Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of article
    • Contact details for submission
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Clinical trial results
    • Registration of clinical trials
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Informed consent and patient details
    PREPARATION
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Proofs
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy (GMIT) is the official peer-reviewed publication of The Asia-Pacific Association for Gynecologic Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Therapy (APAGE), Japan Society of Gynecologic and Obstetric Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Therapy (JSGEO) and Taiwan Association of Minimally Invasive Gynecology(TAMIG). It is published quarterly by Elsevier. The Journal aims to publish original research and review papers on minimally invasive therapies in women's health and related scientific fields of study. Manuscripts on clinical, laboratory, educational and social research in the relevant fields are eligible for consideration. Manuscripts that are clearly in the fields of obstetrics and prenatal diagnosis will be rejected immediately.

    While editorials tend to be invited by the Editorial Office, authors are welcome to submit reviews, original research articles, short communications on instruments and techniques, case reports, clinical images, and letters to the editor for consideration.

    The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.

    Types of article

    Editorials
    Editorials are short articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal or a topical issue in the field. Although editorials are normally invited, unsolicited editorials may be submitted and will be given due consideration.

    Review Articles
    These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.

    Format guide

    • Word limit: 4000 words
    • References: up to 60
    • Tables/Figures: 6 maximum

    Original Articles
    These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

    Format guide

    • Word limit: 4000 words
    • References: up to 60
    • Tables/Figures: 6 maximum

    Short Communications
    These reports should be concise presentations of research results or novel techniques or use of equipment, pioneering instruments or advanced surgical skills.
    The editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Short Communication.

    Format guide

    • Word limit: 2000 words
    • References: up to 10
    • Tables/Figures: 4 maximum

    Case Reports
    These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe rare cases, complications or morbidities from an educational perspective, or new information on diseases of interest. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

    Format guide

    • Word limit: 1500 words
    • References: up to 10
    • Tables/Figures: 2 maximum

    Clinical Images
    These comprise clinical images, photographs or diagnostic tests with educational value (such as ultrasound scans, MRI films, endoscopic photographs, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, photomicrographs, DNA blots, or pictures of molecular studies). The report should be of a specific case and focus on the image(s).
    The use of multimedia components such as additional images or video clips is acceptable.

    Format guide

    • author: no more than 4
    • Word limit: 800 words
    • References: up to 6
    • Tables/Figures: 4 maximum

    Letters to the Editor
    Letters are welcome in response to previously published GMIT articles, and may also include interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, as well as other communications of general interest. Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the author's mailing and e-mail addresses. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, and space. The text should not exceed 350 words.

    Contact details for submission

    Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted to our online submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/gmit. Please contact the Editorial Office

    Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy (GMIT) APAGE

    5 Fu-Hsing Street, Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 33305

    Tel: (+886) 3-328-1200 ext. 8260

    Fax: (+886) 3-328-6700

    E-mail: gmit.apage@gmail.com if assistance is required. Please do not post or fax your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf. For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (e.g., oral or written). For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use should be in accordance with European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for Animal Experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm); this should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

    Important Information

    · Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal’s style.

    · You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes" function. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes" function; instead, you may use the commercially available EndNote® or Reference Manager® software to manage your references.

    · Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.

    · Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”. Please see section 9.8. for more information.

    Supporting Documents

    The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.

    1. Cover Letter. This must include the title of the manuscript, the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author. The letter must state that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere. A manuscript that has been previously submitted but rejected by another journal will be considered if it has been revised, provided that this is stated in the cover letter. Make a note in the letter of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to GMIT, and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that the editors can be assured there is no overlap. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included on the cover letter.

    2. Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the GMIT Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website athttp://www.e-gmit.com. The corresponding author must sign the statement on behalf of all the authors listed in the manuscript.

    3. Copyright Transfer Agreement. You are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the APAGE. Please use the GMIT Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal’s website at http://www.e-gmit.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included. However, the Agreement will be null and void if your manuscript is not published in GMIT.

    4. Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.

    5. Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section 4 for more information.

    6. Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5 for more information.

    7. Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

    Reporting Clinical Trials

    All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to http://www.consort-statement.org for more information). This GMIT has adopted the ICMJE proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.

    Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

    A conflict of interest occurs when an individual’s objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. The editors of GMIT strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

    Conflicts of interest may be financial or nonfinancial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

    Please ensure that any conflicts of interest are fully declared on page 2 of the GMIT Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Changes to Authorship
    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

    Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.

    Clinical trial results

    In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

    All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to http://www.consort-statement.org for more information). This GMIT has adopted the ICMJE proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.

    Registration of clinical trials

    Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org) recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

    GMIT is the official peer-reviewed publication of the APAGE (Taipei, Taiwan, Japan Society of Gynecologic and Obstetric Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Therapy and Taiwan Association of Minimally Invasive Gynecology). Manuscripts published in the GMIT become the permanent property of APAGE. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No GMIT article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from APAGE.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in American English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information.

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

    Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.



    Manuscript Preparation

    Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (297 × 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, references, conflicts of interest statement (if any), acknowledgments (if any), and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

    Abstract and Keywords

    An abstract and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Short Communications, and Case Reports. Abstracts for Original Articles and Short Communications should be structured, with the section headings: Study Objective, Design, Setting, Patients, Intervention(s), Measurements and Main Results, and Conclusion.

