Guide for Authors
- MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION: OVERVIEW
- THE REVIEW PROCESS
- AUTHORS' RESPONSIBILITY
- TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT
- ORGANIZATION OF MANUSCRIPT
- PRESENTATION OF DATA
- LITERATURE SEARCH
- SHORT REPORTS
- REVIEWS / WORKSHOPS
- LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
- OBITUARIES / NEWS ITEMS
- EYE ON THE ARTS / FIRST PERSON / CLINICAL PEARLS
The Journal of AAPOS publishes original articles, including clinical and laboratory investigations, case reports, surgical techniques, descriptions of instrumentation, current concept reviews/workshops, editorials, and letters to the editor. Preference will be given to manuscripts that address issues relevant to pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus: anatomy, embryology, and development of the eye or eye muscles; ocular manifestations of pediatric systemic disease; eye movement disorders in children and adults; development of the visual system; epidemiology; ocular genetics; and any other ocular disorders in children. The Journal maintains a clinical focus, with basic science research applicable to clinical practice also encouraged. Authors wishing to submit review articles, workshops, or editorials should first contact the editor-in-chief. Authors do not need to be members of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS), and manuscripts written by AAPOS members are not given preferential consideration.
Only manuscripts submitted solely to the Journal are considered. Text or data previously published in a similar form or extensively reported in "tabloid" ophthalmologic publications may be unacceptable. Questions pertaining to a manuscript or concerning prior publication should be directed to the editor-in-chief before the manuscript is submitted. Inquiries may be sent to the managing editor at ME@jaapos.org, or Journal of AAPOS, Farley 019.1, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (email preferred; material submitted by mail will not be returned.)
All new manuscripts must be submitted in digital form through the Journal of AAPOS online submission and review Web site (http://ees.elsevier.com/jaapos/ ). Authors are encouraged to include the names of potential reviewers for their manuscript, with email addresses or other contact information, if known.Submission items include (as separate files), in the following order:
- Cover letter (for specific content of which, see below, "Authors' Responsibility")
- Response to reviews (revised manuscripts only)
- Title page (as a separate file for initial review: integrated into manuscript with reviews)
- Manuscript (including abstract, text, references, and figure legends)
- Highlighted version (changes tracked) of manuscript (revised manuscripts only)
- Video or e-supplements
Each page of the manuscript must include continuous line numbers in the margin. Files should be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (e.g., Text.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc). Upload text, tables, and graphics as separate files. A ".zip" file combining all files may also be used. Do not import figures or tables into the text document, and do not upload your text as a PDF file.
For initial review, a "masked" manuscript is required. Manuscript files, tables, figures, and electronic media should not contain the author's identities in the contents, header/footer, or file names.Revised manuscripts must be accompanied by a separate file (distinct from the cover letter) with point-by-point responses to reviewers' comments. This corrections addendum must include a numbered list of reviewers' comments (e.g., 1.1, 2.1, 2.2), keyed to page and line numbers in the revised manuscript. If you have chosen not to make a suggested revision, you must explain your reasoning.
Revised manuscripts must also be submitted in two versions: a "clean" version, without highlighting or marginal callouts, and a second, "highlighted" version, with changes tracked and keyed to the list of reviewers' comments in the corrections addendum. If the original manuscript contained masked areas identifying your name(s), institution(s), or the geographic location of the study, insert the proper identifications in this version.The publisher and editors regret that they are not able to consider submissions that do not follow these procedures. Authors who are unable to provide electronic files or have other circumstances that prevent online submission may contact the editorial office prior to submission to discuss alternate options.
If an article is accepted for publication in the Journal, the author will receive a copyright transferal form, which must be completed and returned to the publisher before the article can be typeset. Before publication, the publisher will email edited proofs to the author for examination and approval, along with a price schedule and an order form for reprints. Once the manuscript is typeset and finalized for appearance in print, it will be published online and made available on the Journal Web site for subscribers.Should possible scientific misconduct or dishonesty in research submitted for review by the Journal be suspected or alleged, the Journal reserves the right to forward any submitted manuscript to the sponsoring or funding institution or other appropriate authority for investigation. The Journal recognizes the responsibility to ensure that the question is appropriately pursued but does not undertake the actual investigation or make determinations of misconduct.
Any possible financial conflicts of interest and all sources of financial support, public and private—stating agency name and city, company name and city, fellowship name, and grant number, as appropriate—must be disclosed on the manuscript title page and in the cover letter.
