Guide for Authors

The Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy (HKJOT) is the official publication of the Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association, and is indexed in SCIE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ScienceDirect and SCOPUS. It aims to promote the development of theory and practice in occupational therapy, and to facilitate the documentation and communication among educators, researchers and practitioners in the field.

Articles on clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to occupational therapy and other related fields that are of interest to educators, researchers and practitioners are eligible for consideration. The journal is published every 6 months, with a total of 2 issues per year.

Authors are required to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at

1. Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online through Elsevier's Editorial System (EES). This system can be accessed at This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials and/or customer support that are available on the website.

1.1. Important Information
• Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.
• You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers.
• Put text, references, tables, and table/figure legends in one file.
• Figures must be submitted separately as picture files, at the correct resolution. Also see section 8.7 below.

1.2. Supporting Documents
The following documents must be included:

(1) Publication Checklist. You may use the form that is provided on this website. A completed form must be submitted to show that you have included all the necessary parts in your submission.

(2) Cover Letter. This must include the title of the manuscript, the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author. There should be a short paragraph explaining why your paper should be published in the HKJOT rather than elsewhere.

(3) Authorship Statement. You may use the form that is provided on this website. ALL the authors' signatures must be included.

(4) Conflict of Interest Statement. You may use the form that is provided on this website. Also see Section 2 below.

(5) Copyright Transfer Agreement. Please use the form that is provided on this website.

(6) Ethics Statement. Articles covering human experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. Also see Section 3 below.

(7) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. Also see Section 4 below.

(8) Where material has been reproduced or adapted from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.

2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

All authors are required to sign and submit the following financial disclosure statement at the time of manuscript submission:

I certify that all my affiliations with or financial involvement in, within the past 5 years and foreseeable future, any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript are completely disclosed (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, royalties).
Authors who have no relevant financial interests should provide a statement indicating that they have no financial interests related to the material in the manuscript. Any non-financial conflicts of interest should also be explicitly declared in your own words.

3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at

For investigations of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).

4. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.

5. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

6. Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English (using British English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data. Manuscripts must be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). If there are any discrepancies between these author instructions and the APA Manual, the guidelines in the APA Manual shall prevail.

7. Article Categories

7.1. Review Articles
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field, and should be systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. Typical length: not more than 4500 words (including abstract), and not more than 50 references.

7.2. Original Articles
These include research as well as theoretical manuscripts. They may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

In general, section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Funding (if any), Acknowledgements (if any), References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patient samples or animal specimens used, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented with tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Typical length: not more than 4000 words (including abstract), and not more than 40 references. There should be no more than 6 tables or figures.

7.3. Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or case series in clinical practice with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation.

In general, section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgements (if any), References.

The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the condition and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

The Case Report should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar previously reported cases. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis and possibility of prevention.

Typical length: 800-1200 words, 15-30 references.

7.4. Position Papers and Statements
These include discussions of professional, political, ethical or social issues that impact on clients' welfare, and the role and practice of occupational therapy in Hong Kong, Mainland China and other countries in Asia Pacific.

Typical length: 2000 words, 20-40 references.

7.5. Commentaries
These include brief discussions focusing on 1 or 2 key points about a single study-strengths, weaknesses, controversies, how it should or should not change clinical practice, or how it illustrates some important principle of science or methodology. They are usually written by editors or reviewers involved in the evaluation of a submitted manuscript, and published concurrently with that manuscript.

Typical length: 2000-2500 words, 20-40 references.

7.6. Letters to the Editor
These include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles in the Journal, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, short letters on significant preliminary clinical data and other communications of general interest.

Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author's e-mail address. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editor.

Typical length: 300-600 words, 5 references; 1 table and/or 1 figure may be included.

8. Manuscript Preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on white A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper, with outer margins of 1 inch. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, funding statement (if any), acknowledgements (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. British English spelling should be used.

Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

8.1. Title Page
The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to the bottom of the page):
• category of paper (e.g., Review Article, Original Article, etc.)
• article title
• names (spelled out in full)* of all the authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
• short running title not exceeding 50 characters

*The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Yuen-Lam Cheung. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

8.2. Abstracts and Keywords
An abstract and 3–5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article, Case Report, Position Papers and Statements, and Commentaries.

Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Objective/Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. Abstracts for Review Articles, Position Papers and Statements, and Commentaries should also be in one single paragraph.

No abstract or keywords are required for Letters to the Editor.

8.3. Main Text
The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

8.3.1. Abbreviations
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.

8.3.2. Units
Syst´me International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

8.3.3. Names of drugs, devices and other products
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. For devices and other products, the generic term should be used, unless the specific trade name is directly relevant to the discussion. If the trade name is given, then the manufacturer name and the city, state and country location of the manufacturer must be provided.

8.3.4. Statistical requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < .001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > .99.

