Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Ethics in publishing
• Submission declaration
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Clinical trial results
• Registration of clinical trials
• Article transfer service
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Informed consent and patient details
• Animal studies
• Submission
• Revision policy
• Manuscript categories
• Use of word processing software
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Graphical abstract
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Acknowledgements
• Units
• Math formulae
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• AudioSlides
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Offprints

HeartRhythm provides rapid online electronic (3-5 business days) and print publication of the most important current scientific developments in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and electrophysiology. The Journal publishes both clinical and basic original, peer-reviewed articles devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm disorders, as well as the electrophysiology of the heart and blood vessels, including ion channels and biophysics, pharmacology, genetics, modeling, cellular and in vivo electrophysiology, outcomes, health systems and health delivery research. In general, review articles are invited, but unsolicited submissions will be considered. All articles are peer-reviewed. Articles from the Editor's institution are processed by a guest editor.

Manuscripts must be submitted online at

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Conflict of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information can be found at:

The corresponding author must upload a signed HeartRhythm conflict of interest form: Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Please confirm in the cover letter with your submission that the manuscript is original and that all authors are responsible for the contents and have read and approved the manuscript for submission to HeartRhythm.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

More than 12 authors must be justified.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names:
Before an article is accepted for publication: If an author is removed or the author order has changed during any revision stage, the corresponding author must upload with the resubmission a letter explaining (a) the reason the person is being removed or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the removal or rearrangement. In the case of removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being removed. All documentation should be collated into a single file (preferably PDF) and uploaded via the submission site as an "Author Change Documentation" submission item.
After acceptance, but before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Managing Editor from the corresponding author and include the same information as above. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Managing Editor to the corresponding author. Note that: (1) Managing Editors will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue must be sent to the Journal Manager and follow the same policies as noted above; changes will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides will not be considered by the journal to be prior publications if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardize consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related

Registration of clinical trials

Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Note that registering drug and biologics trials that are phase II – IV controlled investigations of a product subject to FDA regulation, and device trials including controlled trials of health outcomes of devices subject to FDA regulation, has become mandatory for trials started later than 12/26/07, or 21 days after the first patient is enrolled. Exceptions are for trials ongoing as of 9/27/07 that do NOT involve serious or life threatening conditions; they may be submitted by 9/27/08. For example, all cardiology studies will be considered “serious conditions”. Trials involving serious conditions and initiated before 9/27/07 but completed prior to 12/26/07 are NOT subject to the new requirements. For any questions, consult:;

Article transfer service

This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here:


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Open access

This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $3000 applies (for further information on open access see Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here:
Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, which must be documented in the Methods section of the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Animal studies

Animal Studies must conform to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Authors must include a statement in the Methods section confirming that the study conforms to these guidelines and was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at the authors' institution.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Revision policy

Revised manuscripts must be received within 6 months of notification of a decision. After this timeframe, any revised paper must be submitted to the journal as a new submission.

Manuscript categories

Original Clinical or Original Experimental
Original research articles must not exceed 5000 words including abstract, references, tables, and figure legends; articles are limited to a combined total of 8 figures and/or tables, and 35 references. The abstract (250 words or fewer) is required and should be divided into the following 5 subsections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.

All original Clinical or Experimental articles must include a 250-word paragraph of Clinical Perspectives that address the following three questions: (1) What new medical knowledge is presented in your manuscript? (2) How can this medical knowledge help improve patient care? (3) What steps should be taken to translate your discoveries into clinical practice? The Clinical Perspective should not repeat the exact text from the main article, and although it should answer the above questions, it should not include the questions. Please place the Clinical Perspectives paragraph after the reference section. The total word count (excluding title page, glossary of abbreviations, and “Clinical Perspectives”) should be included on the title page and should not exceed 5000 words.

Case Reports
Submissions are limited to 6 authors and 2500 words, including text, references (≤15), figure legends, and ≤3 figures. No abstract should be included. All case reports will be considered. Selection priority will be based upon the reporting of new therapies, new complications of therapies or new mechanisms of diseases.

Contemporary Reviews (Solicited and Unsolicited)
Review articles should include a brief abstract and <6000 total words, including references, and tables; the combined figure/table limit is 6.

Creative Concepts
Submissions to this section are for articles that contain untested or unproven new ideas with little supporting evidence but must have compelling rationale. The idea should be one that is difficult or impossible to test definitively, or would take a long time or significant resources to do so. Articles must be <4000 total words, including references and tables, and a combined total of 8 figures and/or tables. No abstract should be included.

Unknown of the Month
Manuscripts are limited to 1500 words, ≤3 illustrations, ≤4 authors, and ≤5 references. The intracardiac electrograms or electrocardiogram should be presented as an unknown. The figures must contain enough information for the reader to make the correct diagnosis. The figure legends should not reveal the correct diagnosis. The cases will be judged based on degree of difficulty, novelty, and teaching value. No abstract should be included.

Pacemaker/ICD Problems
Manuscripts are limited to 1500 words, ≤3 illustrations and ≤4 authors. The article will be judged based on novelty and educational value as a teaching case. No abstract should be included.

