Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of Paper
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Plagiarism
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    • Additional Information
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Materials and Methods
    • Discussion
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical Abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Electronic Artwork
    • Color Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Citation in Text; Proof of 'in press' required
    • Reference Style
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Interactive plots
    • Submission checklist
    • Additional Information
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    The Journal of Catalysis publishes original, rigorous, and scholarly contributions in the fields of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. These include studies that relate catalytic function to fundamental chemical processes at surfaces and in metal complexes, novel concepts in surface chemistry, the synthesis and catalytic function of novel inorganic solids and complexes, spectroscopic methods for structural characterization, and theoretical methods of direct interest and impact in the science and applications of catalysts and catalytic processes.

    Journal of Catalysis publishes manuscripts of archival value because of their significant fundamental and conceptual contributions to our understanding and practice of catalytic chemistries. The journal features authoritative articles, priority communications, research notes, and letters to the Editors. Journal of Catalysis is the premier scholarly publication in the field of catalysis and, over the last decade, it has been ranked among the top ten chemistry journals in terms of impact and relevance. During this period, it has published some of the most important contributions to the science and applications of catalysis and throughout its fifty-year history, it has been an indispensable source of information for chemists and chemical engineers in both industrial and academic fields.

    Journal of Catalysis does not accept preliminary publications. It prefers full articles of scholarly in-depth studies and publishes short articles only in special cases, as Priority Communications or Research Notes. Priority Communications contain unique, exciting, and novel results that provide compelling evidence for rapid publication; while results in such communications may be of a preliminary nature, experimental details must be fully documented and the results reliably reproduced. Research Notes typically contain data and concepts that resolve in a concise but rigorous manner issues raised in previous publications

    Types of Paper

    Research Notes, Letters to the Editor, and Priority Communications should have a maximum of 14 double-spaced typewritten manuscript pages (including tables and figures). Accepted Research Notes will not receive publication priority over regular articles. All Research Notes should include an abstract of 60-100 words.

    Letters to the Editor will be considered for priority publication under the following conditions: (a) Letters must be related to some statement made in a recently published article in this journal; (b) in cases of conflicting views on any topic, no more than one letter from each author will be accepted.

    The handling editor will evaluate the suitability of an article for consideration as a Priority Communication according to the following criteria: (a) The article contains unique, exciting, and obviously novel results with a clear requirement for rapid publication; (b) articles may be of preliminary nature, but experimental details of the preparation and conditions must be fully documented so that the experiment can be repeated. Priority Communications should include an abstract of 60-100 words; Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections; a maximum of 3 figures and/or tables in total; and a References section with only the most essential references included. Manuscripts submitted for publication as Priority Communications must be accompanied by a letter explaining why the material deserves rapid publication. Manuscripts accepted as Priority Communications will be printed as quickly after acceptance as possible. Manuscripts that are judged not to warrant priority publication may be considered for publication as Research Notes.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Plagiarism

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Articles and any other material published in the Journal of Catalysis represent the opinions of the author(s) and should not be construed to reflect the opinions of the editor(s) or the publisher. Manuscripts that do not meet the general criteria or standards for publication in the Journal of Catalysis will be immediately returned to the authors, without detailed review. At their discretion, editors may request from the corresponding author a statement describing specific original contributions made by each co-author.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3300, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article. Via the homepage of this journal (http://ees.elsevier.com/jcat/) you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Additional Information

    Manuscripts must be submitted by the senior author, who must accept responsibility on behalf of all authors for all ethical requirements. The author submitting the manuscript will be listed as the corresponding author in the published version of each accepted manuscript.

    There are no submission fees or page charges. Each manuscript must be accompanied by a letter addressed to the specific editor and outlining the basic findings of the paper and its significance. If the manuscript refers to recently submitted manuscripts or papers in press (with the Journal of Catalysis or other journals), then a copy of each manuscript must be supplied so that the reviewers can judge the new manuscript in its proper context.

    Revised manuscripts should be returned including revision notes. The revision notes should address the issues raised in the referee report and clearly state per page (indicate paragraph and line) which changes have been made. Additional materials may be requested at the discretion of the editor.

    Authors requested to revise their submission to Journal of Catalysis will be given 4 weeks in which to submit the revised submission. Revised submissions received after 4 weeks from the time at which the revision was requested will be considered as new submissions.

