Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Publication
• Article Types
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Use of word processing software
• Cover Letter
• Article structure
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Acknowledgments
• Units
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Illustration services
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Reprints
• Cardiac Calendar


The Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia will consider for publication suitable articles on all topics related to anesthesia for cardiac, vascular, and thoracic surgery. The scope of this Journal is broad and seeks to consolidate all material pertinent to cardiothoracic anesthesiology, including topics from critical care medicine, pharmacology, monitoring, perfusion technology, internal medicine, surgery, and transplantation.

Articles, editorials, letters to the Editor, and other text material in the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia represent the opinion of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Editor, Editorial Board, or Publisher. The Editors and Publisher deny any responsibility or liability for statements and opinions expressed by the authors. Neither the Editor nor the Publisher guarantees, warrants, or endorses any product or service advertised in this publication, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

Authors submitting a manuscript do so with the understanding that if it is accepted for publication, copyright of the article, including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to the Publisher. Following acceptance for publication, in order to comply with United States copyright law and the requirements of the insurance carrier, the Publisher will require authors of accepted manuscripts and letters to sign a copyright release form.

Article Types

For examples of all article types, see any recent issue of the Journal.

The following may be submitted: Original Research Articles, Case Reports, Review Articles, Emerging Technology Reviews, Expert Reviews, E-Challenges & Clinical Decisions, Case Conferences, Pro and Con Articles, Diagnostic Dilemmas, Special Articles (those not easily suited to another type), and Correspondence (Letters to the Editor). Potential authors are invited to e-mail the Editorial Office to establish a consultation with an Editor in regard to interest in a proposed submission.

Letters to the Editor, the Cardiac Calendar, and selected articles from other sections (eg, Case Reports, Diagnostic Dilemmas, and E-Challenges) will be published electronic-only.

Original Articles
This article type requires 4 items: Cover Letter, Title Page, Structured Abstract, and Manuscript. The Manuscript document must have 4 identified sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. A description of the statistics used in the Methods section is expected.

Case Reports
This article type requires 4 items: Cover Letter, Title Page, Summary, and Manuscript. The Manuscript document should begin with a short introduction to the clinical context of the case and follow with 2 identified sections: Case Report and Discussion. A 1-paragraph summary should complete the article. In most situations the introduction and final summary can be combined to form the final Summary item.

Case Conferences
These articles are handled by a Section Editor for Case Conferences. Some offline communication between authors and editors may be required.

  • There are 3 parts to each Case Conference: (1) case presentation, (2) case discussion, and (3) commentary(ies). The case presentation and discussion will originate from 1 institution. Their authors are invited to solicit expert commentators.
  • The case presentation and case discussion should be set up as a case report. The discussion should focus on the perioperative management of the patient.
  • The commentaries provide input from related specialties and/or other viewpoint(s) on anesthetic or intensive care management of the case. A commentary should be submitted with its author’s full name, degrees, affiliation, and e-mail address on its first page. The commentators may be from any appropriate medical or medically-related discipline within the same or another institution. The Journal reserves the right to solicit commentaries appropriate to a submitted Case Conference and to make final determination of commentators.
  • Figures, tables, and references from all contributors are desirable to expand the teaching value of the case. Follow the guidelines for preparing figures, video clips, tables, and references.
  • The final version of the Case Conference will have its references compiled into a single consecutively-numbered list.

Diagnostic Dilemmas
This cogent article type is in two parts. First, it presents a case with difficult diagnosis, usually resulting from preliminary graphic evidence. The reader is then invited to project a tentative diagnosis. In the second part, the results of further investigation are provided to resolve the dilemma. High quality figures and/or video clips are vital for these submissions.

Letters to the Editor
These should be double-spaced, brief, and concisely focused. They should have a title. Cited works must have full, accurate references. A Cover Letter and a Title Page are needed separate from the letter. Figures, video clips, and tables may be included. Letters to the Editor will be published online only.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Color Artwork
Color figures are acceptable for papers dealing with color imaging; however, as color printing is costly, it will be used at the discretion of the Editor. Color used in bar, line, and pie graphs is discouraged; please substitute distinct shades of gray and/or patterned lines and shapes. If color images are to be reproduced in black and white, the contributor should submit the prints in black and white for best results.

Conflict of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1700, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

The Editorial Office will send by e-mail to the corresponding author all communications related to the status of a submission, including the final decision and the scheduled date of publication.

Further inquiries and information may be directed to the Editorial Office at:

Manuscripts will be reviewed by the Editor in Chief, Associate Editors, members of the Editorial Board, and appropriate guest reviewers. Acceptance of a paper for publication is based on the originality and quality of the observation or investigation, and the clarity of the presentation. Clinically relevant material is especially desirable. Good English usage is an essential prerequisite for consideration of the paper.

