Guide for Authors

Gastroenterology publishes clinical and basic studies of all aspects of the digestive system, including the liver and pancreas, as well as nutrition. The types of articles GASTROENTEROLOGY publishes include original papers, review articles, and special category manuscripts. Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( ). Gastroenterology is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) ( ).

Gastroenterology strongly encourages the submission of papers on a breadth of clinical topics in gastroenterology, hepatology, and endoscopy, especially randomized controlled trials (phases II-IV but typically not phase I), high-quality observational studies, and novel case series.

Gastroenterology is interested in all aspects of clinical trials including treatment, prevention, diagnosis, screening and quality of life. High-quality meta-analyses are also welcome. Publication priority will be determined by factors such as novelty, impact upon clinical practice, strength of the experimental design and mechanistic insight.

Gastroenterology is interested in all aspects of high impact translational and basic studies that would be of interest to our broad readership. These aspects include defining a critical physiologic or disease process/pathway, or mechanism for disease progression or protection; identifying a genetic cause, modifier or association with disease; describing a novel experimental disease model; characterizing a novel GI-related mechanism of drug action; preclinical studies that describe a potential novel therapy, diagnostic or prognostic marker or tool that is related a disease.

Gastroenterology has a total circulation of approximately 17,000—about 12,000 in the United States and 5,000 in other countries. Eighty percent of subscribers are AGA members. In the United States, about 75% of subscribers are physicians, and about 25% of subscriptions go to residents, medical schools, and libraries. About 68% of the papers published originate overseas.

Gastroenterology is abstracted and indexed in Biological Abstracts, CABS, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents, Excerpta Medica, Index Medicus, Nutrition Abstracts, and Science Citation Index.

Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest Policy
Plagiarism, Duplicate Submission/Publication Policy
Image Manipulation Policy
Open Access Policies
Information about Article Types
Author Fees
Submission Checklist
Clinical Trials
Reporting Meta-Analyses of Genetic Studies
Distribution of Material Described in Published Papers
Manuscript Processing and Review
Contact Information


GASTROENTEROLOGY strongly discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study. In almost all cases, a single study is best reported in a single paper.

The Journal editors consider research/publication misconduct to be a serious breach of ethics and will take action as necessary to address such misconduct, which includes submission or publication of information that:

(1) Is intentionally erroneous,
(2) Has been published elsewhere by a different author without acknowledgment (plagiarism),
(3) Has been published elsewhere by the same author without acknowledgment (duplicate publication), or
(4) Is subsequently published elsewhere by the same author without acknowledgment, attribution, or permission from the AGA Institute, as holder of the copyright, to reprint or adapt the material.

Each author who submits a manuscript to GASTROENTEROLOGY must attest to several author statements in the manuscript management system, thereby assigning copyright of the manuscript to the AGA Instituteand affirming authorship responsibility, manuscript originality, payment of author fees, IRB/Animal CareCommittee approval, role of study sponsor, financial disclosures, and funding sources.

Breaches of GASTROENTEROLOGY's ethical standardsmay result in proscribed submission for all authors of the concerned manuscript and, when appropriate, notification of the authors' institutions. All authors are fully responsible for the content of the manuscript.

Animal experiments: Studies involving animal experiments should conform to the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (, developed by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) to improve standards and reporting of animal research. Please review the ARRIVE checklist and disclose all relevant animal research information as directed.

The publication of abstracts or posters is not considered duplicate publication but should be disclosed in the cover letter accompanying the manuscript submission.

Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the paper and must approve of the final version of the manuscript. Authorship should be based on substantive contributions to each of the following:

(1) conception and design of the study;
(2) generation, collection, assembly, analysis and/or interpretation of data;
(3) drafting or revision of the manuscript;
(4) approval of the final version of the manuscript.


A. Potential Conflicts of Interest
The following are examples of COI that may occur with editors, authors (including invited authors), and reviewers. Interactions considered pertinent are from the start of the research activity in a specific program until such time that a submission is anticipated to be published or one year from submission date, whichever is longer.

a. Editors: Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts must have no personal, professional, or financial involvement in any of the issues they might judge. Examples of personal involvement with an author include former student, fellow, mentor, or relative. Examples of professional involvement include academic rivalry, being from the same institution or research group as the author, evaluating a manuscript submitted by a member of the board of editors, or collaborating (e.g., co-authoring research article or grant) with an author. Examples of financial involvement include employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties with an entity (or competing entity) discussed in the manuscript.

It is a COI for editors of the AGA Institute journals to hold a position of editorial responsibility for a competing publication. The Ethics Committee reviews disclosure statements submitted by editors and notifies either/both the Secretary/Treasurer and editor of any potential conflicts. The procedures contained in Section C of the "AGA/AGA Institute Policy on Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest" apply if a conflict is found to exist.

b. Authors: COI for an author may arise if there exists a financial arrangement (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties) with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company that makes a competing product.

c. Reviewers: COI for reviewers exist when they have had an ongoing collaboration, original publications, or grants with the authors within the previous two years, except when part of a multicenter group from a different site; are from the same institution as the authors; or have any financial arrangements (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties) with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company that makes a competing product.

B. Process
Potential COI are to be disclosed at the beginning of the peer-review process.

a. Editors: An associate editor having COI with a submitted manuscript must recuse himself from handling the manuscript and request that the manuscript be reassigned. The editor-in-chief having COI with a submitted manuscript must assign review to one of an associate or guest editor for handling. A manuscript submitted by one of the members of the board of editors must be assigned to a guest editor.

b. Authors: The senior or corresponding author assumes full responsibility for supplying the following information on the title page at manuscript submission:
i. For each author, disclosure of any financial arrangement with any company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or that makes a competing product; or a statement for each author that there is no conflict to disclose.
ii. A disclosure of all funding sources supporting the work and all institutional or corporate affiliations.
iii. A list of individuals who provided writing assistance for the manuscript and the source of funds that supported this assistance.