- Conflict of Interest. Authors must disclose any conflict of interest or potential conflict of interest, which may be considered to exist where the actions or activities of authors or third parties may involve obtaining an improper personal gain or advantage from publication of the article in question. Any conflict or potential conflict must be reported to the editor-in-chief of the Journal, who must be supplied with a proprietary interest statement. Each author is expected to disclose any type of financial interest that is related to the subject matter of the manuscript. Authors should disclose any individual or family investments, stock or business ownership exceeding 1% of a company's worth, consulting, retainers, patents, or other commercial interests. The involvement in the marketing of any product, drug, instrument or piece of equipment discussed in the manuscript that could cause, or be perceived to be, a conflict of interest should also be disclosed. Such disclosure will not affect the review of the manuscript.
Cover letters must also include word counts (or, for revisions, updated word counts) for the entire manuscript and for the abstract alone. The word count for the entire manuscript includes the words in the abstract, body of the text, tables, references, acknowledgments, and legends.Authors should list illustrations or tables previously published and submit a letter of permission for reproduction rights. If any person's identity can be determined from a photo submitted with the manuscript, the author must include written permission to publish the photograph. In general, photographs of an individual's eyes that are cropped to show the portion of the face between the eyebrows and the tip of the nose do not require permission to publish. Photographs that are cropped to show a larger area of the face do require permission. Articles appear in both the print and online versions of the Journal, and wording of the letter should specify permission in all forms and media. Failure to obtain electronic permission rights may result in the images not appearing in the online version.
Declarations regarding IRB-HIPAA compliance should appear within the body of the paper. HIPAA should be spelled out e.g., this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of [name of institution] and conformed to the requirements of the United States Health Insurance Portability and Privacy Act.
- Informed Consent. For reports or studies, excluding Short Reports, involving human subjects, a statement must appear early in the Methods section regarding Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval or waiver and when and from whom informed consent was obtained. For North American authors, the statement should indicate the name of the approving committee or body. For studies and reports from the United States, a declaration of compliance with HIPAA regulations should also be included. For studies from other areas, approval by an IRB is strongly encouraged. If IRB approval outside of North America is not available, the authors should confirm that the study and data collection conformed to all local laws and were compliant with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (JAMA 2000;284:3043-3045; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/284/23/3043 ). Patients' names, initials, hospital or university numbers, dates and other potentially identifying information should not appear in the manuscript. For studies involving animals, where appropriate, approval by IRB or an equivalent body should be indicated in the Methods section.
Limit the use of abbreviations to those that are commonly understood without explanation (e.g., mm Hg). Do not abbreviate a syndrome or term merely because it appears frequently in the manuscript. Pharmaceuticals should be referred to by the generic name. When brand names of equipment or other products are specified, the manufacturer and city and state of manufacture must be included in parentheses following first mention. Patients should be referred to by case number rather than by name or initials.To mask author identity from reviewers, references to the author(s), institution(s), or geographic location(s) by name or initial should be masked from the manuscript until after initial peer review. If authors refer to their own previously published work, they may forgo masking that material. In such cases, authors should identify the issue in question in the cover letter. The editorial office can make a decision about whether or not to mask the material.
To enable the publisher to use your text files, please follow these instructions carefully. Do not justify the right margin or use centering tabs for text or headers. Be sure to key the letter O, the number 0, the letter l, and the number 1 correctly. Use only one space after colons or periods. Use the default hyphenation of your word processor. Use two hyphens for long dashes. Key in the reference list at the end of the text. Software designed to create references that is used as an adjunct to word processing software (e.g., Endnote) may be used, but do not use your word processor's footnote or endnote feature to create such references. When preparing tables, use the table format or use only tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Text to be italicized or set in boldface in print may be keyboarded thus (italics may also be indicated by underlining). Do not input special typesetting codes. The publisher will handle all design considerations for typefaces and page layout. Finally, before submitting your manuscript, please confirm that spelling conforms to U.S. English. Word processing software can often assist with this task. For MS Word, choose Tools > Language > Set Language, selecting "English (U.S.)".Illustrations. Submit images in JPEG, TIFF, or EPS format. For guidelines on acceptable formats, see http://www.elsevier.com/artwork . Note that while color illustrations or photographs are encouraged and will be published at no extra charge in the online version of the journal, it is the author's responsibility to carry the added expense of publishing in color in the print version of the Journal. Prices are available on request from Mosby, Inc . Inquiries may be sent to ME@jaapos.org. Depending on the priority (assigned by the reviewers) for publishing the illustrations in color, funds may be available from the Journal office to offset some of the cost of color printing. For current funding information, please contact the Journal office. Authors wishing to publish color photographs should state so in their cover letter. Please refer to the section on Authors' Responsibility regarding permission to publish photographs. If an illustration from an article is selected for the cover, it will be published in color at no charge to the authors.
Graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator is preferred over presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics for the creation of art. Titles should be included in the figure legend and not in the figure. Color images must be CMYK or RGB, at 300 DPI. Grayscale images should be at least 300 DPI. Combinations of gray scale and line art should be at least 600 DPI. Line art (black and white or color) should be at least 1000 DPI.Supplemental material for online publication: JAAPOS allows publication of additional tables, figures, or text (e.g., methodology, explanations of analysis, spreadsheets with detailed subject data) in the electronic versions of published manuscripts. This material will not be included in print versions, but a reference to its being available online will appear in print versions. Supplemental material is subject to peer review but, once accepted, will be published "as is," without additional editing or formatting. Any supplemental material must be submitted as an "e-component" supplement when the manuscript is first submitted for publication. Authors should indicate in the submitted manuscript that this material is additional information, to be published electronically. The electronic version should not be used as a repository for redundant or unnecessary data.
Title page. The title page should include the following elements:
- Title of the manuscript
- Each author's name and two highest academic degrees only
- Author affiliations
- Corresponding author
- Institution at which the study was conducted
- Word count for entire manuscript, including abstract
- Word count for abstract alone
The word count for the entire manuscript should include the words in the abstract, body of the manuscript, acknowledgments, legends, and references. It should not include the words on the title page itself. The corresponding author's address, telephone number, fax number, and email address should be listed. Authors wishing to receive email communication from readers may have their email addresses printed with the published manuscript. Authors should indicate on the title page whether material was presented at the AAPOS annual meeting, or any other national meeting. Any author's financial conflict of interest regarding the subject matter in the manuscript should be disclosed on the title page. Abstract. The abstract must be in the "structured" format and less than 250 words in length. Where appropriate, abstract headings should read: background or purpose; methods; results; and conclusions. See Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47 (http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/126/1/36 ) for more information on structured abstracts. Short reports should not have an abstract but should have an introductory paragraph (in boldface) that summarizes the article. (See section on Short Reports.)
Text. The text (double spaced throughout) should include the following sections, when appropriate, for the material:
- Methods and materials (or subjects and methods)
- Report of cases
Authors should make every effort to present Major Articles as concisely as possible. The Introduction generally need not exceed 2 paragraphs. Methods that require extensive detail may be supplemented with e-components. Discussions should focus on interpretation of the most salient features of the results. A Summary section should not appear at the end of the manuscript. If the total word count of your Major Article exceeds 4,000 words (excluding tables and figures) please contact the editor-in-chief (ME@jaapos.org) prior to submission.Each page of the manuscript must include continuous line numbers in the margin. In MS Word, go to File, the Page Setup. Click on Layout, then in lower left corner, Line Numbers. Check Add line numbering, select Continuous in the lower left corner. Click OK.
Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments must be listed separately to facilitate masking. Limit acknowledgments to individuals who do not qualify for authorship, but who provided extensive help, without which the study could not have been conducted. Examples include those individuals who provided statistical help, essential equipment or laboratory help, or who translated references. The Journal does not acknowledge individuals who participated in the management of patients in the study as a part of their regular job.Literature Search. When making a statement such as "this is, to our knowledge, thefirst/only report of...," or providing a review of the published literaturein a field, authors must demonstrate that they have conducted acomprehensive and systematic review of the literature. Methods ofliterature search and criteria for including/excluding articles much bestated directly in the manuscript in these cases. This paragraph, whichshould be placed at the end of the manuscript, before the reference list,under the heading "Literature Search," should state the databases andsearch terms used, years covered, and additional sources. (e.g., articlescited in the reference lists of other articles). It should also indicate howthe foreign literature was treated. Other databases such as ExerptaMedica/EMBASE (1947-present), Ophthalmic Literature (1947-1988),and Zentralblatt für die gesamte Ophthalmologie und ihre Grenzgebietemay include key articles that are not cited in MEDLINE.
