Guide for Authors

  • The Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics (JCGG) is the official peer-reviewed reviewed journal of the Asia Pacific League of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics. The Journal is also indexed in EMBase, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS and SIIC Data Bases, and is published quarterly by Elsevier.

    Authors are welcome to submit original contributions on clinical and laboratory research in gerontology and geriatrics and related fields. Editorials, review articles, original articles, brief communications, case reports, and letters to the Editor are accepted.

    The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.

    These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by JCGG Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit www.jcgg-online.com for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

    1. Manuscript Submission

    1.1. Online Submission
    Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) may be submitted online to the JCGG through the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at http://ees.elsevier.com/jcgg. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office.

    1.2. Important Information

    • Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal’s style.
    • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes" function; instead, you may use the commercially available EndNote or Reference Manager software to manage your references.
    • Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.
    • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”. Please see section 9.8. for more information.
    1.3. Supporting Documents
    The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2), and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.
    1. Cover Letter. This must include the following information:
      • title of the manuscript
      • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
      • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
      • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
      • list of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to the JCGG (and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that JCGG Editors can be assured there is no overlap)
      • your signature and those of ALL your coauthors
    2. Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author??s contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the JCGG Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal??s website at www.e-jcgg.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
    3. Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the JCGG, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Asia Pacific League of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics. Please use the JCGG Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal’s website at www.jcgg-online.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
    4. Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.
    5. Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section 4 for more information.
    6. Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5 for more information.
    7. Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.
    2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

    A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. JCGG Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

    Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

    Please ensure that any conflicts of interest and sources of funding are fully declared on page 2 of the JCGG Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form.

    3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

    For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).

    For investigations in humans, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adults and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

    For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm) should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

    4. Reporting Clinical Trials

    All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to http://www.consort-statement.org for more information). This JCGG has adopted the ICMJE proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.
    For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.
    Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.

    5. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

    A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

    6. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

    Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

    7. Basic Criteria

    Articles should be written in English, using American English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

    8. Article Categories

    8.1. Editorials
    Editorials are short articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal or a topical issue in the field. Although they are normally invited, unsolicited editorials may be submitted and will be given due consideration. Editorials should be limited to 1500 words with no more than 10 references.

    8.2. Review Articles
    These articles aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical issue in research or clinical practice. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.

    The maximum length is 4500 words, and the number of references should not exceed 80.

    8.3. Original Articles
    These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

    The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

    The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

    The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main outcome measures, and the main results.

    The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

    The maximum length is 3500 words, and the number of references should not exceed 50.

    8.4. Brief Communications
    These reports should be concise presentations of preliminary experimental results, instrumentation and analytical techniques, or aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

    The maximum length is 1500 words, and the number of references should not exceed 15.
    The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Brief Communication.

    8.5. Case Reports
    These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance.
    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

    The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

    The Case Presentation should include statements of the problem, patient history, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and any other information pertinent to the case(s).

    The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

    There should be no more than 6 authors. The maximum length is 2000 words, and the number of references should not exceed 20.

    8.6. Letters to the Editor
    These include brief constructive comments in response to previously published JCGG articles, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, and other brief technical or clinical notes of general interest. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of JCGG Editors.

    Letters should have a title, and include up to 5 appropriate references and the corresponding author's mailing and e-mail addresses. The text should not exceed 600 words; 1 table and/or 1 figure may be included.

    9. Manuscript Preparation

    Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (297 × 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, references, conflicts of interest statement (if any), acknowledgments (if any), and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

    9.1. Title Page
    The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

    • article category
    • article title
    • names (spelled out in full*) and academic degrees of all authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation.
    • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
    *The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

    9.2. Abstract and Keywords
    An abstract (no longer than 300 words) is required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Brief Communications and Case Reports.

    Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings Background/Purpose, Methods, Results and Conclusion.

    Background/Purpose: briefly explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.

    Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.

    Results: briefly present the significant results, with data and statistical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that information in the abstract matches that in the main text.

    Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, beingcareful to address the study question directly and toconfine your conclusions to aspects covered in theabstract; give equal emphasis to positive and negativefindings.

    Abstracts for Review Articles, Brief Communications and Case Reports should be unstructured, in one single paragraph with no section headings, but include information on the background/purpose of the report, methods (as appropriate), results (or case report), and conclusions.