In addition, at manuscript submission, each author must attest to several author statements in the manuscript management system, thereby assigning copyright of the manuscript to the AGA Institute and affirming authorship responsibility, manuscript originality, payment of author fees, IRB/Animal Care Committee approval, role of study sponsor, financial disclosures, and funding sources.

Based on the information provided, the editors will determine whether COI exists and decide to either a) reject the manuscript or b) publish the manuscript with the COI disclosed.

c. Reviewers: When invited, reviewers must decline to review a manuscript if a potential COI exists. After review, reviewers must answer the following questions, which appear in the journals' manuscript tracking system:
i.Have you, the undersigned Reviewer, had an ongoing collaboration, original publication or grant with the authors within the previous two years, except in the case of being a part of a multi-center group from a different site?
ii. Are you, the undersigned Reviewer, from the same institution as the authors?
iii.Do you, the undersigned Reviewer, have any financial arrangements (eg, employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties with an entity) with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product?Any reviewer answering "yes" to question 3 is prompted to describe the nature of their financial agreements.

If the reviewer discloses a potential COI after the review, the handling associate editor decides if the review should still be used to judge the manuscript.

C. Sanctions
Should an editor, author, or reviewer fail to disclose a potential COI and this is discovered after publication, the following sanctions may be applied according to the severity of the infraction.

a. Editors:
i. A letter of reprimand and warning as to future conduct from the editor, in the case of an associate editor, or from the Chair of the Publications Committee, in the case of the editor.
ii. Dismissal from the position.

b. Authors:
i. A letter from the editor of explanation and education where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.
ii. A letter from the editor of reprimand and warning as to future conduct.
iii. A letter from the editor to the author's institution or funding body.
iv. Publication of a notice detailing the author's failure to disclose the COI.
v. Publication of an editorial detailing the full details of the misconduct.
vi. Refusal to accept future submissions from the author on a sliding scale of one-to-five years.
vii. Formal retraction or withdrawal of the paper from the scientific literature.
viii. Reporting the case to the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

c. Reviewers:
i. A letter from the editor of explanation and education where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.
ii. A letter from the editor of reprimand and warning as to future conduct.
iii. A letter from the editor to the reviewer's institution.
iv. Refusal to allow the individual to review for the journal on a sliding scale of one-to-five years.

This policy was developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).


A. Definitions

a. Plagiarism: Unreferenced use of published and unpublished ideas. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication and applies to print and electronic versions.

b. Duplicate Submission/Publication: Occurs when two or more papers, without full cross-reference, share the same hypothesis, data, discussion points, or conclusions.

B. Sanctions
Should plagiarism or duplicate submission/publication be identified, the journal editors will apply the following sanctions according to the severity of the infraction. They will apply sanctions to individual authors depending on their type of involvement with the article, as provided at the time of submission on the title page.

a. A letter of explanation from the journal editors to the authors where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.

b. A letter of reprimand from the journal editors as to future conduct.

c. A formal letter from the journal editors to the author's institution, employer, or funding body.

d. Publication of a notice or editorial in journal.

e. Refusal to accept submissions from the author for a range of one-to-five years.

f. Formal withdrawal or retraction of paper from the scientific literature.

g. Journal editors report the case to Office of Research Integrity, which promotes integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the U.S. Public Health Service; monitors institutional investigations of research misconduct; and facilitates the responsible conduct of research through educational, preventive, and regulatory activities.

This policy was developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Image Manipulation Policy
A. Definition*
Image manipulation is the misrepresentation of data by selectively altering portions of an image. The expectations for how images should be ethically handled are:
a. No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed or introduced.
b. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figur
e (eg, using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. c. Adjustments of brightness, contrast or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to every pixel in the image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds. Non-linear adjustments (eg, changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
*Language used with permission from The Journal of Cell Biology.
B. Process
The journals' graphics staff will screen images at random during the submission process and will review images that editors, reviewers or readers suspect have been manipulated. If manipulation is suspected, the staff and editors will initiate an investigation with the authors and possibly their institutions.
C. Sanctions
Should image manipulation be verified before or after publication of an article, one of the below sanctions will be applied, based on the severity of the infraction. The journal editor-in-chief and board of editors will determine, on a case-by-case basis, the severity of the infraction and corresponding sanction. Sanctions will be applied to individual authors depending on their type of involvement with the article, as provided at the time of submission on the title page.
a. A letter of explanation from the journal editors to the authors where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.b. A letter of reprimand from the journal editors as to future conduct.
c. A formal letter from the journal editors to the author's institution or employer.
d. Rejection or withdrawal of manuscript acceptance.
e. Publication of a correction or editorial.
f. Retraction of the published article.
g. Refusal to accept submissions from the author for a range of one-to-five years. For particularly egregious cases or series of cases, a life-time ban may be considered.
The AGA reserves the right, on a case-by-case basis, to report particularly egregious cases to the relevant funding bodies.
This policy was developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE).

Open Access Policies

Compliance With Funders' Open Access Policies

Gastroenterology's publishing partner, Elsevier, has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors who publish in Elsevier journals to comply with manuscript archiving requirements of various funding bodies (for example, the National Institutes of Health), as specified as conditions of researcher grant awards. For a full list of funding bodies with which Elsevier has agreements, go to These agreements and policies enable authors to comply with their funding body's archiving policy without having to violate their publishing agreements with Gastroenterology. The agreements and policies are intended to support the needs of the Journal's authors, editors, and society publishing partners, and to protect the quality and integrity of the peer-review process.