In all cases the authors must accept the responsibility of conforming to the instructions in this guide. Submissions must conform fully before reviewers will be assigned. Substantial non-conformity may result in outright rejection. If a submitted article is accepted for publication, editorial revisions may be made to aid clarity and understanding without altering the meaning.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Cover Letter

A cover letter should be supplied addressed to the Editor in Chief. The letter must include at the end a list of all authors as if for signature. Cover letters scanned from official letterhead with all signatures are strongly encouraged. The cover letter must state that the authors agree with and are responsible for the data presented. The letter should also describe or deny any potential conflicts of interest including commercial relationships such as consultation and equity interests.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address.


An Unstructured Abstract is used for expert reviews and special articles as appropriate.

The Structured Abstract for an Original Research Article is limited to 250 words (including section headings). The abstract should consist of 7 paragraphs:

  • 1. Objective(s): What scientific question was the study designed to answer?
  • 2. Design: A phrase describing whether a study is prospective, randomized, blinded, etc.
  • 3. Setting: Type of hospital or laboratory; university or community setting; single or multi-institutional.
  • 4. Participants: Patients, volunteers, animals.
  • 5. Interventions: What interventions were done to the participants?
  • 6. Measurements and Main Results: How was the outcome of the intervention(s) assessed? What were the major finding(s) of interest?
  • 7. Conclusions: What conclusion(s) may be reasonably drawn from the results of the study?

Following these 7 paragraphs, repeat the list of key words that are uploaded into the key word file. No references or abbreviations should be used in the abstract.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Acknowledgements should be placed at the end of the Title Page, not in the Manuscript document.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


A separate file is required for each table, including its number and title at the top and any notes at the end. The notes should provide definition of abbreviations used in the table and permission statement for use of any copyrighted materials. Tables should be formatted as Microsoft Word tables, not in any graphic format. A table may be continued on multiple pages if necessary; do not repeat column headers on the additional pages.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference style
Journal article, one to three authors

1. Beutler E: The effect of methemoglobin formation on sickle cell disease. J Clin Invest 40:1856-1858, 1961

2. Karpatkin S, Smith K, Charmatz A: Heterogeneity of human platelets. III. Glycogen metabolism in platelets of different sizes. Br J Haematol 19:135-137, 1970

Journal article, four or more authors

3. Golomb HM, Vardiman J, Sweet DL, et al: Hairy cell leukemia: Evidence for the existence of a spectrum of functional capabilities. Br J Haematol 38:161-162, 1968

Journal article in press

4. O’Malley JE, Eisenberg L: The hyperkinetic syndrome. Semin Psychiatry (in press)

Complete book

5. Lillie RD: Histopathologic Technic and Practical Histochemistry (ed 4). New York, NY, Blakiston, 1965, pp 39-41

Chapter of book

6. Moore G, Minowada J: Human hemopoietic cell lines: A progress report, in Farnes P (ed): Hemic Cells in Vitro, vol 4. Baltimore, MD, Williams & Wilkins, 1969, pp 100-105

Chapter of book that is part of published meeting

7. Hatvg JB, Kunkel HG, Gedde-Dahl T Jr: Genetic studies of the heavy chain sub-groups of gamma globulin, in Killander J (ed): Gamma Globulins, Proceedings of the Third Nobel Symposium. New York, NY, Wiley, 1967, pp 19-26

Chapter of book that is part of unpublished meeting

8. Polliak A: A morphologic study of the lymphoproliferative lesions induced by excess vitamin A. First Meeting, European Division, International Society of Hematology, Milan, Italy, 1971, p 181


9. Curnutte JT, Karnovsky ML, Babior BM: Manganese-dependent NADPH oxidation by a particulate preparation from guinea pig granulocytes: An alternative interpretation. Clin Res 23:371A, 1975

Letter to Editor

10. Seeler RA: Sickle cell anemia monthly variations. Blood 47: 879, 1976

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
• For reproduction in black-and-white, please supply black-and-white versions of the figures for printing purposes.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use generic drug names throughout. Brand names may be inserted following the generic names.

The name and city/state/country location of the a drug or technology manufacturer must be included after the name of the product.

The author(s) or the name or geographical location of an author’s institution should not be identified in the text, header, or footer in the submission except on the Title Page and the Cover Letter.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


Reprints of articles can be furnished to contributors when ordered in advance of publication. An order form is sent in advance of proofs. Individuals wishing to obtain reprints of an article that appears in the Journal can do so by contacting the author at the address given in the Journal. Electronic copies may be purchased from the Publisher.

Cardiac Calendar

Announcements of meetings, conferences, and the like that are of interest to the readership of the Journal should be sent to the Section Editor for Cardiac Calendar, Dr. George Silvay (, at least 4 months before the intended appearance of the notice. These announcements will be published only online.

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via