Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Your Paper Your Way
• Manuscript submission
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Clinical trial results
• Reporting clinical trials
• Registration of clinical trials
• Article transfer service
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Referees
• References
• Formatting requirements
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Structured abstract
• Units
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Illustration services
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Additional information
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

This document contains complete guidelines for the preparation of your manuscript. For instructions regarding statistical analyses and reporting and for special instructions regarding (a) submissions having to do with allergen identification or allergen structure and (b) submissions having to do with animal models, see "Special Instructions" (below). For instructions regarding online submission, please visit Technical support is available by email at In any correspondence, please provide the corresponding author's name, title of the manuscript, manuscript number (if assigned), and a clear description of the problem.

Manuscript submission

All manuscripts must be submitted online through the JACI's Elsevier Editorial System (EES) Web site at Electronic files of the manuscript contents must be uploaded at that Web site, and the onscreen steps should be followed to submit the manuscript to the Editorial Office.

Items pertaining to manuscripts submitted for publication should be sent to:

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Editorial Office
National Jewish Health
1400 Jackson St., Suite K012k
Denver, CO 80206

Telephone: (303) 398-1963
Fax: (303) 270-2269

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflict of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Disclosure form
The Journal requires all of the authors of a manuscript to acknowledge, on the title page of the manuscript, all funding sources that supported their work. In addition, the Editors require that the authors disclose all pertinent information about their other interests that could influence how the work is perceived and understood. This information must be provided through use of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. No article can be published in the Journal unless a completed and signed ICMJE Form has been received from each author. A copy of the form can be downloaded from the EES Web site (

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Authorship requirements
Please note:
(A) To be listed as an author, an individual must meet the requirements approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). In order to be included in the list of authors, an individual must have done all of the following: (1) made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafted the article or reviewed it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) given final approval of the version to be published.
(B) The JACI does not allow "ghostwriting," or uncredited authorship. All writers of a manuscript should be clearly identified.
(C) Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications in the Journal are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Editor(s) or publisher, and the Editor(s) and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the Editor(s) nor the publisher guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on

Registration of clinical trials

Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Article transfer service

This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here:


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Other documentation

  • Nucleotide Sequence Data. When manuscripts include or describe original sequence data, authors must submit these data to GenBank. A footnote must include the accession number under which the data were submitted. Instructions are available from or
  • Protein Sequence Data. When manuscripts include or describe original protein sequence data, authors must submit these data to Protein Identification Resource (PIR). A footnote must include the accession number under which the data were submitted. Instructions are available from

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via


Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Revision of manuscripts
As with new submissions, revisions must be submitted electronically through EES ( Ensure that the revised manuscript is prepared in accordance with the Journal's format and style for the type of article being revised. Please refer to the "Tutorial for Authors" ( for additional information. Adherence to these guidelines is important to prevent a delay in processing the revised manuscript.

Revisions must include the following:
(1) A Responses to Comments document that includes point-by-point responses to the comments made by the Reviewers, Editor, and Editorial Office. In your Responses to Comments document, reproduce each comment verbatim and in its entirety and follow the comment with your detailed response. Each of the comments should be preceded by the word "COMMENT," and the font style for each comment should be bold. Each of your responses should be preceded by the word "RESPONSE," and the font style for each response should be regular (not bold). In each response, indicate where relevant changes have been made in the manuscript or explain why no changes would be appropriate. If any alterations have been made to your figures or if any figures have been removed or replaced, describe the changes.
(2) A Marked Manuscript. The Marked Manuscript should be a version of your revised manuscript in which all of the ways in which it is different from the original manuscript are indicated for the sake of the Editor. The preferred method of indicating changes is Microsoft Word's Track Changes feature. Alternately, any text that has been added should be underlined, and any text that was deleted should be indicated by strikethrough formatting. Any table that was part of your original submission should be either embedded within the Marked Manuscript or provided as a separate file (e.g., "Table II - Marked"); if changes have been made to the table, they should be indicated. Likewise, any figure that was part of your original submission should be either embedded within the Marked Manuscript or provided as a separate file (e.g., "Figure 1 - Marked"); if changes have been made to the figure, they should be described in your Responses to Comments document. Line numbering (continuous) should be used throughout the Marked Manuscript.
(3) An Unmarked Manuscript. The Unmarked Manuscript should be your revised manuscript just as you intend it for publication (if it is accepted). Any table that is to be part of your revised manuscript should be either embedded within the Unmarked Manuscript or provided as a separate file (e.g., "Table II - Unmarked"). Any figure that is to be part of your revised manuscript must be provided as a separate file (e.g., "Figure 1-Unmarked").
(4) Conflict of Interest Disclosure forms. If you are submitting your Conflict of Interest disclosure forms to us as part of your electronic submission in EES, please be sure to include all of these forms with each subsequent revision of your manuscript.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.