Author-Sponsored Articles

Gastroenterology offers authors the option to sponsor immediate open access to their articles online at and Authors can elect to sponsor their article only after receiving notification that their article has been accepted for publication in GASTROENTEROLOGY.The charge for article sponsorship is $3000, which is used to offset publishing costs of typesetting, tagging, and indexing of articles, hosting articles on dedicated servers, supporting sales and marketing costs to ensure global dissemination via and, and permanently preserving the published journal article. The fee excludes taxes and other potential author fees such as submission, page fee, and color charges, which are additional. Authors who have had their article accepted and who wish to sponsor their article to make it immediately freely available should complete and submit the article sponsorship order form located at: You will need your Elsevier Production Article Number to complete the form. You will receive this number via email once your accepted manuscript has been received and processed by the Elsevier production team.

Open Issue Highlights and Archives

The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) supports free access to GASTROENTEROLOGY on the broadest possible basis while adhering to a publishing model that is economically sustainable over a long horizon. To that end, for each issue of the Journal, several original research articles are identified by the Journal's editor as critical content for readers and thus are made immediately open access. Additionally, all content older than 12 months is free to all online. Also, many special sections of each new issue are immediately free to all online.

Manuscript Posting

Authors of articles published in GASTROENTEROLOGY may voluntarily post their accepted manuscripts to personal websites or institutional repositories immediately upon acceptance.


Original Articles
Original Articles are full-length reports of original research.Articles cover topics relevant to clinical, and basic and translational studies in these areas of interest. They may discuss nutrition, immunology, cell biology, molecular biology, morphology, physiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, imaging, or therapy. Both adult and pediatric problems are included. To be published, the work presented in the manuscript must be original; on occasion, confirmatory studies of timely and important observations will also be acceptable. In addition, other considerations for evaluating the acceptability of a submitted manuscript include its importance, the soundness of the experimental design, the validity of the methods, the appropriateness of the conclusions, and the quality of presentation.

Original article submissions to Gastroenterology cannot exceed 7,000 words, including the abstract, figure and table legends, and references. No more than a combined total of seven figures and/or tables are permitted. The editor reserves the right to publish excessively long tables as online-only material. Each figure may have up to six panels (labeled A-F). Your manuscript will be returned to you if it does not meet these criteria.

Reviews in Basic and Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Each issue of GASTROENTEROLOGY will typically contain a review article by two or more collaborating authors that is solicited by the board of editors (no unsolicited reviews will be considered). Each review article will be divided into two sections, basic and clinical, with one section to be overseen by a basic science editor and the other by a clinical editor.

Reviews must not exceed a total of 6,000 words, not including references, figure legends or table legends. A maximum of 150 references are permitted. Authors are also required to include a minimum of 4 figures or illustrations and to work with GASTROENTEROLOGY's medical illustrator in developing them.

Clinical Challenges and Images in GI
Clinical Challenges and Images in GI presents a striking clinical image that is meant to challenge and inform readers. The "Clinical Challenge and Image in GI" is presented as an unknown with the diagnosis hinging on the correct interpretation and integration of the image and clinical data. The answer is presented on a separate page of the Journal. The section is intended to illustrate and teach important medical points. If you would like to submit an image for publication in the Journal, please follow the instructions below.

  • Images can be either clinical, pathologic (gross or microscopic), endoscopic, or radiographic. They must be of high quality (300ppi) and illustrate the diagnosis well.
  • The article must include a title that does not reveal the answer to the challenge. This title will be published should the article be accepted.
  • The case should be described in one typed double-spaced page or less. Format should be as follows: Short pertinent history, physical exam and laboratory findings, and initial clinical course. The image(s) should then be described with all labeled structures explained in the text.
  • The answer should discuss the image findings and the diagnosis in no more than one double-spaced typed page. The diagnosis and discussion should make an important medical teaching point and include from one to three pertinent references. Information regarding the specific patient in terms of follow-up and response to therapy should be given as appropriate.
  • No more than three authors are allowed on each submission. Contributors must provide their names, addresses, phone, and e-mail addresses. Contributors must complete the Author Statement form.
  • "Clinical Challenges and Images in GI" submissions must be submitted at

Practical Teaching Cases
Practical Teaching Cases showcases common clinical scenarios that are part of the knowledge base of GI. The section serves the growing need for standardized, high-quality educational activities that are easily accessible and useful to Gastroenterology's readership.

  • Images can be clinical, pathologic (gross or microscopic), endoscopic, or radiographic. They must be of high quality (300ppi) and illustrate the diagnosis well.
  • In addition to images, some cases may lend themselves to the presentation of serial lab data in a figure or table format using standard Gastroenterology formatting.
  • The article must include a title that does not reveal the answer to the question. This title will be published should the article be accepted.
  • The case must be described in one typed double-spaced page or less. The format of the case must include short pertinent history, physical exam and laboratory findings, and initial clinical course. The image(s) or data table/ figure must then be described with all labeled structures explained in the text.
  • At the time of submission, authors must categorize the case into a single organ system/ clinical area of interest (ie, esophagus, stomach, small bowel, pancreas, liver, colon).
  • Include a structured multiple choice question (4 possible answers) that highlights a diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical aspect of the case is required. All potential answers must be plausible.
  • The answer must discuss the image findings and the diagnosis in no more than one double-spaced typed page. The discussion must explain why the various incorrect options are not supported by the case or literature and the basis for the correct answer as well. The diagnosis and discussion must make an important medical teaching point and include from one to three pertinent references. Preferred references include recent practice guidelines, topic reviews, or other manuscripts wherein further information for the interested reader is available.
  • Information regarding the specific patient in terms of follow-up and response to therapy must be given as appropriate.
  • No more than three authors are allowed on each submission. Contributors must provide their names, addresses, phone, and e-mail addresses. Contributors must complete the Author Statement form.
  • Upload submissions to

Gastroenterology in Motion
This article type contains two parts: (1) video and narration; (2) published text with relevant figures/tables.

