Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Manuscript Categories
• Unsolicited Contributions
• Ethics in publishing
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to Authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• Referees
• MANUSCRIPT and FIGURE PREPARATION - General instructions
• Use of word processing software
• Article structure
• Title Page
• Abstract
• Graphical abstract
• Highlights
• Abbreviations
• Acknowledgements
• Units
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Illustration services
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Supplementary material
• Data in Brief
• 3D radiological data
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Offprints


The Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (JCCT) is an established, Medline-indexed peer-reviewed journal that integrates the entire international cardiovascular CT community including cardiologists and radiologists, from basic to clinical academic researchers, to private practitioners, engineers, allied professionals, industry and trainees--all of whom are vital and interdependent members of the global cardiovascular imaging community. Publishing timely information rapidly both online and in print, the Journal addresses a broad range of topics that affect cardiovascular CT imaging. It focuses primarily on original research and the clinical and technical aspects of cardiovascular CT but also publishes reviews, unique images with a focus on multi-modality validation, editorial viewpoints, practical diagnostic and management tips, clinical trial designs, and multimedia elements, with videos and images viewable on the journal's full-text website. The Journal publishes official SCCT guidelines and communications of interest for the SCCT membership. Particular attention is placed on the inclusion of high quality medical graphics. Supplement issues include the abstracts from the Society's Annual Scientific Sessions and occasional peer-reviewed sponsored symposia and topical monograph proceedings of relevance to members.

Manuscript Categories

  • Research paper
  • Review article
  • Case report
  • Opinion paper
  • Short communication
  • Book review
  • Feature article
  • Invited review
  • Correspondence
  • Editorial
  • Discussion
  • Personal report
  • Practice guidelines

Unsolicited Contributions

Original Research
The Journal encourages the submission of manuscripts of original data from animal, pre-clinical, clinical and technical investigations. Such publications require detailed description of the background, research methodology, results and discussion as outlined in the Instructions for Authors. Clinical trials should be properly registered at and the NCT registration number should be provided in the manuscript. Although length is not specified for original articles, in general the manuscript should not exceed 4000 words (all inclusive) and 20 double-spaced typed pages in total, including 8 figures, 3 tables, and 30 references.

Review articles
Comprehensive, clinically-oriented review papers on topics within cardiovascular CT. Review manuscripts are encouraged to incorporate systematic review methodology, and undergo critical peer review to ensure accuracy and balance. Review articles should contain a brief abstract and should be approximately 4000 words (all inclusive), including references (limited to 30), tables, and figures.

Short Communication
Educational review focused on CTA image appearance of a selected entity, illustrating the entire spectrum of the entity and demonstrating some of the most important imaging variants or differential diagnostic entities. The teaching points are addressed in the figure legends. The body of the text is limited to a short review of imaging appearance less than 1500 words and no more than 20 references should be cited. Cine image files (accompanying the figures) are an essential part and will be available in the online version of the manuscript. No more than 1 table and 15 figures (max. 35 individual images) should be submitted.

Brief reports of technical innovations in cardiovascular CT that represent information of interest to the general field of CT users and developers. Manuscripts should be concise and organized (abstract and manuscript) in the following sections: introduction, technical methods, technical results, discussion. Word limit 1500 words (all inclusive)

Manuscripts focusing on high quality cardiovascular CT image, accompanied by two paragraphs. The first paragraph should contain the case information, focusing on the CT and its findings. The second paragraph should discuss the case, focusing on the utility of the CT in this particular situation. Word limit is strictly set at 250 words. No abstract is required. No more than 4 authors are permitted except under exceptional circumstances as approved by the Editor in Chief. No more than 4 references may be cited.

Letters should be double-spaced, not exceeding 450 words. Letters will be reviewed and are subject to editing. They should not contain original data or figures. If accepted for publication, a copy of the letter will be sent to the author(s) of the original article, if applicable. The author(s) will have an opportunity to respond with new material that will be considered for publication with the letter.

The Journal publishes both solicited and unsolicited editorial commentary. Commentaries should be confined to articles in the current issue or a very specific topic that is current and high interest to the readership. Figures and tables are encouraged for illustrative purposes. Word limit 1500 words (all inclusive).

Invited Articles
All invited manuscripts will undergo the regular peer review process and are not to be considered guaranteed publications until the author is notified as such. For a listing of topics being solicited, consult the Journal website under "Call for Papers". Potential authors are encouraged to contact the editorial office if they are interested in contributing a work.

Book Review
Newly published books may be sent to the Editor in Chief for consideration of review.

Opinion Paper
Brief, focused discussions on a practical aspect for improving performance and interpretation of cardiovascular CT. Word limit 1500 words (all inclusive).

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also

Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography requires full disclosure of all potential conflicts of interest. Please include the disclosure form along with manuscript submission. The corresponding author is responsible for preparing and sharing a copy of this form for each and every co-author listed on the manuscript. Each and every co-author must complete and sign their individual form and return to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is responsible for uploading their form and those of their co-authors (as one document) at the submission process. Investigators should disclose potential conflicts to participants in clinical trials and other studies and should state in the manuscript whether they have done so. Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography may decide not to publish on the basis of a declared conflict, such as the financial interest of an author in a company (or its competitors) that makes a product discussed in the paper.

When authors submit a manuscript, whether an article or a letter, they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist.

Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck

Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:

Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue:
Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue:
Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Manuscripts must be submitted through it Internet-based Manuscript Submission System, EES, at or through the Submit Manuscript button at its full-text site at


Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

MANUSCRIPT and FIGURE PREPARATION - General instructions

Manuscripts should be typed, double spaced with 1 inch margins using Arial font (12 point).

For text files, Microsoft Word is preferred.

Black and white illustrations accompanying editorial text shall be reproduced without charge to authors. All color art submitted to the Journal will appear in color in the full-text online version of the Journal at no charge to the authors. The Editor-in-Chief will choose ten 4-color illustrations per issue, and these will be published as color illustrations in the print Journal without cost to the authors. Priority of these free color images will be given to solicited manuscripts. Authors will be notified if the Editor-in-Chief designates any of their illustrations as free.

The cost of color illustrations will be charged to the authors at the rate of $650 per color illustration for the first color figure in each article and $100 for each additional 4-color figure in that article. Authors may also choose to convert color illustrations to black and white.


Manuscripts must be properly formatted in order to enter the peer review process. Proper formatting includes meeting exact specifications for length, sections (including the abstract), and references.

Authors whose native language is not English are STRONGLY advised to seek appropriate grammatical assistance. Poorly written manuscripts are at a disadvantage. International Science Editing and Asia Science Editing can provide English language and copyediting services to authors who want to publish in scientific, technical and medical journals and need assistance before they submit their article or, before it is accepted for publication. Authors can contact these services directly: International Science Editing ( and Asia Science Editing ( or, for more information about language editing services, please contact who will be happy to deal with any questions.

Arrange the contents in the following order:

  • Cover letter (save as a separate file for upload)
  • Title page (Include degrees for all authors and corresponding author contact information, and all conflicts of interest; save as a separate file for upload)
  • Abstract (Required for original and review articles)
  • Key words (5-10)
  • List of abbreviations used in the manuscript (Limit use to ONLY those that are commonly accepted.)
  • Text (Double-spaced, single columned with a minimum of 1-inch margins on all four edges.)
  • References (Cite all authors)
  • Figure legends
  • Tables (save as separate files for upload)
  • Figures (save each as a separate file for upload, or compress all into one ZIP file for upload; the system will "unpack" a .zip file automatically and allow you to properly identify each figure file. Go to for a free trial of this compression software.)

Cover letter: A cover letter should be submitted under the signature of the corresponding authors detailing the following characteristics: Manuscripts submitted must be original, with no portion under simultaneous consideration for publication elsewhere or previously published, except for abstracts published as part of a scientific meeting. Include only authors who have made an important contribution to the study and are thoroughly familiar and can warrant their contribution to the Editor. All authors are responsible for the contents and must have read and approved the manuscript and conform to the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" published in Annals of Internal Medicine (1997;126:36-47). Studies involving experimental animals and humans must conform to the guiding principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, and human subjects must have given informed consent of a study that has been approved by the Institutional Committee on Human Research at the authors' institution. Any financial or other relations must be disclosed in accordance with the IMJE standards ( Clinical trials will only be published that have been properly registered at Cover letters must include affirmation of the above.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Title Page

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Include a short title of fewer than 50 characters, author' full names, academic degrees, and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Editorial comments and letters to the editor do not require an abstract. All others should contain an abstract as outlined below:

Original research: Please include a brief abstract (without references) of fewer than 250 words for Original Articles. Divide the abstract into sections headed Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion, the latter stating the importance and potential implications of the observations. Following the abstract, list 5 to 10 key words suitable for indexing.

All other submissions: (Abstract no longer than 250 words) Background (justify relevance to readership), and include an informative, content-based summary of the findings of the review including conclusions. AVOID a non-informative listing of the "topics covered" in the review article.

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Use of excessive abbreviations diminishes the readability of manuscripts and should there be strongly avoided. Abbreviations should be used only for common terms that appear at a high frequency in the manuscript. For more information on appropriate abbreviations, see the SCCT Guideline on Cardiovascular CT Nomenclature.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
Reference to a book:
2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Data in Brief

Authors have the option of converting any or all parts of their supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple Data in Brief articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes their data. Data in Brief articles ensure that your data, which is normally buried in supplementary material, is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. Authors are encouraged to submit their Data in Brief article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your Data in Brief article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the new, open access journal, Data in Brief ( The open access fee for Data in Brief is $500. For authors who submit in 2015 a reduced fee of $250 will apply. Please use the following template to write your Data in Brief:

3D radiological data

You can enrich your online article by providing 3D radiological data in DICOM format. Radiological data will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article, and will enable them to: browse through available radiological datasets; explore radiological data as 2D series, 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D volume rendering and 3D MIP; zoom, rotate and pan 3D reconstructions; cut through the volume; change opacity and threshold level; and download the data. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to be zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the '3D radiological data' submission category. The recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 200 MB or less. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading each ZIP file. Note: all datasets will be available for download from the online article on ScienceDirect. So please ensure that all DICOM files are anonymized prior to submission. For more information see:

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

Manuscripts are subject to editorial modification to bring them into conformity with the style of the journal. Statements in articles or opinions expressed by any contributor in any article, including changes made by the copy editor and approved by the corresponding author, are not the responsibility of the editors or the publishers.

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via