There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Formatting requirements

There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.


Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Original articles
A. These should describe fully, but as concisely as feasible, the results of original clinical and/or laboratory research. Special note regarding case studies: Case studies will be considered for publication only in the Letters to the Editor section of the Journal.

The average Original Article fills 7 pages in the printed journal, although manuscripts that exceed this may be occasionally accepted for publication at the Editors' discretion. In general, an Original Article should not exceed 3500 words, not including the abstract, figure legends, and references. Abstracts should be 250 words or less. If possible, each figure legend should be held to 60 words or less. Each Original Article may be accompanied by no more than 8 graphic presentations (tables and/or figures)-for example, 3 tables + 5 figures. (Additional text, tables, or figures can be designated as "supplemental" material, which will be included in the JACI's Online Repository. For more on this option, please see the "Online Repository Materials" section below.) Please note: Original Article manuscripts that are determined to significantly exceed these limits, or that do not include all of the elements listed below, may be returned to the authors for revision prior to review.

The title page, abstract, Capsule Summary, key words, abbreviations, text, acknowledgments, references, tables and figure legends should be included in one word-processing file (in .doc or .wpd format). Figures should be loaded as separate files in the format specified below.

1. Title page. The title page, abstract, clinical implications or key messages, Capsule Summary, key words, abbreviations, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends should be included in one word-processing file (in .doc or .docx format). Figures should be loaded as separate files in the format specified below.

  • Keep the title succinct: Limit it to 12 words or fewer.
  • Communicate a single subject or idea in the title.
  • Construct the title around the article's key words.
  • Include the specific symptom, condition, intervention, mechanism, or function of the paper's central focus.
  • Mention any defining population, age, gender, or animal species that distinguishes the work.
  • Use terms that are specific rather than general (e.g., "penicillin" rather than "betalactam antibiotic") and include terms that clarify (e.g., "CXCR4" rather than "chemokine receptors").
  • Avoid using strong words (such as "robust," "innovative," "significant," "vigorous," and "aggressive"), as they may suggest exaggerated or unwarranted claims.
  • Use wit carefully and appropriately; be informative first and clever second. Although a universally understood pun can work well to attract interest, ensure that it will not confuse or mislead the reader.

The titles of papers accepted for publication in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology may be revised for improved clarity and appeal to the readership. Such revision will have final approval by the authors.

The title should be followed by:
  • The list of authors, including their full names, highest academic degrees, and institutional affiliations. Please see the guidelines above regarding which contributors should be included in the author list.
  • The name, address, telephone number, fax number, and email address of the author who should be contacted regarding the manuscript following its publication. Note: A different author may be designated as the Corresponding Author in EES for the duration of the submission and review processes.
  • A declaration of all sources of funding for the research reported in the manuscript.
    Note regarding National Institutes of Health-sponsored research: The JACI'S publisher, Elsevier, facilitates author posting in connection with the posting request of the NIH (referred to as the NIH "Public Access Policy"; see If an author indicates that the research reported in their article was sponsored by the NIH, either by checking the appropriate box on the Transfer of Copyright form or by completing the relevant field during the online submission process, Elsevier will send the accepted version of the manuscript to PubMed Central (PMC) for public access posting 12 months after final publication. Please note that the accepted version of the manuscript does not include changes that are made during the review of galley proofs. For more information about PubMed Central, please visit

2. Abstract. As a general rule, the abstract should be no longer than 250 words. It should summarize the results and conclusions concisely. Tabular data should not be included and acronyms/abbreviations should be avoided or spelled out fully. Abstracts should be structured as follows:
  • Background: What is the major problem that prompted the study?
  • Objective: What is the purpose of the study?
  • Methods: How was the study done?
  • Results: What are the most important findings?
  • Conclusion: What is the most important conclusion drawn?