Video Guidelines

  • All videos must be of the highest quality possible. Any editing of the video is the responsibility of the author(s).
  • No editing of the original data in individual frames or alteration of the original speed of the video can be made unless clearly stated.
  • Transitions should be selected in a consistent and simple pattern. Dramatic transitions are discouraged as they tend to distract the viewers from the main contents of the video.
  • Allow adequate pauses for the viewers to properly take in the information presented. A typical pause should be 4 -5 seconds long.
  • Acceptable video file formats are: MPEG (.mpg), Quicktime (.mov), or Microsoft (.avi).
  • Maximum video length is 10 minutes. Maximum file size/video is 160 MB
  • No more than 2 videos per submission
  • Concise legends must accompany each video in the text file.
  • Narration can be included with the video. If you elect to include narration, be sure that all audio is at an appropriate level to be understood using computer speakers at mid-level volume.
  • Patients should not be identifiable, or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the video.
  • Histology and/or radiology can be included for teaching purposes.
  • There are no submission fees or page charges. However, there is a charge for color figures (see below).
Published Text Guidelines (no more than 2 journal pages)
  • The video must be accompanied by a double-spaced summary not to exceed 1000 words. The text must follow the below format:
    o Introduction (one paragraph without a header)
    o Description of technology (one paragraph)
    o Video description (up to two paragraphs)
    o Take home message (implications/significance of video demonstration (one to 8 sentences)
    o References (no more than 8, using the abbreviated Brief Report format)
  • The title page of the text must include the title, the authors, the corresponding author's contact information, the authors' affiliations, any funding support, any writing assistance, and any relevant conflicts of interest. If there are no conflicts of interest, the authors must state this.
Figures/Tables Guidelines
  • A combination of up to two figures and/or tables in total can be included with the submission. The figures must be submitted as separate attachments.
  • Figure files must be in one of the following formats: .tif or .jpg
  • Figures must have a resolution of 300 dpi or greater.
  • Figures must be accompanied by concise figure legends.
  • Figures reviewed in color will be published in color. Authors are responsible for pay costs associated with color figures ($650 for the first figure; $100 for each subsequent figure).

The AGA Institute holds the copyright to all accepted videos and their accompanying text. To reuse the video or text in any form, permission must first be obtained from GASTROENTEROLOGY's publisher, Elsevier.

Correspondence (Letters to the Editor)

Correspondence (Letter to the Editor) allows the opportunity to offer novel perspectives and opinions on papers published in GASTROENTEROLOGY. Letters must be submitted for consideration by the end of the month in which the corresponding article was published (eg, a response to an article in the July issue should be submitted by the end of July). At the end of each submission period, all letters received that month will be assessed by the Board of Editors. Letters deemed of interest to the Journal are collated and sent to the authors of the original article for a response; the authors are given 2 weeks to reply. A decision will then be made whether to publish the letter with or without its reply. No more than 3 letters are published for any given manuscript, and they are evaluated in sequence of submission.

Correspondence submissions must not exceed 750 words with no more than 8 references (not included in the word count). Original or unpublished data will not be considered. For the references, use the following format: Jones RS, et al. Gastroenterology 2011; 2: 373 -380 (only the first author is listed, unless manuscripts with joint first authors are cited, and article title is not included). The correspondence and the reply cannot include more than 3 authors each. All letters become the property of GASTROENTEROLOGY and are subject to editing by the Journal. Letters are selected based on their relevance and originality, and typically less than one third of those submitted are accepted.Editorials
Editorials express opinions on current topics of interest or provide comments on papers published elsewhere in the same issue. Editorials are usually solicited by the Editor.

Covering the Cover
This Month in GASTROENTEROLOGY is written by the editors of this section. It provides general previews of two clinical articles and two basic articles that appear in the issue and are of particular importance to the GASTROENTEROLOGY readership.

Meeting Summaries
This section includes brief reports of symposia, conferences, and meetings in digestive disease research. They include critical commentary, connections among the presentations, and consensus, if any, that emerged from the meeting. The editors encourage authors of potential meeting summaries to propose submissions for this section in advance of scheduled meetings. To ensure relevance, summaries must been submitted within two months after a meeting.

Mentoring, Education, and Training Corner
This section focuses on the education, development, and support of young learners and protÊgÊs in the field of digestive disease. Expert guest authors will provide reviews on a wide array of topics including career opportunities, steps for success, gender and ethnic diversity, training updates, and balancing home and work life. The material presented in this section will be organized by overarching themes. Submissions are by invitation only, but inquiries by prospective authors will be evaluated.

Brief Reports
Each issue of GASTROENTEROLOGY contains one or more "Brief Reports." Topics of reports may include, but are not limited to, identification of the genetic basis of a disease, a description of a unique case series, novel techniques, new animal models of human disease, and mechanistic insights.Submissions to Brief Reports must adhere to the following guidelines:
• Limit of 1200 words, including figure legends but excluding references.
• Limit of 15 abbreviated references; example: Jones RS et al. Gastroenterology 2011; 2: 373-380 (only first author is listed and article title is not included).
• Limit of 2 figures and/or tables
• Abstract must not exceed 100 words and must NOT include subheadings (Background & Aims, Methods, etc.). The abstract must end with a concluding statement.
• All Brief Reports MUST include a detailed Materials and Methods section as supplemental material (and should be uploaded as the file type "supporting document"). You may have up to 6 supplemental documents, such as figures or tables, but at least one of them must contain Materials & Methods.
• When uploading Brief Reports for submission, please select one of the specific article types: Alimentary Tract; Liver; Pancreas; or Biliary.
• Please note that Gastroenterology's submission fee and page charges apply to Brief Reports.