    We also ask that for all manuscripts with 7 or more authors to include in the cover letter a list of each author's individual contribution to the manuscript.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Materials and Methods

    Experimentals and methods should be sufficiently detailed to enable the experiments to be reproduced. Authors should draw attention to any particular chemical or biological hazards that may be involved in carrying out the experiments described. Any relevant safety precautions should be described; if an accepted code of practice has been followed, a reference to the relevant standards should be given.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion

    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Results and Discussion may be combined and may be organized into subheadings.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length: 150 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical Abstract

    Authors must supply a graphical abstract at the time the paper is first submitted. The abstract should summarize the contents of the paper in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership and for compilation of databases. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the paper. The content of the graphical abstract will be typeset and should be kept within an area of 5 cm by 17 cm. Authors must supply the graphic separately as an electronic file.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 10 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and," "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.). Include information on grants received.

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic Artwork

    Figures, schemes, and equations must be cited in the text and numbered in order of appearance with Arabic numerals. Other graphics, such as structures, do not need to be numbered, but please indicate in the text where these are to appear. All graphics (including chemical structures) must be provided at the actual size that they are to appear (single-column width is 8.8 cm, double-column width is 18.3 cm). Please arrange schematics so that they fill the column space (either single or double), so as not to leave a lot of unused white space. Please ensure that all illustrations within a paper are consistent in type, quality, and size. Legends may be included as part of the graphic for reviewing purposes; however, all legends should also be supplied at the end of the text for typesetting purposes.

    To help authors provide actual size graphics, it is suggested that the following settings be used with CSC ChemDraw and ISIS Draw: font 10 pt Helvetica, chain angle 120°, bond spacing 18&percent; of length, fixed length 10.08 pt (0.354 cm), bold width 1.4 pt (0.049 cm), line width 0.42 pt (0.015 cm), margin width 1.12 pt (0.040 cm), and hash spacing 1.75 pt (0.062 cm). Compound numbers should be in boldface. In order to accurately design schematics to print out at the proper width, the original drawing cannot exceed a column width of 8.8 cm (for single column) and 18.3 cm (for double column). Layout design is facilitated if authors submit their original artwork in the actual size to be published. Please save graphics as an Encapsulated PostScript file (EPS) or a Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), as well as the program the graphic was originally drawn in. For more details on the preparation and submission of artwork, please visit www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
    TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
    Please do not:
    • Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
    • Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color Artwork

    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for colour in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to "grey scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the colour illustrations. Color figures should not be submitted unless the Authors are willing to assume all costs associated with color reproduction. If color reproduction is essential and the authors intend to argue for a waiver of charges, the Editor should be consulted upon manuscript submission.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in Text; Proof of 'in press' required

    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication". Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication and a copy of the title page of the relevant article must be submitted.

    Authors must supply a full-text copy of all unpublished references (including "Personal Communications" and papers "in press"). These references will be included in your submission and will be verified by the reviewers of your manuscript. Any submission that does not comply with this requirement will be rejected by the Editors.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference Style

    References should be individually numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text (including tables assuming they will be located where they are first mentioned in the text), and listed in numerical sequence on separate sheets at the end of the paper, typed in double spacing. The numbers (no alphabetical characters) should appear in the text at the appropriate places in square brackets [ ]. In the reference list, periodicals [1], books [2], multiauthor books with editors [3], proceedings [4], and patents [5] should be cited in accordance with the following examples:

    [1] M. Inoue, H. Kominami, T. Inui, Appl. Catal. A 121 (1995) 1.
    [2] Nielsen, An Investigation on Promoted Iron Catalysts for the Synthesis of Ammonia, Jul. Giellerups Forlag, Copenhagen, 1968, p. 72.
    [3] M.V. Sargent, F.M. Dean, in: A.R. Katrizky, C.W. Rees (Eds.), Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1977, p. 599.
    [4] F.E. Wagner, M. Karger, F. Probst, B. Schutter, in: P. Jena, C.B. Satterthwaite (Eds.), Electronic Structure and Properties of Hydrogen in Metals, Proc. NATO Int. Symp., Richmond, VA, 4-6 March 1982, Plenum, New York, 1983, p. 581.
    [5] J. Ciric, US Patent 3 972 983 (1976), to Mobil Oil Corporation.

    Authors' and editors' names should be given as initials followed by surname. The names of all authors (and/or all editors) should be listed in the reference list; "et al." should not be used here. Abbreviations for the titles of journals should follow the system used by Chemical Abstracts. Each reference should be complete in itself; therefore ibid. should not be used in the reference list.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Interactive plots

    This journal encourages you to include data and quantitative results as interactive plots with your publication. To make use of this feature, please include your data as a CSV (comma-separated values) file when you submit your manuscript. Please refer to http://www.elsevier.com/interactiveplots for further details and formatting instructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Additional Information

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