3. Clinical Implications or Key Messages. Provide ONE of the following:

• a very brief paragraph (consisting of no more than 30 words) summarizing the diagnostic, therapeutic, or management implications of the article. The heading for this paragraph should be Clinical Implications.

• (if the article is mechanistic) two or three independent bulleted statements that present the key findings or concepts in the article and comment on their implications. The heading for this small set of bulleted statements should be Key Messages.

4. Capsule summary. The Table of Contents entry for each Original Article published in the Journal includes a short summary that encapsulates the report's findings for a clinically oriented audience. To create this summary, the authors must compose one or two brief sentences (totaling no more than 35 words) that describe the article's contribution to the literature. These sentences should succinctly state why the article is important and compelling and what relevance it has for the clinician.

5. Key words. A list of up to ten key words should follow the Capsule Summary.

6. Abbreviations. Provide a list of any abbreviations/acronyms and their definitions following the key words. Only standard abbreviations are to be used. If you are uncertain whether an abbreviation is considered standard, consult Scientific Style and Format by the Council of Science Editors or the AMA's Manual of Style. A laboratory or chemical term or the name of a disease process that will be abbreviated must be spelled out at first mention, the acronym or abbreviation following in parentheses.

7. Text. The manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. Authors whose primary language is not English should obtain assistance with writing to avoid grammatical problems. The text should be organized in sections as follows: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page. The generic terms for all drugs and chemicals should be used.

In studies involving human subjects, a statement describing approval by the appropriate Institutional Review Board is required. Studies involving experimental animals must include a statement in the Methods section indicating which guidelines were followed for the care and use of the animals (e.g., the "Principles of Laboratory Animal Care" formulated by the National Society for Medical Research or the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, and published by the National Academy Press [revised 1996]).

8. Acknowledgments. General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analyses, and the like should be listed at the end of the text, including full names of individuals involved. However, as noted above, acknowledgment of funding should be listed on the title page.

9. References. It is the Editors' expectation that authors will perform a comprehensive search of the literature to gather the most current articles relative to the subject matter. All references that are five years old or more should be replaced with current literature, unless the referenced publication is a classic work that underscores the core subject.

Letters to the Editor
B. Letters to the Editor are brief reports of clinical or laboratory observations, substantiated by controlled data but limited in scope, and without sufficient depth of investigation to qualify as Original Articles. Like Original Articles, these manuscripts are subject to peer review. Letters to the Editor are indexed in Medline, accessible to literature searches, and cited like original articles.

A Letter to the Editor must:

(1) Be brief. The average Letter to the Editor fills 2 pages in the printed journal, although manuscripts that exceed this may be occasionally accepted for publication at the Editors' discretion. In general, a Letter to the Editor should not exceed 1000 words, not including the figure legend(s) and references. If possible, the figure legend(s) should be held to 60 words or less. Please note: Letter to the Editor manuscripts that are determined to significantly exceed these limits may be returned to the authors for shortening prior to review.
(2) Have a short, relevant title. Please see the suggestions that appear above (under "A. Original Articles").
(3) Have a complete title page (see section A1).
(4) Be accompanied by a short summary that encapsulates the report's findings for a clinically oriented audience (see section A4).
(5) Begin with the salutation "To the Editor:"
(6) Close with the author's name(s), academic degree(s), institutions(s), and location(s).
(7) Have no more than nine references.
(8) List the references as complete bibliographic citations following the closure of the letter (see section A9 above for formatting).
(9) Present lists of Key words, as relevant (see sections A5 and A6 above).
(10) Be limited to a total of 2 figures and/or tables. (Additional figures or tables may be placed in the article's Online Repository; please see the relevant section below.)