Selected Summaries
Selected Summaries are concise overviews of articles recently published in other journals that are of potential interest to GASTROENTEROLOGY readers. Contributors are selected by the section editor.

Print and Digital Media Reviews
Print and Media Reviews are informative analyses of recently published books or other media relevant to clinical practice and research. Reviews are solicited by the section editor. Unsolicited reviews may be submitted to the Print and Media Reviews Editor for consideration.

Continuing Medical Education (Reader CME)
Each issue of GASTROENTEROLOGY will contain two to three continuing medical education exams associated with articles that appear in the issue. AGA members can take the exams online free of charge. Non-AGA members are required to pay a $15 processing fee. For CME exams that accompany original articles, readers can claim 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 credit. For CME exams that accompany AGA Institute medical position statements and technical reviews, readers can claim 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 credits.

Reviewer CME

Reviewers of articles for Gastroenterology are eligible to receive 3.0 AMA PRA Category 1 credits per manuscript. The review must receive a passing grade to receive the credits. Contact Thoba Petrovic at for more information.

Author FeesThe following is a complete list of fees authors should expect to pay during the manuscript submission process, as well as during the publication process for their accepted manuscripts.

Submission Fee: As of January 1, 2011, authors submitting original basic or clinical manuscripts to Gastroenterology are required to pay a $75 fee at submission via the journal's manuscript uploading system, Editorial Manager. The submission process cannot be completed until the submission fee is paid. This fee applies ONLY to the following original research manuscript types: Basic-Original Alimentary Tract; Basic-Liver, Pancreas, & Biliary; Clinical-Alimentary Tract; Clinical-Liver, Pancreas & Biliary; and Brief Reports. All other article types, as well as solicited content, are exempt from submission fees. The submission fee applies to first drafts of a manuscript and authors will not be charged again when they submit a revision of the same manuscript.

Page Fees: GASTROENTEROLOGY charges authors of original research articles a fee for each printed page published. This applies to accepted articles that are submitted on or after January 1, 2011. Authors will receive invoices for page charges after the corrected proof of their accepted manuscript has been finalized. Page charges for non-AGA members are $100 per page. AGA members who are first or corresponding author at the time of submission will receive a 15% discount on page charges and pay $85 per page. Page charges apply only to unsolicited originalresearch submitted as one of the following manuscript types: Basic-Original Alimentary Tract; Basic-Liver,Pancreas, & Biliary; Clinical-Alimentary Tract; and Clinical-Liver, Pancreas & Biliary; and Brief Reports. Page charges do notapply to solicited content or online supplemental material.

Color Figure Fee: Authors are required to pay for the printing of color figures ($650 for the first color figure and $100 each for additional figures). If the manuscript is reviewed with color figures, it must be published with color figures with printing fees paid for by the author. If the author does not wish to pay for printing color figures, then thefigures must be uploaded in grayscale or black-and-white only to allow review of the data as they will ultimately bepublished in print. Authors may include color images to be published online only by uploading the color filesseparately as supplemental files.


All manuscripts should be double-spaced and should contain the following sections in the order given below:

Cover Letter
GASTROENTEROLOGY strongly encourages authors to suggest two to five referees (include their email address, phone, and fax numbers) and the associate editor they believe best qualified to review their paper. Authors may also list a non-preferred associate aditor and non-preferred referees, but the ultimate selection of an Associate Editor and referees is at the sole discretion of the editor and associate editor, respectively.

State reasons for deviations, if any, from standard format and clarify any potential conflict related to the exclusive nature of the publication. The cover letter must also categorize the manuscript into one of the following groups: Clinical—Alimentary Tract; Clinical—Liver; Clinical—Pancreas; Clinical—Biliary; Basic and Translational—Alimentary Tract; Basic and Translational—Liver; Basic and Translational—Pancreas; Basic and Translational—Biliary; or Brief Report–Alimentary Tract, Brief Report–Liver, or Brief Report–Pancreas.

Title Page
Title-Include animal species. Use no abbreviations. Limit: 120 characters with spaces.
Short Title-Limit: 45 characters.
Authors-Include first names of all authors and name and full location of department and institution where work was performed.
Grant Support-List grant support and other assistance.
Abbreviations-List alphabetically abbreviations not mentioned in the Style Guide, which follows the Instructions to Authors. (Note: In general, the use of abbreviations is discouraged.)
Correspondence-Provide name, complete address, e-mail address, telephone number, and fax number of corresponding author.
Disclosures-All authors must disclose any potential conflicts (financial, professional, or personal) that are relevant to the manuscript. If the author(s) has nothing to disclose, this must be stated.
Transcript Profiling-Provide accession number of repository for expression microarray data.
Writing Assistance-The names and funding source for individuals who provided writing assistance must be listed.
Author Contributions-List how each author was involved with the manuscript (eg, study concept and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; statistical analysis; obtained funding; administrative, technical, or material support; study supervision).

Abbreviations must be spelled out at least once. Do not use footnotes or references.

Limit: 260 words. Organize according to the following headings: Background & Aims, Methods, Results, Conclusions, and Keywords

Background & Aims: Describe the importance of the study and the precise research objective(s) or study question(s).

Methods: Methods should include information on the following aspects of study design when applicable. The methods section may employ subheadings at the discretion of the author.

