Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our Terms & Conditions http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/termsconditions.cws_home/termsconditions.
In this information age, new Internet resources such as journal supporting material have prompted a fresh look at the structure, form, and appearance of published scientific papers. The electronically accessible supporting material section now presents exciting new opportunities for improving readability and efficiency of scientific journals. Importantly, readers still have access to supporting material accompanying the main paper through the Web; they can choose whether to view or print it as need be.When preparing a new article for submission to JCIS, authors are now asked to strongly consider using supporting material. In planning the manuscript, please remember:
1. Journal space is precious. Papers must be concise, and interesting to the readership. The article must focus on important new results. Short communications should not exceed 4 pages double line spaced and in total 4 reasonable sized figures or tables.2. Be self-critical and selective. Strive to produce a clear, lucid, efficient manuscript that will attract the reader to your work. Does the scientific importance of the work justify the journal space? Is the work unnecessarily fragmented? Is it repetitious with previous publications in the area?
3. Use supporting material. Place figures, tables, and/or text that are of secondary importance in this section and submit it with your manuscript so that is accessible to the editors and reviewers.The JCIS editorial team will ask for reviewers' advice on whether a manuscript can be more concise. Therefore, appropriate use of supporting material is a necessary condition before a manuscript can progress to publication. Ethics in publishing
Orginality of the data, concepts and illustrations is required. For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/ethicalguidelines.
Conflict of interestSubmission declaration and verification
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://elsevier6.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923/.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.
Changes to authorshipCopyright
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Retained author rightsRole of the funding source
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.
Funding body agreements and policiesOpen access
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
Open AccessAll articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
• No Open Access publication fee
Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC-BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC-BY-NC-SA).
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.Language (usage and editing services)
Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.
The publication fee for this journal is $2600, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information.
SubmissionThere are no submission fees or page charges. Each manuscript should be accompanied by a letter outlining the basic findings of the paper and their significance. The Editors invite authors to suggest the names of up to five persons who are qualified to serve as reviewers, in case the submission is decided to proceed to external review. Please provide complete contact information, including an e-mail address. Authors are requested not to suggest reviewers with whom they have a person or professional relationship, especially if that relationship would prevent the reviewer from having an unbiased opinion of the work of the authors. Referees should be from institutions other than (and preferably countries other than) those of any of the Authors.
For submission of articles to the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science please go to the journal's online submission site at: http://ees.elsevier.com/jcis/.
Original contributions only will be considered. Manuscripts are accepted for review with the understanding that the same work has not been published, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that its submission for publication has been approved by all of the authors; further, that any person cited as a source of personal communications has approved such citation. Written authorization may be required at the Editor's discretion. Articles and any other material published in the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science represent the opinions of the author(s) and should not be construed to reflect the opinions of the Editor(s) and the Publisher.Timeline for revision of manuscripts
The Journal of Colloid and Interface Science endeavors to publish current scientific research findings in a timely manner. Accordingly, articles returned to the author(s) for revision and not promptly returned in a suitably revised form will be relegated to inactive status after 2 months and will be automatically withdrawn from consideration after 3 months.
Authors are requested to suggest the names and e-mail addresses of five appropriately qualified persons as potential reviewers. These people should not also be members of the JCIS Editorial and Advisory board; the membership can be found at: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-colloid-and-interface-science/editorial-board/
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Simplified Submission service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Author(s) name(s), journal title / book title, article title, year of publication, volume number / book chapter number and the pagination must be present. The reference style required by the journal will be applied to the published version by Elsevier.
Formatting requirementsArticle structure and order
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections. It is not necessary to format your manuscript in double column layout, even if the journal has a double column layout.
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.
A graphical abstract is mandatory. It should symbolize the topic of the article pictorially, at a glance, to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Please design an image that is easy to comprehend when viewed at the size, 5 cm height x 13 cm width, of graphical abstracts in the journal, using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or more in proportion. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images, in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Highlights are mandatory. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the unique methods, results and conclusions of the article, and should be submitted in a separate file via the online submission system. Please use 'highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (with a maximum of 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.Elsevier.Com/highlights for examples.
The highlights must not contain jargon/abbreviations which will not be immediately understood by readers; chemical terms must be explained in full.Essential title page information
• Title. Concisely describe the main import of the work. Because titles and abstracts are often used in information-retrieval systems, present the main keywords, and define the abbreviations and chemical formulas in the title and abstract, for example, "Magnetic ion-exchange (MIEX) in Nitric Oxide (NO)."
• Author names and affiliations. Please list the first name, middle name, and last name of each author, allowing the article to be found by online author searches. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Design the abstract (p.2) to be a single paragraph that succinctly states the unique methods, findings, conclusions and keywords of the work [50 to 200 words]. Following the abstract, list up to 10 keywords that will allow the users of indexes and searches to find your paper.
Immediately following the abstract, please provide up to 10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid the use of 'and'/'of' for example). Be sparing with abbreviations, and define any abbreviations used, as above for the title. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes and should guide readers to the unique subject matter of the paper.
By means of a footnote, to be placed on the first page of the article, define the abbreviations and symbols employed in the text of the article. Abbreviations that are essential to the abstract should be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Please maintain consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
State the specific objectives of the present work. Provide a brief summary of the previous literature and results, but avoid lengthy discourse and review. Results and Discussion
The results and discussion section should be organized using appropriate sub-headings.
ConclusionsReferences should appear in the conclusions section to emphasize the ways in which the new results have advanced the field.
The conclusions section of your manuscript is a priority. Please include the following items, as appropriate: a summary of the original findings; a synopsis of the novel concepts; brief statements of the new hypotheses, in the context of accepted theories; parallels/contradictions between this and previous findings; and the outlook for future research and applications.
AcknowledgementsAbbreviations, chemical nomenclature and notation of figures
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Abbreviations should follow the usage established by chemical abstracts. All chemical nomenclature in the article should conform to iupac guidelines, http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/
• Standard exponential notation(e.g., 1.3 × 1015) should be used.
• Significant figures should be consistent and appropriate (1.00, 1.55, or 1.0, 1.5, etc.)
• Use the period, not the comma, for the decimal point(e.g., 1.5, but not 1,5).
• Express all variables/quantities in the same units throughout the manuscript.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier's document class 'elsarticle', or alternatively any of the other recognized classes and formats supported in Elsevier's electronic submissions system, for further information see http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/latex-ees-supported.
The Elsevier 'elsarticle' LaTeX style file package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from the Quickguide: http://www.elsevier.com/latex. It consists of the file: elsarticle.cls, complete user documentation for the class file, bibliographic style files in various styles, and template files for a quick start. Artwork
Electronic artworkColor artwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Reference management softwareVideo data
This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary dataSubmission checklist
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com. Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. For an extra charge, more paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints/myarticlesservices/booklets).
For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs at http://www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ and/or contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.