Submissions to "Electrophysiology Images and Movies" are limited to 1 journal page; there may be no more than 4 authors. The Narrative, including references, may be no more than 425 words for a larger image (a 1.5 column figure) or 495 words for smaller figure (a 1 column figure). The image may have no more than 2 illustration panels, for example, Panel A and Panel B. Figure legends should not be used, but up to 5 reference citations are permitted. Images are judged according to their aesthetic quality, the novelty, importance, and effectiveness of their scientific or clinical message, or their utility as a teaching tool. Unlike case reports, the focus should be on the image, not the narrative.
Authors can also include a single electronic movie (e.g.QuickTime or MPEG1 formats) file or computer animation (e.g. as Power Point file) that expands or enhances the message of the printed images. Animations or movies must provide novel or especially useful means of conveying known principles (e.g. Animations or movies that effectively teach/portray an electrophysiological mechanism or process). If an electronic movie or animation is submitted, the authors must also provide 1 or 2 frames of images (which may appear in print) that convey the essence of the movie's content. A movie legend must be submitted as supplemental material.

Published images, movies, and animations will be made available in high resolution format via a web site to subscribers to HeartRhythm.

Letters to the Editor
Letters should be double-spaced, and should not exceed 400 words. Letters may refer to papers published on the journal website within 3 months. Letters regarding articles posted outside this time frame will not be eligible for consideration. Letters will be reviewed and are subject to editing. They should not contain original data or figures. If accepted for publication, a copy of the letter will be sent to the author(s) of the original article, if applicable. The author(s) will have an opportunity to respond with new material that will be considered for publication with the letter. Letters, with rare exception, will be e-published only.

Humanism in Medicine: Treat Each Patient As Your First and Each Day As Your Last
Articles should briefly describe a unique personal experience in medicine. Articles are limited to no more than one (1) page, 500 words or fewer, and cannot include references or figures.

In Memoriam
This section is used to highlight the outstanding contributions to the field of Heart Rhythm by a deceased individual. Submissions should be prepared as a Letter to Editor, but may include a small figure. In Memoriam articles, with rare exception, will be e-published only.

Hands On
All articles by invitation only.

Josephson and Wellens ECG lessons
All articles by invitation only.

Editorial Commentary
All articles by invitation only. Limited to 1500 words or fewer, including references.

Historical Vignette
All articles by invitation only.

New: When formatting your article, please add continuous line numbers to the document, as well as page numbers.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Original Clinical and Experimental articles should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions, with appropriate subheadings to make the sections easily understood. A section on Clinical Implications for Experimental articles may be worthwhile.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. If the article is an original study describing human or animal studies, a statement regarding local ethics committee or IRB approval must be included in the Methods section.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short Conclusion.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Short title. Include a short title of 50 or fewer characters.
Author names, academic degrees, and affiliations. Please include academic degrees after each author’s name. Fellows of the Heart Rhythm Society (FHRS) should be identified by including FHRS after the degree. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Word count.The total word count (excluding title page and the glossary of abbreviations) should be included on the title page.


Clinical and Experimental articles should include a structured abstract (without references) of fewer than 250 words. Divide the abstract into sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion that state the importance and potential implications of the observations. Review articles should have an unstructured abstract. All other article types should not include an abstract.

Graphical abstract

Authors of Clinical and Experimental research articles are encouraged to submit a graphical abstract, as it draws more attention to the online article. Graphical abstracts are optional and should not be identical to any figures from the article or supplemental data. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Immediately after the abstract, provide 5-10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


After the keywords, include a list of abbreviations used in the manuscript. Avoid ALL abbreviations other than standard units of measurement and common abbreviations, such as RV, LV, etc. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


NEW: For all article types (except Images submissions), authors must include each figure on a separate page at the end of the manuscript file; the legend for each figure must appear on the same page as the figure. For revised submissions, the figures and figure legends should remain in the manuscript file, but each figure must also be uploaded as a separate file. Please see below for information on file formats.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the fonts used if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. HeartRhythm will no longer charge authors for color figures in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Figure captions must be included in the manuscript file; the text of the caption should be editable.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be included on a separate page and designed for economy of space and readability. Notes designated in the tables and all abbreviations should be defined in a footnote. Abbreviations should be identified in alphabetical order. Footnotes should be used in the following order: †, ‡, §, ¶, #. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Please list the first 12 authors in each reference. If there are more than 12 authors, list the first 3 followed by et al. The references should be double spaced and use the same font size as the remainder of the manuscript.

Reference to a journal publication:
1. Veltmann C, Papavassiliu T, Konrad T, Doesch C, Kuschyk J, Streitner F, Haghi D, Michaely HJ, Schoenberg SO, Borggrefe M, Wolpert C, Schimpf R. Insights into the location of type I ECG in patients with Brugada syndrome: correlation of ECG and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:414-421.
2. Calkins H, Kuck KH, Cappato R, et al. 2012 HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: Recommendations for patient selection, procedural techniques, patient management and follow-up, definitions, endpoints, and research trial design. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:632-696.

Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281-304.

Abbreviations for periodicals cited in the references should follow the style of Index Medicus and can also be accessed at


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. Supplemental material should be referred to in the main text in sequential order. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Supplementary material is scientific evidence and assumed to be original. If published previously,the source must be cited with permission exactly as required for previously published material and should not include logos, symbolic landmarks, or any other identification of the origin.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
Cover letter confirming:
• The article is original, with no portion under simultaneous consideration for publication elsewhere or previously published, except for an abstract of fewer than 400 words.
• All authors have read and approve the submission
• One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• Each figure caption is included on the same page as the figure it describes
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
•Manuscript includes continuous line numbering;
• Manuscript is double-spaced, single columned, and pages are numbered.
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

Journal does not give free offprints.

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via