-Design-describe the basic study design, e.g., randomized controlled trial, cross sectional study, cohort study, case series, survey, etc. Source of all non-standard reagents need to be explicitly stated.

-Setting-specify whether the study was conducted in a primary or tertiary care setting, in an ambulatory care clinic or hospital, in the general community, etc.

-Participants-indicate the number of study subjects and how they were selected, recruited, and assigned to the intervention.

-Intervention-report the method of administration and duration of the intervention.

Results: Provide the main outcomes of the study including confidence intervals or P values. Report the absolute values and risk differences so that readers can determine the absolute, as well as the relative, impact of the results.

Conclusions: State only conclusions that are directly supported by the evidence and the implications of the findings.

Include 3-4 keywords associated with your manuscript, separated by semicolons (e.g., active vitamin D; parathyroid hormone-related peptide; hypercalcemia; bone resorption). The keywords should be different than the words in the title of your manuscript. Should your manuscript be accepted, the keywords will appear with the published manuscript, making it easier to find in literature search engines such as PubMed.

Video Abstracts
Authors are encouraged to submit video abstracts with their manuscripts at the revision stage. Discussion points include the motivation for undertaking the study, a brief overview of methodology, and the highlights of how the results advance the field of digestive disease. The following guidelines apply:

• Acceptable file formats: MPEG, MOV, AVI, or GIF
• Length does not exceed 5 minutes
• Sound and picture is clear (ensure that you capture the video in a quiet and well-lit environment)
• Video is in English; if your native language is not English, we strongly encourage you to submit TWO versions of your video: one in English and one in your native language.
• Author speaks clearly
• Authors are encouraged to show their laboratories and techniques or procedures related to their study
• Authors must introduce themselves at the beginning of the video, sharing their name and institution
• Content is relevant to accepted manuscript
• Content is free of language that is offensive, defamatory, abusive, profane, and threatening

To submit a video abstract with your manuscript, choose the item type "Video Abstract" on the journal's manuscript management system, Editorial Manager.

Body of Paper
Describe ethical guidelines followed (for human or animal studies); cite approval of institutional human research review committee or animal welfare committee; describe in detail hazardous procedures or chemicals involved, including precautions observed." For studies that are quality improvement (QI) related, authors must include a statement about IRB review in the Methods section. Authors must include one of the two statements: 1) This study received IRB approval, and include protocol number; or 2) This study was exempt from IRB review after institutional IRB review.

Outline statistical methods used.

When describing the results of hypothesis testing, report P values and/or confidence intervals; avoid using phrases such as "not significant."

Identify drugs and chemicals used by generic name (if trademarks are mentioned, manufacturer name and city are given).

All gene and protein names must be written according to NCBI or HUGO nomenclature.

List references using superscripted Arabic numerals by order of appearance in the text.Cite personal communications and unpublished data directly in text without being numbered.
All abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus abbreviations.

Follow GASTROENTEROLOGY requirements for style:

Article (list 3 authors followed by et al):
13. Meltzer SJ, Ahnen DJ, Battifour H, et al. Protooncogene abnormalities in colon cancers and adenomatous polyps. Gastroenterology 1987;92:1174-1180.

18. Day RA. How to write and publish a scientific paper. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information, 1979.

Article in Book:
22. Costa M, Furness JB, Llewellyn-Smith IF. Histochemistry of the enteric nervous system. In: Johnson LR, ed. Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Volume 1. 2nd ed. New York: Raven, 1987:1-40.

For revised manuscripts, the authors need to check all the citations in the Reference Section. For all listed citations with two or more authors who share first authorship, GASTROENTEROLOGY stipulates those authors' names to be in bold type. It is the corresponding and first authors' responsibility to ensure that these names appear in bold in the reference section when submitting a revised draft (first drafts of submissions are exempt from this requirement). This allows giving due credit to joint-first- authors (see the "Comment from the Editor" in the October 2012 issue of GASTROENTEROLOGY for more on this topic). Also, please include the phrase "Author names in bold designate shared co-first authorship" at the end of the references section if you have citations that have joint first authors. Example: (Smith T, Jones R, Davis G, et al. Article title). For Brief Reports, where only the first author is listed followed by et al, please list the joint co-first authors in bold lettering follow by et al (Smith T, Jones R, et al. Journal name...).

Tables may either be uploaded separately from the manuscript or embedded in the file that contains your manuscript. Most table editor programs can be placed within the manuscript file successfully. Tables should be prepared without the use of tabs.

For additional information regarding journal guidelines for figure submissions, please see our Figure Submission FAQs

Images: Images can be clinical, pathologic (gross or microscopic), endoscopic, or radiographic. They should be of high quality (300 ppi or greater, clear, and in good focus) and illustrate the diagnosis well.

Photographs: Remove all names and all other patient identifiers from photos and radiographic studies.

Line Art and Graphs: Graphs, charts and other line art may be reformatted and/or redrawn by our Graphics staff for consistency with the overall style of the AGA Institute journals. Please be sure that any graphs or line art you submit are at a resolution of at least 300 ppi so that they are readable to reviewers. 3-D style is not accepted.

Figure Legends: Please do not embed or flatten the text into the image files. Figure legends should be included in the manuscript body, immediately before the references, or typed and submitted in .doc (Word document) or .rtf (rich text format). This text will be reformatted in the style of the AGA Institute journals.

Gel electrophoresis labels: Protein molecular weight or DNA marker sizes must be indicated on all figure panels showing gel electrophoresis.

Preferred Figure File Formats: The preferred formats for figure files are tiff (.tif) and jpeg (.jpg). For questions regarding the conversion of other file formats to .jpg or .tif, please view our Figure Submission FAQs.