Correspondence and replies
C. Correspondence concerning recent publications in the Journal will be considered for publication and accepted based on their pertinence, their scientific quality, and available space in the Journal. If the correspondence is considered acceptable, a response will be requested from the authors of the referenced JACI article. Upon review and approval by the Editor, the Correspondence and relevant Reply will both be published together.

Both Correspondence and Reply manuscripts must:
(1) Be no longer than 500 words.
(2) Have a short, relevant title, distinct from the title of the referenced article. Please note that all Replies should have the title "Reply to [Corresponding author's name]."
(3) Have a complete title page (see section A1).
(4) List the references as complete bibliographic citations at the end of the letter with the journal article being discussed as the first reference (see section A9 for formatting). The total number of references should be no more than seven. Replies should include the Correspondence to which they are replying as one of the references.
(5) Have no more than one graphic presentation (table or figure). (See the section on Graphic Presentations below).
(6) Begin with the salutation "To the Editor:" and close with the author's name(s), academic degree(s), institutions(s), and location(s).

Review articles
D. Review articles published in the Journal are invited by the Editors.. Proposals for review articles may be emailed to the Editorial Office (, but current space constraints do not usually allow for the acceptance of unsolicited review manuscripts.

Rostrum articles
E. Opinion articles about subjects of particular interest and/or debate may be accepted for peer review after preliminary review by the Editor. Proposals for rostrum articles may be emailed to the Editorial Office (; they will be evaluated based on level of interest, novelty, and the current needs of the Journal.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Structured abstract

A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

If illustrations appear in the manuscript, they must be submitted in electronic format along with the rest of the manuscript. Each figure should be submitted as a separate electronic file, and should not be inserted into the file containing the text of the manuscript.

Basic guidelines:

  • Text within the figure should be in Times New Roman font. Keep a consistent font size throughout each figure, and for all figures.
  • Images need to be easily readable with good contrast, particularly figures that have multiple parts and/or a lot of different symbols or components. Clarity and consistency should be uniform among the parts of a multi-part figure, and among all the figures in a manuscript.
  • In colorizing your figure(s), we ask that you keep in mind that some of our readers are colorblind and may be unable to distinguish different colors easily. To accommodate these readers, we suggest that you consider some type of aid, such as labeling each column of a bar graph with an identifier or providing a key with differently shaped symbols to identify each set of data. It is also helpful to use colors of varying intensity so that they are distinguishable as different shades of gray when viewed by the colorblind. It is important that you submit all figures in the dimensions in which they are to be published in the journal. They must be sized to the smallest dimensions that allow legibility and clarity without undue use of space.

Figure legends
Note regarding figure legends: Figure legends should be listed in the manuscript file, on a separate page after the tables. They should not appear in the figure files. The figure legend will be included when sizing the figure and its length must therefore be taken into consideration. The figure title should appear at the beginning of each legend. The legends themselves should be succinct (no more than 60 words), identifying the data or subject being presented, but not explaining methods or results. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Permission to reuse previously published materials
If applicable, authors of manuscripts submitted to the JACI must provide the Editorial Office with proof of permission to reuse any previously published material that has appeared in another publication. Additionally, in the case of photographs of identifiable persons, a signed release showing informed consent must be provided. Because articles appear in both the print and online versions of the journal, wording in the permissions form/release should specify "permission to publish in all forms and media." Upon obtaining written permission to reuse the specified material, forward the documentation to the Editorial Office by email (, or fax a copy to 303-270-2269. Acceptance of a manuscript is conditional upon receipt of permission.
Please note: It sometimes takes up to 6-8 weeks to obtain permissions from a publisher, so be sure to allow plenty of time.

