Guide for Authors
The aim of the Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology, a peer-reviewed publication of the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology, is to promote clinical and scientific research in the field of nephrology and to serve as a channel of communication among nephrologists, scientists and renal nurses in Hong Kong, China, and the international community.
The Journal, which is published every 6 months, invites original contributions relating to clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to nephrology, dialysis or transplantation. Papers relating to basic immunology, anatomy and physiology are also welcomed if they relate to the kidney.
Authors are required to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.1. Manuscript Submission
Manuscripts should be submitted online through Elsevier's Editorial System (EES). This system can be accessed at http://ees.elsevier.com/hkjn. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials and/or customer support that are available on the website.1.1. Important Information
- Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.
- Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.
- Put text, references, tables, and table/figure legends in one file.
- Figures must be submitted separately as picture files, at the correct resolution. Also see section 9.7 below.
1.2. Supporting Documents
The following documents must be included (refer also to the Checklist at the end of these author instructions):
(1) Cover Letter. This must include the title of the manuscript, the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.(2) Authorship Statement. You may use the form that is provided on the Journal's website at http://www.hkjn-online.com. ALL the authors' signatures must be included.
(3) Conflict of Interest Statement. You may use the form that is provided on the Journal's website at http://www.hkjn-online.com. Also see Section 2 below.(4) Copyright Transfer Agreement. Please use the form that follows these author instructions, and which is also provided on the Journal's website at http://www.hkjn-online.com.
(5) Ethics Statement. Articles covering human experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. Also see Section 3 below.(6) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. Also see Section 4 below.
(7) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. Also see Section 5 below.(8) Where material has been reproduced or adapted from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.
2. Disclosure of Conflicts of InterestAll authors are required to sign and submit the following financial disclosure statement at the time of manuscript submission:
- I certify that all my affiliations with or financial involvement in, within the past 5 years and foreseeable future, any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript are completely disclosed (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, royalties).
3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed ConsentFor human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).
For investigations of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use should be in accordance with European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm); this should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.
4. Reporting Clinical TrialsAll randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for more information (available at http://www.consort-statement.org). This Journal has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.
5. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and PedigreesA signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.
6. Previous Publication or Duplicate SubmissionSubmitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.
7. Basic CriteriaArticles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.
8. Article CategoriesThe categories of articles that are published are described below.
8.1. Editorials8.2. Review Articles
Editorials are invited articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal or a topical issue in the field. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an Editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted. Typical length: 1500-2000 words, 20-40 references.
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject related to nephrology, and should be systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. Typical length: 2000-4000 words, 50-100 references.
8.3. Original ArticlesSection headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), References.
These may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field. Dissertations for the purpose of exit examinations for higher physician training in nephrology (within Hong Kong) are encouraged to be written up and submitted for consideration.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patient samples or animal specimens used, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented with tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures.The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.
Typical length: 2000-3000 words, 40-80 references.8.4. Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. Interesting cases presented at interhospital meetings (within Hong Kong) are encouraged to be written up and submitted for consideration.
Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), References.The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.
The Case Report should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar previously reported cases. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.
Typical length: 800-1200 words, 15-30 references.8.5. Short Communications
Publication under this category is based on the collective decision of the Editors and reviewers. These papers are usually manuscripts originally submitted as original articles, but found to present preliminary or limited results of original research only.
Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), References.Typical length: 1000-1500 words, 20-40 references.
8.6. Technical NotesTypical length: 1000-1500 words, 20-40 references.
Technical notes are devoted to technical aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected, but which may be of widespread application. Technical note submissions will go through a short review process.
8.7. Hong Kong Renal Registry8.8. Nursing Section
These invited articles provide updates on information obtained from the Hong Kong Renal Registry. Data pooled from all the dialysis centers are analyzed.
This section is devoted to promote sharing of information among renal nurses. In general, articles describe specific techniques or procedures, modifications of techniques, or nursing practices.
Typical length: 2000-2500 words, 30-60 references.8.9. Clinical Vignettes
These are interesting clinical "snapshots" of cases presented in the form of a descriptive paragraph and figures as appropriate.
Typical length: 200-400 words, 5-10 references.8.10. Letters to the Editor
These include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles in the Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, short letters on significant preliminary clinical data and other communications of general interest.
Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author's e-mail address. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editors.Typical length: 300-600 words, 5 references; 1 table and/or 1 figure may be included.
8.11. Nephrology Forum8.12. Book Reviews
This section provides a platform for in-depth discussion by a group of nephrologists on a specific topic, usually preceded by a case presentation.
These are written by invited reviewers of newly published books in the field of nephrology.9. Manuscript Preparation
Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. American English spelling should be used.Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.
9.1. Title PageThe title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to the bottom of the page):
- category of paper
- article title
- names (spelled out in full)* of all the authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated (only 1 affiliation per author is permitted); indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation
- corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
- short running title not exceeding 50 characters
*The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Yuen-Lam Cheung. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.
9.2. Abstracts and KeywordsAbstracts should be no more than 300 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background/Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. Abstracts for Review Articles, Short Communications, Technical Notes, Hong Kong Renal Registry and Nursing Section should also be unstructured.
An abstract and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article, Case Report, Short Communication, Technical Note, Hong Kong Renal Registry, and Nursing Section.
A Chinese version of the abstract (in Traditional Chinese characters) should follow the English abstract (Chinese keywords are not required). For authors who do not know Chinese, the translation will be taken care of by the Editorial office.No abstract or keywords are required for the following article categories: Editorial, Clinical Vignette, Letter to the Editor, Nephrology Forum, and Book Review.
9.3. Main Text9.3.1. Abbreviations
The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.
9.3.2. Units9.3.3. Names of drugs, devices and other products
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. For devices and other products, the generic term should be used, unless the specific trade name is directly relevant to the discussion. If the trade name is given, then the manufacturer name and the city, state and country location of the manufacturer must be provided.
9.3.4. Statistical requirementsAll p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.
9.3.5. Personal communications and unpublished data9.4. Acknowledgments
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.
General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis, etc., should be listed concisely at the end of the text, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. All financial and material support for the research and work from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest (financial and/or non-financial) are explicitly declared.
9.5. References9.5.1. In the main text, tables and figure legends
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.
• References should be identified using superscripted numbers, in numerical order, and be placed after punctuation.
• References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
• Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") should not be cited as references. Also see Section 9.3.5.
9.5.2. In the references listExamples are given below.
• References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in the order in which they appear in the text.
• References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al". Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
• Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
Standard journal article:Journal supplement
Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A, Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. Int Angiol 2011;30:247-55.
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.
Journal article not in English but with English abstractBook with edition
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, Hanyu N, Sawada M, Kobayashi N, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]
Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72-95.
Book with editorsBook chapter in book with editor and edition
Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.
Book series with editorsBulletin
Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-78.
World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
Electronic publicationsSmeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available from: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.
Item presented at a meeting but not yet publishedItem presented at a meeting and published
Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL. Abstract 359.
Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004. Abstract 337.
Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins [MSD thesis]. Indianapolis: Indiana University; 1971.
American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Wisdom teeth. AAOMS Website. http://www.aaoms.org/ wisdom_teeth.php. Published 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010.
Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet9.6. Tables
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.
9.7. Figures9.7.2. Formats
9.7.1. General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend in alphabetical order. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
• EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
• TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones)-use a minimum of 300 dpi.
• TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings-use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
• TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale)-use a minimum of 600 dpi.
• DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.10. The Editorial and Peer Review Process
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission; authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.
Manuscripts are then reviewed by the Editors, who make an initial assessment. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested. All other manuscripts are sent to 2 or more expert consultants for double-blind peer review. Authors will usually be notified within 12 weeks of the initial acknowledgment of whether the manuscript is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.11. Preparation for Publication
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of the manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, to the Editorial Office.Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to the Journal's style and PDF page proofs are e-mailed by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copyeditor.
12. Publication Charges and ReprintsAuthors will be charged HK$780 (US$100) per illustration, figure or table that is in color.
Authors receive 20 stapled offprints of their articles free of charge, which will be sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author.Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered from the Publisher at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order form can be downloaded from http://www.hkjn-online.com.
13. CopyrightPublished manuscripts become the permanent property of the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology Ltd. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology Ltd.
• Checklist (pdf)• Authorship Statement (pdf)
• Conflict of Interest Statement (pdf)• Copyright Transfer Agreement (pdf)
• Authorship Statement (pdf)• Conflict of Interest Statement (pdf)