Accepted Figure File Formats: Other acceptable file formats include: .bmp, .gif, .pbm, .pcx, .png, .pct, .msp, .tif, .eps, .xbm, .psd, .ai, .indd, .pdf, and .tga files. When sending image files, please do not embed them in Word. You may submit mixed file formats (image1.jpg, image2.tif, image3.eps, etc.).

Image File Formats not Supported at this Time: Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets, ChemDraw, CorelDraw, Canvas, FreeHand, SigmaPlot, QuarkXpress, and Equation Editor. You may export image files from these programs as PDF, JPEG, or other acceptable file formats. For questions regarding the conversion of these file formats to our preferred formats, please view our Figure Submission FAQs.

File Naming Convention: Figures should be named consecutively such as "figure 1.tif," "figure 2.jpg," etc., with the file extension appended (.tif, .jpg, .eps, etc). Each figure should be saved as a separate electronic file.

Color Files: Figures should be submitted in the CMYK color space. Authors are encouraged to present color figures in a manner that will allow the data to be interpreted by colorblind readers. GASTROENTEROLOGY suggests that authors present dual-labeled images in green and magenta rather than in green and red. See the website of the Jfly data depository for Drosophila researchers ( ) for more information on how to make figures and presentations intelligible for a colorblind audience.

Font: If your figures include text, an 8 to 10 point font should be used. Acceptable fonts are "sans serif" fonts such as Helvetica, Arial, and Myriad. Examples of unacceptable fonts ("serif" fonts) are Times New Roman, Palatino, and Garamond. Lettering should begin with an upper case letter, followed by lower case lettering.

Multiple Panel Figures: Please submit each panel (image) separately. However, you may submit a multiple panel version to suggest the order in which you would like the panels arranged. You may also include a written, suggested layout. Each individual panel should be of the highest possible quality (300 ppi or higher) at actual print size.

Supplemental Material
We encourage you to submit non-essential figures or portions of your manuscript as supplementary material for online-only publication, as our readership highly values supplementary materials. However, please note that the following items MUST be within the main text and not provided as supplemental information. 1) important materials and methods 2) references cited in the main text. Exceptions that may be included in the supplemental information include tables of primers or antibodies with legends in such tables describing details of the use of such reagents. Also, authors who offer supplementary information must ensure those materials are readily available upon request.

The portions of your manuscript that you would like to be included as supplementary material (including figures and tables) should be uploaded separately from the manuscript as "supporting documents." The supplementary material will not appear in the PDF, though there will be a link to access the file in the PDF of your submission.


In according with the guidelines set for by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), authors of manuscripts involving clinical trials must provide full registration of their clinical trial(s). A clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. The trial must have at least one prospectively assigned concurrent control or comparison group in order to trigger the requirement for registration.
Appropriate online registries include,,,, or any primary registers that participate in the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Platform.
The clinical trial registry web site and the clinical trial number must be included at the end of the "Conclusions" section in the abstract (this information will not count toward the 260 word limit). Example: number, NCT002209456. This information must also be provided in the manuscript management system upon submission.

Randomized Controlled Trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on Manuscripts that fail to comply with CONSORT guidelines will not be reviewed for publication.
Access to Study Data
In the methods section, a statement must be made that all authors had access to the study data and had reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
Authors must submit, as a separate attachment, the study protocol.


GASTROENTEROLOGY requires all meta-analyses of genetic studies to follow the Human Genome Epidemiology Network (HuGENet) guidelines. To review the guidelines, go to .


Authors are expected to make available materials such as cell lines, cDNA clones, hybridomas, antibodies, biological reagents, unique animals, etc. to any qualified investigator. Prior to the submission of newly cloned genes or nucleic acid sequences, the Journal requires authors to provide an accession number to a publicly accessible, recognized data repository (e.g. GenBank) on the title page of the manuscript.

Transcript profiling (expression microarray) data must be submitted to an appropriate repository (either NCBI's GEO or EBI's ArrayExpress). The data should preferably be MIAME compliant ( ). The repository URL and the data accession number must be included, both in the body of the manuscript, and the manuscript management system, upon submission. The full dataset must be available to reviewers either via a download link or on a data disk (5 copies).

Other large datasets produced using genomics technologies (including but not limited to ChIP on Chip, Genotyping, aCGH and Tilling Arrays) must be deposited in an appropriate public repository. Please include the repository URL and the data accession number, both in the body of the manuscript and the manuscript management system, upon submission. If there is no public repository for the submitted data, it is the author's responsibility to provide permanent publicly accessible links to the raw data and access for the reviewers.

Chemical Compounds: Authors must furnish information about the identity and purity of new chemical compounds. Experimental details and characterization data should be provided in either the main text or as supplemental material. Experimental details should be sufficient to allow other researchers to reproduce the synthesis of the compound.

These guidelines are a means of encouraging the free exchange of scientific information and to promote progress in all areas of gastroenterological investigation.


Submissions. Submit your manuscript to the Journal's manuscript management system, Editorial Manager, at The Editorial Office receives over 2,000 manuscripts a year. Each new manuscript receives a unique number, and information on the manuscript is recorded on the Editorial Office computer network. The editorial staff releases information on manuscripts only to authors. The Editorial Office will e-mail a letter to the corresponding author acknowledging receipt of a manuscript, whether new or a resubmission.

Review process. Each manuscript is assigned to an associate editor who has expertise on the subject of the manuscript. After review by the associate editor, if the manuscript is judged to be appropriate and competitive for publication in GASTROENTEROLOGY, it is sent to experts in the appropriate area for peer review. The associate editor chooses two to four reviewers, who remain anonymous. Authors are encouraged to suggest an associate editor and four to six reviewers in the cover letter, though final assignments are at the discretion of the handling editor.