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


If tables appear in the manuscript, they must be included in the electronic submission. They may be placed within the manuscript file or loaded as separate files (in .doc or .docx format). Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text; they should be on separate pages, one table per page, and should be numbered with Roman numerals in order of mention. A brief title should be provided directly above each table. Any abbreviations should be defined at the bottom of the table. When creating a table, use the word-processing program's table formatting feature; otherwise, use only tabs (not spaces) to align columns.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style
References should follow "Vancouver style." See the examples below, or for more information. Manuscripts in preparation, personal communications, and other unpublished information should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses. The references must be identified in the text by superscript Arabic numerals and numbered in consecutive order as they are mentioned in the text. The list of references, in numeric sequence, should be typed at the end of the article. In the submitted version of the manuscript, references should not appear as footnotes or endnotes, and if you have used a program such as EndNote or Reference Manager to create them, the links between the reference numbers and the citations must be removed using the following steps:

(1) Using the "Select All" feature (Ctrl-A for PCs. Cmd-A for Macs), highlight the entire text of the file, including the references.
(2) Use the keystroke command Ctrl-6 for PCs or Cmd-6 for Macs.
(3) Save. This will remove the links (permanently) without disturbing the reference numbers or the citations. It is recommended that you save one copy of your manuscript with the EndNote links in place (for your reference) and one copy of your manuscript without the EndNote links (for submission purposes).

Please note that inclusive page numbers are required. List all authors' names when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list the first six and add "et al."

Examples of Reference Formatting

Journal article:
Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, Masuyer E, Friedl HP, Ivanov E, et al. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernyobyl: 5-year follow-up. Br J Cancer 1996;73:1006-12.

Ringsven MD, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

Chapter in a book:
Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.

Internet resource:
US positions on selected issues at the third negotiating session of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Washington, DC: Committee on Government Reform; 2002. Available at: Accessed March 4, 2002.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Online Repository materials
The Journal will consider posting ancillary materials (non-essential text, tables, figures, appendices, questionnaires, etc.) in an Online Repository (OR) on the JACI Web site ( The OR is for peer-reviewed material that cannot be included in the print version of an article due to space considerations. In the manuscript text, materials that are housed in the OR must be referenced specifically ("see Figure E1 in the Online Repository"). Note: OR material consisting of 15 pages or less is built directly into the downloadable PDF of the manuscript.

On an individual basis, the Editors will determine whether ancillary material submitted in support of a manuscript is warranted. In some instances, an Editor may suggest when requesting a revision that part of the data be presented for the OR and removed from the manuscript, perhaps at the request of the reviewers.

The ancillary material must be submitted in EES simultaneously with the rest of the manuscript. The OR material should be loaded as separate files, and should follow the end of the regular manuscript. For revisions that will include newly designated OR material, the Marked Manuscript should show where materials were removed from the original version, and include appropriate statements directing readers of the article in the print journal to the OR. The Unmarked Manuscript will reflect the latter changes. Guidelines for Online Repository text:

  • All text files for the OR should be formatted per directions for regular manuscript materials (see section A).
  • If citations are made within the ancillary material, a list of references, separate from the manuscript's references, must be included and labeled E1, E2, etc.
  • Authors may repeat sentences or references in the OR that are included in the manuscript, if necessary for reader comprehension.

Guidelines for Online Repository Tables and Figures:
  • Tables for the OR should be submitted as files with any of the following extensions: doc, .csv, .txt,.rtf, .xls, or .ppt. The tables must have been created in the same format that they are saved, so that they can be copyedited if needed.
  • Figures for the OR do not need to conform to the print specifications for resolution, but they do need to appear clear and crisp when viewed electronically.
  • Figures and Tables must be designated as Figure E1, Table E1, etc, and should be numbered separately from the illustrations in the manuscript proper.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Additional information

Special instructions regarding submissions using animal models
(1) Animal model studies of interest to the JACI. The Editors would be interested in an animal-model study only if it highlights a new conceptual advance using an experimental approach that would be very difficult, impractical, or unethical to do in human beings. The authors should clearly indicate in their cover letter how their animal-model study meets these criteria.
(2) Mouse pulmonary function tests. The JACI's policy is that measurement of airway responsiveness by unrestrained, single-chamber barometric plethysmography (the Penh method) must be confirmed by invasive techniques. For further explanation of this policy, please see Finkelman FD. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:334-5.
(3) The JACI encourages authors of animal-model papers to consult and adhere to the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines, available at

Special instructions regarding statistical analyses and reporting
Although referees with statistical expertise typically review manuscripts submitted to the JACI, the Editorial Board decided that the quality of the manuscripts could be improved by providing authors some guidance on statistical analyses and reporting. Therefore, the JACI Statistical Editor has constructed the following guidelines, which incorporate many comments from Editorial Board members and statistical referees.

