Guide for Authors

  • The aim of the Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology, a peer-reviewed publication of the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology, is to promote clinical and scientific research in the field of nephrology and to serve as a channel of communication among nephrologists, scientists and renal nurses in Hong Kong, China, and the international community.

    The Journal, which is published twice a year in April and October, invites original contributions relating to clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to nephrology, dialysis or transplantation. Papers relating to basic immunology, anatomy and physiology are also welcomed if they relate to the kidney.

    The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at www.icmje.org.

    These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit www.hkjn-online.com for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

    1. Manuscript Submission

    1.1. Online Submission
    Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to the HKJN through the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at http://ees.elsevier.com/hkjn. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials and/or customer support that are available on the website.

    1.2. Important Information

    • Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.
    • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes" function; instead, you may use the commercially available EndNote® or Reference Manager® software to manage your references.
    • Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.
    • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg". Please see section 9.8. for more information.

    1.3. Supporting Documents
    The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.


    (1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:

    • title of the manuscript
    • names (spelled out in full) of all the authors
    • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
    • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
    • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
    • the signature of the corresponding author
    (2) Authorship &Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (seeSection 2 for more information). Please use the HKJN Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that is provided on the Journal's website at www.hkjn-online.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
    (3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the HKJN, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology. Please use the HKJN Copyright Transfer Agreement form that is provided on the Journal's website at www.hkjn-online.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included. However, the Agreement will be null and void if your manuscript is not published in the HKJN.
    (4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.
    (5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section 4 for more information.
    (6) Signed Statement of informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5 for more information.
    (7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrightedsources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

    2. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
    A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. HKJN Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

    Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial.Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

    Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in either Section I or Section II on page 2 of the HKJN Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an author's name cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).

    3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
    For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of themanuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declarationof Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).

    For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents orlegal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

    For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not haveformal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm) should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

    4. Reporting Clinical TrialsAll randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to www.consort-statement.org for more information). The HKJN has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrollment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

    For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluatethe effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or healthrelated outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or healthrelated measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

    Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at www.icmje.org.

    5. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees
    A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors)who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent wasobtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral orwritten).

    6. Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission
    Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

    7. Basic Criteria
    Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

    8. Article Categories
    The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

    8.1. Editorials
    Editorials are invited articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal or a topical issue in the field. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an Editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted. Typical length: 1500-2000 words, 20-40 references.

    8.2. Review Articles
    These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject related to nephrology, and should be systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. Typical length: 2000-4000 words, 50-100 references.

    8.3. Original Articles
    These may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field. Dissertations for the purpose of exit examinations for higher physician training in nephrology (withinHong Kong) are encouraged to be written up and submitted for consideration.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest, Acknowledgments (if any), References.

    The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

    The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patient samples or animal specimens used, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

    The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented with tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures.

    The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

    Typical length: 2000-3000 words, 40-80 references.

    8.4. Case ReportsThese are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. Interesting cases presented at interhospital meetings (within Hong Kong) are encouraged to be written up and submitted for consideration.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest, Acknowledgments (if any), References.

    The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefl y review the relevant literature.

    The Case Report should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.

    The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar previously reported cases. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

    Typical length: 800-1200 words, 15-30 references.

    8.5. Short Communications
    Publication under this category is based on the collective decision of the Editors and reviewers. These papers are usually manuscripts originally submitted as original articles, but found to present preliminary or limited results of original research only.

    Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest, Acknowledgments (if any), References.

    Typical length: 1000-1500 words, 20-40 references

    8.6. Technical Notes
    Technical notes are devoted to technical aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected, but which may be of widespread application. Technical note submissions will go through a short review process.

    Typical length: 1000-1500 words, 20-40 references.

    8.7. Hong Kong Renal Registry
    These invited articles provide updates on information obtained from the Hong Kong Renal Registry. Data pooled from all the dialysis centers are analyzed.

    8.8. Nursing Section
    This section is devoted to promote sharing of information among renal nurses. In general, articles describe specific techniques or procedures, modifications of techniques, or nursing practices.

    Typical length: 2000-2500 words, 30-60 references.

    8.9. Clinical Vignettes
    These are interesting clinical "snapshots" of cases presented in the form of a descriptive paragraph and figures as appropriate.

    Typical length: 200-400 words, 5-10 references.

    8.10. Letters to the Editor
    These include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles in the Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, short letters on significant preliminary clinical data and other communications of general interest.

    Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author's e-mail address. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editors.

    Typical length: 300-600 words, 5 references; 1 table and/or 1 figure may be included.

    8.11. Nephrology Forum
    This section provides a platform for in-depth discussion by a group of nephrologists on a specific topic, usually preceded by a case presentation.