References. References should be numbered consecutively in the manuscript in the order in which they are cited. For model citations, authors may consult the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedicl Journals (Ann Intern Med 1997: 126:36-47; http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/126/1/36), noting, however, that the Journal deviates in some respects from formats recommended there as well as in the current edition of AMA Manual of Style.For publications by more than six authors, list only the first three, followed by "et al." Titles of books and journals are capitalized but not italicized. Journal titles are abbreviated as in Cumulated Index Medicus. Do not include issue number or month of publication for continuously paginated journals.
In citations of Web pages and the like, include the following information: Author or name of organization responsible for site. Web page title or organizational name. Date. Web site name. URL. Accessed [date], if pertinent.Unpublished data, informal communications, meeting abstracts and the like should be cited parenthetically in the text as concisely as possible rather than in the reference list: include first author, journal abbreviation, volume, and item identifier. For personal communications, the author must provide the Journal's editorial office with a written statement from the cited correspondent granting permission to quote and/or publish privately communicated information.
Gupta SR, Cogen MS, Metz TH Jr. Congenital osteoma cutis of the lateral canthus. Epub ahead of print May 29, 2009. J AAPOS.Hussin HM, Spry PGD, Majid MA, Gouws P. Reliability and validity of the partial coherence interferometry for measurement of ocular axial length in children. Epub Aug 12, 2005. Eye 2006; 20:1021-4.
Lubchenco LO, Papadapoulos M, Butterfield LJ, et al. Long-term follow-up studies of prematurely born infants: Relationship of handicaps to nursery routines. J. Pediatr 1972: 80(Suppl 2); 501-8.Saunders RA. When and how to strengthen the superior oblique muscle. J AAPOS. In press.
BooksPhillips SJ, Wisnant JP, Norman IJ, et al. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Vol 2. 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Raven Press; 1995:465-78.
Parks MM. Ocular motility and strabismus. Hagerstown (MD): Harper & Row; 1975:99.
Internet sourcesUnpublished material
American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and the American Academy of Ophthalmology, Amblyopia is a medical condition. 2006.http://www.aapos.org/associations/571/files/amblyopia_policy_statement.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2009.
(Child CS, Dawson E, Adams GGW, Lee JP. Pediatric ocular myasthenia gravis. J AAPOS 2009; 13: Abstract 046)
Legends for figures. All figures should be numbered in the order in which they are referred to in the text. The Legends for Figures should be a brief description that allows the figure to be fully understood. Material that is in the Legends for Figures should not be repeated in the text.Tables. Table numbers should appear at the top of each table in the order in which they are referenced in the manuscript, along with a short descriptive title. Abbreviations that are not commonly understood terms should be explained in a legend. Material that is in the tables should not be repeated in the text. Large tables documenting extensive clinical details are discouraged; authors are encouraged to analyze and summarize these data in a more concise format. Each table must be submitted as a separate file.Correlation coefficient. When interpreting correlation coefficients, avoid using the terms "significant correlation" or "correlated significantly." A correlation coefficient is concerned with the strength of the relationship between two variables, not merely whether the correlation observed differs significantly from zero. (It is possible, given enough data points, to have a "significant" correlation coefficient of 0.1, which represents a very weak relationship between variables, where one variable influences the other by less than 1%.) Authors are encouraged, rather than using p-values, to calculate and present 95% confidence intervals on the observed and reported correlations and to comment on the strength of the correlation as, for example, "strong," "moderate," or "weak."
Multiple comparisons. Statistical comparisons are generally considered statistically significant when the p-value is <0.05, that is, when there is less than a 5% chance that the observed differences are not due to a chance sampling error. When just one test is performed, this is correct; however, when 100 comparisons are performed, we expect that 5% of those (5 comparisons) will falsely appear to be "significantly different." Therefore, when making more than a few statistical comparisons in a paper, it is important to perform an additional analysis (for example, the Bonferroni analysis) to refine the desired p-value. Statistical consultation may be necessary. For more information, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_comparisons.Mean visual acuity. When calculating the mean visual acuity, it is not correct to determine the mathematical average of the decimal equivalent of Snellen acuity. In general, it is important to convert to LogMAR acuity prior to statistical manipulations; it is then possible to convert back to Snellen equivalents after the calculations have been performed. For more information consult the following article: Holladay JT. Visual acuity measurements. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:287-90 (http://www.ascrs.org/publications/jcrs/guestfeb04.html ).