    Abstracts for Original Articles should be no longer than 250 words and that of Short Communications no longer than 200 words.

    Abstracts for Review Articles should be unstructured, in one single paragraph of no more than 250 words in length that clearly summarize the main findings.

    Abstracts for Case Reports should be unstructured, in one single paragraph of not more than 150 words, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case.

    An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Keywords will be used for indexing purposes and should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html). Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.
    No abstract or keywords are required for the following article categories: Editorials, Clinical Images, and Letters to the Editor.

    Title Page

    The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

    · article category

    · article title

    · names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author name and in front of the matching affiliation

    · conflicts of interest declaration; if none, then state "The author(s) have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article."

    · corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)

    · word counts of abstract, main text and references

    *The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g. Wan-Lin Chang. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

    Main Text

    Section headings

    The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Background/Introduction, Purpose(s)/Aim(s), Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion.

    The Background/Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper and explain the importance of the study. The Purposes(s)/Aims(s) should state a precise study question or purpose. The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research. The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main results. The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

    Sections for Case Reports should be :- Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page. The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature. The Case Report should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome. The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

    Abbreviations :- Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.

    Numbers :- Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

    Units :- Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

    Names of drugs, devices and other products :- Use the Recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

    For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, ""?KIBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)"". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

    Statistical requirements :- Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail. All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

    Personal communications and unpublished data :- These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

    Tables

    Table should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

    Figures

    General guidelines

    The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend in alphabetical order. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

    Figures must be submitted as separate picture files at the correct resolution (see Section Formats) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”.

    Formats Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”
    • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones) — always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings — use a minimum of 1000 dpi
    • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) — a minimum of 600 dpi
    • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
    • A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.

    Acknowledgments

    After the main text, general acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analysis should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified.

    Reference style

    In the main text, tables, figure legends

    • References should be identified using superscripted numbers, and numbered consecutively in order of appearance.

    • The superscripted numbers should be placed outside periods and commas, and placed inside colons and semicolons.

    • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.

    • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references. Also see Personal communications and unpublished data

    In the references list

    • References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text and should follow the American Medical Association (AMA) style and format.

    • References should be limited to those cited in the text only..

    • Journal references should include, in order, authors’ surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers..

    • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by “et al”.

    • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.

    • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.

    • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

    Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

    Examples are given below.

    Standard journal articles
    Chen Z, Fan M, Bian Z, Zhang Q, Zhu Q, Lu P. Immunolocalization of heat shock protein 70 during reparative dentinogenesis. Chin J Dent Res. 2000;3:50-55.

    Journal supplement
    Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32 (Suppl 3):S78–80.

    Journal article not in English but with English abstract
    Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka. 2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

    Book with edition
    Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1982, p. 72–95.

    Book with editors
    Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual Education: Teaching English as a Second Language. New York, NY: Praeger; 1980. Book chapter in book with editor and edition Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, ed. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004:615–72.

    Book series with editors
    Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of Teratology, vols. 1-4. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1977–1978.

    Bulletin
    World Health Organization. World health report 2002: Reducing Risk, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

    Electronic publications
    Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:106–7. Available from: http://archpedi.amaassn. org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 5, 2004.

    Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

    Items presented at a meeting but not yet published (conference proceedings)
    Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology; May 31–June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL. Abstract 359.

    Item presented at a meeting and published (conference paper)
    Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or blue-light-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on Cataract, IOL, and Refractive Surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004. Abstract 337.

    Theses
    Ayers AJ. Retention of Resin Restorations by Means of Enamel Etching and by Pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University, Indianapolis, 1971.

    Website
    American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Wisdom Teeth. Rosemont, IL: AAOMS, 2008. Available at http://www.aaoms.org/wisdom_teeth.php. Accessed November 15, 2008.

    Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
    Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2–3.

    The Editorial and Peer Review Process

    As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 1 week of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

    Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts. The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.

    Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in- Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested.

    Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. These peer reviewers will remain anonymous and may or may not be the reviewers suggested by the author(s) as the selection of reviewers is at the sole discretion of GMIT editors. The editors and reviewers will not disclose any information about a manuscript or its review to anyone.

    The corresponding author will usually be notified within 10 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 30 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

    Preparation for Publication

    Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES. Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to the Journal’s style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor. Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

    Changes to Authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Publication Charges and Reprints

    The Journal will bear the cost of publication for articles of 7 printed pages or less for Review and Original Articles, 5 printed pages or less for Short Communications, 3 printed pages or less for Case Reports, 2 printed pages or less for Clinical Images, and 1 printed page or less for Editorials and Letters to the Editor. Authors will be charged for the cost of extra pages at US$180/page. Authors will also be charged US$75 per illustration, figure or table that is in color. For manuscripts that require extensive English editing, authors will be charged for the correction of English grammar at US$30/page.

    For environmental reasons, GMIT does not provide article offprints to authors. However, authors may order professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) at prices based on the cost of production. Thereprint order form can be downloaded from the Journal's website at http://www.e-gmit.com.

    Copyright

    GMIT is the official peer-reviewed publication of the APAGE (Taipei, Taiwan, Japan Society of Gynecologic and Obstetric Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Therapy and Taiwan Association of Minimally Invasive Gynecology). Manuscripts published in the GMIT become the permanent property of APAGE. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No GMIT article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from APAGE.



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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