Reviewers provide comments for the editor and for the authors. The Journal expects reviewers to treat manuscripts as confidential communications and not to use the content for their own purposes or make copies of the manuscripts. Reviewers are also expected to declare to the editor any possible conflicts of interest.

Decisions. The single most important criterion for acceptance is the originality of the work. However, a decision to accept a manuscript is not based solely on the scientific validity of its content. Other factors affecting decisions include the extent and importance of new information in the paper compared with that in other papers being considered, perceived impact, the Journal's need to represent a wide range of topics, and the overall suitability for GASTROENTEROLOGY. Decision letters usually, but not always, convey all factors considered for a particular decision. Occasionally, the comments to the authors may appear to be inconsistent with the editorial decision, which takes into consideration reviewers' comments to the editor, as well as the additional factors listed above.

Decisions on peer-reviewed papers are e-mailed to the authors an average of three weeks from the date of submission. We make every effort to contact authors within 3-7 days for manuscripts that are rejected internally without review. All manuscripts are evaluated promptly by at least two members of the board of editors prior to making such decisions. Because our overall acceptance rate is 10-12%, typically 60-65% of submissions are rejected internally, and editors are not able to answer any pre-submission inquiries from authors.Fast-Track Review for Manuscripts Rejected by High-Profile Journals

Gastroenterology offers a "fast-track review" option for clinical and basic research manuscripts that were previously submitted to and turned down by similar high-profile journals that publish cutting-edge, impactful research. Authors who qualify for and are interested in this option may submit their manuscript to Gastroenterology as was submitted with the other journal, but together with the decision letter (that includes all the reviewer comments) from the previous journal (a scan of the entire original decision letter email would need to be included without any changes to the decision letter). We advise authors considering this option to use their best judgment in determining what constitutes a high-profile journal, and to also consider the nature of the reviews they have on hand; if they are unlikely to be able to address them then it is also unlikely that we will be able to accept this work. Please note that Gastroenterology is unable to evaluate pre-submission inquiries regarding routine manuscripts that do not qualify for fast-track review consideration.

Upon receiving a manuscript submitted for fast-track review, Gastroenterology's Board of Editors will make a decision within 5-14 days that will include one of the following outcomes: (1) The authors will receive a decision letter asking for a revised manuscript based on both the reviews from the previous journal and any additional comments raised by the board of editors or consulting editors of Gastroenterology (including our statistical editors). (2) The editors may decide that the manuscript requires additional peer review and send it to additional invited reviewers (who will not see the reviews from the other journal), without guarantee of ultimate acceptance (the authors will be promptly made aware of this). (3) The authors will be informed that their manuscript did not meet the selection criteria for Gastroenterology that is needed for further evaluation. For these papers, we will inquire with our sister journals, CGH or CMGH (depending on the focus of the manuscript), whether they would consider reviewing the manuscript for potential publication, after which the authors will decide how to proceed. We aim to make this process as swift as possible so our authors receive a prompt but thoroughly vetted decision.

To submit a clinical or basic research manuscript for fast-track review consideration, please select either the "Solicited Fast Track—Basic" or "Solicited Fast Track—Clinical" article type when uploading your submission, and follow the instructions on the page. Manuscripts uploaded as this article type that were not previously been reviewed by another high-profile journal will be automatically returned to the author. Other article types such as reviews, letters to the editor, clinical challenges, etc. do not qualify for fast-track review status. For any questions, please contact our editorial office at


Accepted manuscripts are sent to the publisher, Elsevier, and are indexed on PubMed soon after acceptance. Within three to five business days, they will be uploaded to GASTROENTEROLOGY online ( under "Articles in Press" for preprint viewing by subscribers. Once authors have had the opportunity to review proofs of their manuscripts, these author-corrected proofs will replace the uncorrected proofs, followed by the final articles on PubMed.

There is a press embargo for all studies published in Gastroenterology until they are posted online in our Articles in Press section as a CORRECTED proof. Studies cannot be publicized as accepted manuscripts or uncorrected proofs. In the event a corrected proof is not posted online, the embargo will lift on the first day of the scheduled month of publication. Please see our embargo policy at for more details.

Manuscripts are copyedited to make them consistent with Journal style; if a particular section in the manuscript is not clear or requires additional information, the copy editor will direct questions to the author. These questions, or "author queries," will appear in the margins of the proofs that are sent to the author. All abstracts and titles will be reviewed and possibly modified by the Journal's science editor. Authors can review changes at the Accept with Revision stage of their manuscripts. All line art will be reviewed and possibly modified by the Journal's graphics staff. Authors can review changes at the proof stage of their manuscripts.

The time between acceptance and print publication is approximately three months. The corresponding author can expect proofs of the article approximately two months after acceptance. Authors receive proofs for the primary purpose of checking the accuracy of the typesetting; authors are not to revise or rewrite their articles at this stage. If after acceptance of their paper, authors become aware of important information they believe should be added to their manuscript, they should contact the editor of GASTROENTEROLOGY.

Authors are required to return proofs to the publisher within 48 hours. If changes are not returned within 48 hours, the manuscript will move forward in the production process.

Reprints. Forms for ordering article reprints will be sent with proofs to authors and should be returned with the corrected proofs. Authors do not receive free reprints, and therefore are responsible for ordering their own reprints (minimum order, 100) from the publisher.


The address for correspondence is: M. Bishr Omary, MD, PhD, Editor, GASTROENTEROLOGY, AGA, 4930 Del Ray Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3015; e-mail:; tel: 301-654-2055, ext 681; fax: 301-654-1140

Updated January 2013