8.3.5. Personal communications and unpublished data
These sources cannot be included in the reference list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

8.4. Acknowledgements
General acknowledgements for consultations, statistical analysis and so forth, should be listed concisely at the end of the text, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. All financial and material support for the research and work from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest (financial and/or non-financial) are explicitly declared.

8.5. References
IMPORTANT: please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed. or 6th ed.) for detailed information and examples on correct text citation and listing of references. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

8.5.1. In the main text, tables, figure legends
• Use the author–date method of citation, i.e., the surname(s) of the author(s) [do not include suffixes such as Jr.] and the year of publication are inserted in the text/table/figure legend at the appropriate point.
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
• References cited in the text/table/figure legend must appear in the reference list.

8.5.2. In the reference list
• The reference list should be typed alphabetically according to the APA style.
• References listed must be cited in the text.
• Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") should not be listed as references. Rather, they should be incorporated in the appropriate place in the text/table/figure legend. Also see Section 8.3.5.
• References to articles that are in press must state the name of the journal and, if possible, volume and year. If no date is available, write "n.d." in parentheses.
• References should include, in order, author names, year of publication, article title, journal name, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included. When authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al".

Some examples are given below.

Journal article, one author
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910–924.

Journal article, two authors
Bendixen, R. M., & Kreider, C. M. (2011). Review of occupational therapy research in the practice area of children and youth. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65, 351–359.

Journal article, three to six authors
Poole, J. L., Willer, K., Mendelson, C., Sanders, M., & Skipper, B. (2011). Perceived parenting ability and systemic sclerosis. Musculoskeletal Care, 9, 32–40.

Journal article, more than six authors
Kamioka, H., Okuizumi, H., Okada, S., Takahashi, R., Handa, S., Kitayuguchi, J., et al. (2011). Effectiveness of intervention for low back pain in female caregivers in nursing homes: a pilot trial based on multicenter randomization. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 16, 97–105.

Journal article, in press
Zuckerman, M., & Kieffer, S. C. (in press). Race differences in face-ism: Does facial prominence imply dominance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Journal supplement
Alexander, L. A., Crawford, T., & Mendiondo, M. S. (2010). Occupational status, work-site cessation programs and policies and menthol smoking on quitting behaviors of US smokers. Addiction, 105(Suppl. 1), 95–104.

Book, second edition, Jr. in name
Bradley, E. L., Jr. (1982). Medical and surgical management (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Book, group author as publisher
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South Wales, June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.

Book, with editors
Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger.

Book, revised edition
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Book chapter in book with editors
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (1991). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Children of color: Psychological intervention with minority youth (pp. 51–84). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Unpublished paper (or poster session) presented at a meeting
Lanktree, C., & Briere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper (or Poster session) presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.

Article in an Internet-only journal
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2004, from

Multipage document on Internet, created by private organization, no date
Greater New Milford Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2001, from

Stand-alone document on Internet, no author identified, no date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from

Document available on university program or department Web site
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site:

Report from university, available on private organization Web site
University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Web site:

8.6. Tables
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order.

8.7. Figures

8.7.1. General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend in alphabetical order. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

8.7.2. FormatsRegardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
• EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
• TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones)—use a minimum of 300 dpi.
• TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings—use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
• TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale)—use a minimum of 600 dpi.
• DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply "as is".

Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at Please note that the cost of colour illustrations will be charged to the author at HK$3120 (US$400) per colour figure.

8.8. Tables/figures from another source
Authors must obtain permission to reproduce or adapt all or part of a table or figure from a copyrighted source. See also Section 1.2. (item 8 in the list).

Any reproduced or adapted table/figure must be accompanied by a note in the table footnote or figure caption giving credit to the original author(s) and to the copyright holder.

Use the following forms.

Material reprinted from a journal article:
Note. From [or The data in column 1 are from] "Title of Article," by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 2000, Title of Journal, 50, p. 22. Copyright 2000 by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission.

Material reprinted from a book:
Note. From [or The data in column 1 are from] Title of Book (p. 103), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 1999, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright 1999 by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission.

9. The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission; authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If an acknowledgement is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.

Manuscripts are then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested. All other manuscripts are sent to two or more Editorial Board members or other expert consultants for double-blind peer review. Authors will usually be notified within 12 weeks of the initial acknowledgement of whether the manuscript is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.

10. Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of the manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, to the Editorial Office.

Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to the Journal's style and PDF page proofs are e-mailed by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copyeditor.

11. Publication Charges and Reprints

Authors will be charged HK$3120 (US$400) per illustration, figure or table that is in colour.

Authors receive 25 stapled offprints of their articles free of charge, which are sent to the corresponding author.

Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered from the Publisher at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order and credit card payment form can be downloaded from this website.

12. Copyright

Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Elsevier (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Elsevier (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.


Publication Checklist

Authorship Statement

Conflicts of Interest Statement

Copyright Transfer Agreement