Numeric precision. For numeric results, avoid reporting too many digitsthe precision of a reported value should not exceed what can be justified by the data. For example, a study might report a quotient of 30/93 as 0.3225, implying that the number is known with greater precision and accuracy than is possible with this sample size. In general, the number of digits in the reported value should not exceed the number of digits in the quantity of measurements (eg, for 8 subjects, report one digit of precision, for 80 report two digits of precision, for 800 subjects report three digits of precision). In the example above, the quotient may be reported as 0.32. There are three exceptions to this guideline. First, at least two digits may be reported for percentages (eg, 2 of 6 subjects would be reported as 33%.) Second, when the first digit of a value is 1, an extra digit of precision may be warranted (eg, when reporting the mean refraction of 80 patients, 1.23 D may be preferable to 1.2 D.) Third, it does not make sense to report a value to its true precision if such precision exceeds its clinical significance or measurability (eg, while it may be technically correct to report the mean esotropia of 4,300 patients as 23.59 PD, this degree of precision is neither measurable nor important.)Safe and effective. In the U.S. context, the term safe and effective has aspecific meaning, having been adopted by the U.S. Food and DrugAdministration to indicate that a device or drug has met that agency'sstandards and may be sold and marketed in the United States.(For details, consult Albrecht J and Bigby M. The meaning of "safeand effective." J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:144-7.) Published casereports and case series generally cannot establish either safety or effectivenessand the term is thus rarely appropriate. Authors may ofcourse use either term in, say, discussions of complication rates, notinghow effectively a procedure met specified goals; furthermore,they may compare this procedure to the complication and effectivenessrates of others. Likewise, statements concerning the relativesafety of a procedure in particular contexts may be appropriate.However, general statements concerning a procedure's "safety" or"effectiveness," while perhaps desirable for rhetorical effect, are infact meaningless and should be avoided.
Manuscripts for the Short Reports section should be in the following form: title page, text, references (no more than 10), legends for figures. Short reports should not have an abstract. In its place there should be a single introductory paragraph in boldface type that consists of a brief (up to 200 words) summary of the manuscript. This paragraph may not contain references and should not be in the "structured" format. The contents of this paragraph should not be duplicated in the manuscript. Manuscripts submitted as Short Reports should not exceed 1200 words of text and may have up to five illustrations. Each illustration beyond three reduces the text limit by 200 words. Unless otherwise stated, the general requirements for manuscripts outlined above apply to Short Reports.Case reports should always have the following structure: (1) age of patient; (2) where presented; (3) main complaint; (4) present illness; (5) relevant medical history/review of systems/family history, if any; (6) examination, labs/special studies, or pertinent missing labs; (7) clinical course. Ophthalmological examination results should present data in the following order: (1) visual acuity in each eye, (2) pertinent findings, (3) pertinent negative findings.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Correspondence regarding articles that have been published in the Journal should be submitted within 8 weeks of that publication. Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication by the editorial board and may be subject to editing. If a Letter to the Editor is regarding a previous publication in the Journal, the author of that article will be given an opportunity to reply. The letter and response may be published exclusively on the Journal Web site.EDITORIALS
Editorials are typically submitted by invitation; however, prospective authors with an idea for an Editorial should contact the editor-in-chief prior to submission. Editorials should be limited to fewer than 600 words and five references.OBITUARIES / NEWS ITEMS
The Journal does not publish notices or other items regarding meetings, honors, or named lectures. These items may be submitted to the AAPOS newsletter, or presented within purchased advertising space. Obituaries relevant to the Journal readership will be considered. Obituaries should be in narrative form and fewer than 100 words.EYE ON THE ARTS / FIRST PERSON / CLINICAL PEARLS
The Journal publishes short materials that highlight the human side ofmedicine. These features are printed within available white space at theend of major articles and may be sent directly to the editor-in-chief(ME@jaapos.org) for consideration.The "Eye on the Arts" feature excerpts passages from novels, poems,or other published works of art that reflect the eyes or the visualsystem. These excerpts may be submitted directly to the managingeditor as PDF files. Include the marked passage, the book cover, andpublication information. "Eye on the Arts" contributors are anonymous.
The "First Person" feature provides clinicians with an opportunity toshare the wealth of emotion that occurs in daily interactions with patients.Contributions might include a humorous comment made by a child orparent, or an event that has touched the life of a family and a physician.In the "Clinical Pearls" feature, clinicians share their practical tricksand shortcuts for examination, diagnosis, and treatment. A figure maybe included. "First Person" and "Clinical Pearls" contributions shouldbe no more than 200 words. Contributors are acknowledged unless theauthor requests anonymity.Updated March 2011