1. METHODS: Reporting on Statistical Methods. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement is a set of guidelines for reporting on the methods and results of randomized and nonrandomized medical research studies. It is available at the following Web site:

The first CONSORT statement provides a checklist of items that should be included in a manuscript that reports the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Items 7 through 12 of the checklist are relevant to the statistical methods section for a manuscript submitted to the JACI based on a RCT. Thus:

With respect to item 12, the statistical methods and commercial software should be cited.

Item 7 and item 12 of the checklist are relevant to the Statistical Methods section of a manuscript submitted to the JACI based on a nonrandomized study. Thus:

2. Results.
Items 13 through 19 of the CONSORT checklist describe items that are important to the Results section for a manuscript submitted to the JACI based on a RCT (some of the items might not be relevant if the study is nonrandomized). Thus:

2A. Results: Descriptive Statistics at Baseline
If the distribution for a continuous variable is approximately normally distributed, then report either • the sample mean and the sample standard deviation
• the sample mean and the 95% confidence interval for the population mean.

If the distribution for a continuous variable is known (or suspected) to be non-normal, then report either • the sample median and the sample interquartile range
• the sample median and the sample first and third quartiles.

Many blood and urine measurements are log-normally distributed-i.e., the log-transformed variable is approximately normally distributed. If the distribution for a continuous variable is known (or suspected) to be lognormal, then an alternative to sample medians and quartiles is to report either
• the sample geometric mean (calculate as the exponentiation of the sample mean of the natural log-transformed data) and the sample coefficient of variation
• the sample geometric mean and the 95% confidence interval.

If the distribution of the variable is categorical, then report the raw numbers and the percentages for the categories. Do not use more than three digits for the percentages-i.e., 79% or 79.3% are fine, but 79.32% is not.

Statistical tests, along with reported P values, for comparing groups at baseline are not necessary unless there is a strong reason to include them.

2B. Results: Outcomes
Every P value should be reported using two digits after the decimal point. If each of the first two digits after the decimal point is zero, then a third digit can be used. If each of the first three digits after the decimal point is zero, then simply report P < .001.

If the P value is close to the level to be used for claiming a statistical significance or if each of the first two digits after the decimal point is zero, then a third digit can be used. For example, if the significance level is 0.05, then P = .046 or P = .054 can be reported. Nonsignificant results (e.g., where the P value is >0.05) should be accompanied by P values; it should not simply be stated that they are nonsignificant (NS).

P values alone are not sufficient to report the results of statistical tests. The JACI'S readers need to see the magnitude of the effects via point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the group comparisons.

An estimate of odds ratios and relative risks (and their corresponding confidence interval estimates) should not exceed two digits beyond the decimal point.

The following is an excellent article that discusses many of the statistical errors that arise in immunologic research:
Murphy JR. Statistical errors in immunologic research. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:1259-63.

The following is an excellent article that discusses the reporting of subgroup analyses in clinical research: Wang R, Lagakos SW, Ware JH, Hunter DJ, Drazen JM. Statistics in medicine-reporting of subgroup analyses in clinical trials. NEJM 2007;357:2189-2194.

Finally, if authors desire more detailed guidance on appropriate methods for analyzing study outcomes, then they can visit the Web sites of other biomedical journals. An excellent example is the Web site of Annals of Internal Medicine (

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via

Editorial office
Editor in Chief DONALD Y. M. LEUNG, MD, PhD
Managing Editor JUSTIN BYRNE