    8.12. Book Reviews
    These are written by invited reviewers of newly published books in the field of nephrology.

    9. Manuscript Preparation
    Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, main text, conflicts of interest statement, acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. American English spelling should be used.

    Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

    9.1. Title Page
    The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

    • article category
    • article title
    • names (spelled out in full)* of all the authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated (only 1 affiliation per author is permitted); indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation
    • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
    • short running title not exceeding 50 characters
    **The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Yuen-Lam Cheung. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

    9.2. Abstract and Keywords
    An abstract and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article, Case Report, Short Communication, Technical Note, Hong Kong Renal Registry, and Nursing Section.

    Abstracts should be no more than 300 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background/Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments andsuggestions with regard to the case. Abstracts for Review Articles, Short Communications, Technical Notes, Hong Kong Renal Registry and Nursing Section should also be unstructured.

    A Chinese version of the abstract (in Traditional Chinese characters) should follow the English abstract (Chinese keywords are not required). For authors who do not know Chinese, the translation will be taken care of by the Editorial office.

    No abstract or keywords are required for the following article categories: Editorial, Clinical Vignette, Letter to the Editor, Nephrology Forum, and Book Review.

    9.3. Main Text
    The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

    9.3.1. Abbreviations
    Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout thearticle. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.

    9.3.2. Numbers
    Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

    9.3.3. Units
    Systeme International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length,area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

    9.3.4. Names of drugs, devices and other products
    Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name thefirst time the drug is mentioned in the text.

    For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, "...IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

    9.3.5. Gene nomenclature
    Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

    9.3.6. Statistical requirements
    Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

    All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

    9.3.7. Personal communications and unpublished data

    These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of thecommunication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

    9.4. Conflicts of Interest Statement
    Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the HKJN requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (see Section 2 for more information) in a concise paragraph after the main text. If none, then state, "The author(s) have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article." All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified.

    9.5. Acknowledgements
    General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.

    9.6. References
    Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

    9.6.1. In the main text, tables and figure legends

    • References should be identified using superscripted numbers, in numerical order, and be placed after punctuation.
    • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
    • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
    • Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") should not be cited as references. Also see Section 9.3.7.

    9.6.2. In the references list

    • References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text.
    • References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
    • Journal references should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
    • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al".
    • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
    • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
    • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
    Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

    Standard journal article
    Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A, Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. Int Angiol2011;30:247-55.

    Journal supplement
    Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

    Journal article not in English but with English abstract
    Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, Hanyu N, Sawada M, Kobayashi N, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

    Book with edition
    Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982. p. 72-95

    Book with editors
    Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

    Book chapter in book with editor and edition
    Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.

    Book series with editors
    Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-1978.

    Bulletin
    World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

    Electronic publications
    Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available from: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

    Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002 (2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

    Item presented at a meeting but not yet published
    Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL. Abstract 359.

    Item presented at a meeting and published
    Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelightfi ltering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and RefractiveSurgery; 2004. Abstract 337.Thesis
    Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. [MSD thesis] Indianapolis: Indiana University, 1971.

    Website
    American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Wisdom teeth. http://www.aaoms.org/wisdom_teeth.php. Published 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010.

    Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
    Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.

    9.7. Tables
    Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiringexplanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

    9.8. Figures
    9.8.1. General guidelines
    The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section 9.7.

    Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details (such as their name and date of birth) of the patient must be removed. If their faceis shown, use a black bar to cover their eyes so that they cannot be identified (for further information, see www.elsevier.com/patientphotographs).

    All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

    Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution (see Section 9.8.2.) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".

    9.8.2. Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for linedrawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

    • EPS: vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
    • TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones)-always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    • TIFF: bitmapped line drawings-use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    • TIFF: combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale)-a minimum of 600 dpi is required.
    • DOC, XLS or PPT: if your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply "as is".
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirementsdetailed above;
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author (see Section 12 for more information).

    10. The Editorial and Peer Review Process
    As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission; authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

    Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in theseauthor instructions.

    Manuscripts are then reviewed by the Editors, who make an initial assessment. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, the manuscript will be rejected without review. All other manuscripts are sent to 2 or more expert consultants for double-blind peer review.

    The corresponding author will usually be notified within 12 weeks of the initial acknowledgment of whether the manuscript is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable. If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 6 months. Please notify the Editorial Office if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

    11. Preparation for Publication
    Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES.

    Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to the Journal's style and PDF page proofs are e-mailed by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copyeditor. Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

    11.1. Changes to Authorship
    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or removean author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal orrearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

    Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.

    12. Publication Charges and Reprints
    Authors will be charged HK$780 (US$100) per illustration, figure or table that is in color.

    Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered from the Publisher at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order form can be downloaded from www.hkjn-online.com.

    13. Copyright
    The HKJN is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology Ltd. Manuscripts published in the HKJN become the permanent property of the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology Ltd. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No HKJN article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Hong Kong Society of Nephrology Ltd.

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