    An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    No abstract or keywords are required for Editorials and Letters to the Editor.
    For all article categories, 3-5 relevant keywords should be provided in alphabetical order.
    Keywords will be used for indexing purposes and should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html). Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

    9.3. Main Text
    The text for Original Articles and Brief Communicationsshould be organized into the following sections:Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts ofInterest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), andReferences. Subheadings in long papers are acceptableif needed for clarification and ease of reading. Sectionsfor Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Presentation,Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any),Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Each sectionshould begin on a new page.

    9.3.1. Abbreviations
    Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, itmust be written in full when it first appears in the text,followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses.Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviationshould not be first defined in any section heading; if anabbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those thatare absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    9.3.2. Numbers
    Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

    9.3.3. Units
    Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

    9.3.4. Names of drugs, devices and other products
    Use the Recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

    For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, "...IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

    9.3.5. Gene nomenclature
    Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at http://www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

    9.3.6. Statistical requirements
    Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

    All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

    9.3.7. Personal communications and unpublished data
    These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

    9.4. Conflicts of Interest Statement
    Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the JCGG requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (see Section 2 for more information) in a concise paragraph after the main text.

    All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

    9.5. Acknowledgments
    After the Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement, general acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.

    9.6. References
    Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

    9.6.1. In the main text, tables, figure legends

    • References should be indicated by superscripted numbers according to order of appearance in the text, and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
    • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
    • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
    • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references. Also see Section 9.3.7.

    9.6.2. In the references list

    • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order.
    • References should include, in order, authors’ surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
    • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by “et al”.
    • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
    • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
    • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

    Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

    Standard journal articles
    Cheng YY, Chen PY, Hsieh WL, Cheen JR, Kao CL. Correlation of the composite equilibrium score of computerized dynamic posturography and clinical balance tests. J Clin Gerontol Geriatr 2012;3:77-81.

    Chen YC, Tsai KL, Hung CW, Ding DC, Chen LH, Chang YL, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cells and regenerative medicine. J Clin Gerontol Geriatr 2011;2:1-6.

    Journal supplement
    Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78–80.

    Journal article not in English but with English abstract
    Hofele C, Schwager-Schmitt M, Volkmann M. Prognostic value of antibodies against p53 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-five years survival rate. Laryngorhinootologie 2002;81:342-5. [In German, English abstract]

    Book with edition
    Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72–95.

    Book with editors
    Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

    Book chapter in book with editor and edition
    Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615–72.

    Book series with editors
    Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-1978.

    Bulletin
    World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

    Electronic publications
    Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available at http://archpedi.amaassn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

    Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858. CD1001054.

    Item presented at a meeting but not yet published
    Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL, abstract 359.

    Item presented at a meeting and published
    Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004, abstract 337.

    Theses
    Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, 1971.

    Website
    Glueckauf RL, Whitton J, Baxter J. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy-project update. Telehealth News 1998. Available at http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr_4a.html#1. Accessed November 15, 2008.

    Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
    Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2–3.

    9.7. Tables
    Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

    9.8. Figures

    9.8.1. General guidelines
    The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section 9.7.
    Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details (such as their name and date of birth) of the patient must be removed. If their face is shown, use a black bar to cover their eyes so that they cannot be identified (for further information, see www.elsevier.com/patientphotographs).

    All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

    Figures must be submitted as separate picture files at the correct resolution (see Section 9.8.2 below). The files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”.

    9.8.2. Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

    • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”.
    • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones) — always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings — use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) — a minimum of 600 dpi.
    • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    10. The Editorial and Peer Review Process

    As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 week of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

    Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts. The submission will not be accepted if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.

    Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review.

    Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are sent to at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants for double-blind peer review. The reviewers' opinions are summarized and forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for a final decision.

    The corresponding author will usually be notified within 8 weeks of the initial acknowledgment of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 30 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

    11. Preparation for Publication

    Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES. Accepted manuscripts are then presented to the Publisher to be copyedited according to the Journal's style.

    11.1. Online Proof Correction
    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our ProofCentral system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type in your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately; please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours.

    It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed.

    Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

    11.2. Changes to Authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.
    Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.

    12. Professional Reprints

    Professional reprints (which include a cover page) of your article may be ordered from the Publisher at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order and credit card payment form can be downloaded from the Journal’s website at www.jcgg-online.com.

    13. Copyright

    Manuscripts published in the JCGG become the permanent property of the Asia Pacific League of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JCGG article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Asia Pacific League of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics.

    Updated on May 2014

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