Guide for Authors
The Formosan Journal of Surgery is the peer-reviewed journal of the Taiwan Surgical Association, based in Taipei, Taiwan. TheJournal is published every 2 months, with a total of 6 issues a year.
Articles on clinical and basic research that are of interest to the surgical profession are eligible for consideration. TheJournal invites submission of original articles, review articles, mini-review articles, case reports, surgeon at work, imagesfor surgeons, meeting reports, short communications and letters to the editor that focus on the clinical, experimental andhistorical aspects of surgery and related science.
The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted toBiomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org and http://www.surgery.org.tw/SURGERY/Default.aspx
1. Manuscript SubmissionThe Journal accepts online submissions at http://www.surgery.org.tw/SURGERY/Default.aspx or e-mail submissionsto firstname.lastname@example.org. If assistance is needed, the EditorialOffice can be contacted.
Editorial Office1.1. Important information
Formosan Journal of Surgery
3F., No. 31, Section 5, Nanjing East Road, Taipei 105, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-27697845 ext 15
Fax: (+886) 2-27467149
• Articles submitted should be in Microsoft Word documentformat and prepared in the simplest form possible. Wewill add in the correct font, font size, margins and so onaccording to the journal's style.
• You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT useother kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, endnotes,headers and footers.
• Put text, references, and table/figure legends in one file.
• Figures must be submitted as separate picture files,at the correct resolution of a minimum of 300 dpi forhalftone images, 600 dpi for combination art (halftone+ line art), and 1000 dpi for line art. The files should benamed according to the figure number and format, e.g.,"Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".
Please ensure that the following documents are included(refer also to the checklist that follows these authorinstructions):(1) A cover letter. It must include your name, address, telephoneand fax numbers, and e-mail address, and state that allauthors have contributed to the paper and have never submittedthe manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals. Yoursignature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
(2) A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevantsection below).(3) A copyright transfer statement. You may use the formthat follows these author instructions.
(4) Articles covering the use of human samples in researchand human experiments must be accompanied by a letter ofapproval from the relevant review committee (see relevantsection below).(5) Articles covering the use of animals in experiments mustbe accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevantauthorities.
(6) Articles where human subjects can be identifiedin descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must beaccompanied by a signed statement of informed consent topublish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographsand pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (seerelevant section below).(7) Where material has been reproduced from other copyrightedsources, the letter(s) of permission from thecopyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must besupplied.
2. Disclosure of Conflicts of InterestAll authors are required to sign and submit the followingfinancial disclosure statement at the time of manuscriptsubmission:
- I certify that all my affiliations with or financial involvementin, within the past 5 years and foreseeable future,any organization or entity with a financial interest inor financial conflict with the subject matter or materialsdiscussed in the manuscript are completely disclosed(e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownershipor options, expert testimony, grants or patents receivedor pending, royalties).
3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed ConsentFor human or animal experimental investigations, appropriateinstitutional review board or ethics committee approvalis required, and such approval should be stated in themethods section of the manuscript. For those investigatorswho do not have formal ethics review committees, theprinciples outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki shouldbe followed (World Medical Association. Declaration ofHelsinki: ethical principles for medical research involvinghuman subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html).
For investigation of human subjects, state explicitlyin the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adultsubjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors orincapacitated adults, together with the manner in whichinformed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).
4. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographsand PedigreesA signed statement of informed consent to publish (inprint and online) patient descriptions, photographs andpedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents orlegal guardians for minors) who can be identified (includingby the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions,photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown themanuscript before its submission. Omitting data or makingdata less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, butchanging any such data is not acceptable.
5. Previous Publication or Duplicate SubmissionSubmitted manuscripts are considered with theunderstanding that they have not been published previouslyin print or electronic format (except in abstract or posterform) and are not under consideration in totality or in partby another publication or electronic medium.
6. Basic CriteriaArticles should be written in English (using American Englishspelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the materialis original, the information is important, the writing is clearand concise, the study methods are appropriate, the dataare valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supportedby the data.
7. Categories of Articles7.1. Review Articles
These should aim to provide the reader with a balancedoverview of an important and topical subject in the field,and should be systematic and critical assessments ofliterature and data sources. They should cover aspects of atopic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspectsthat remain controversial and are the subject of ongoingscientific research. All articles and data sources reviewedshould include information about the specific type of studyor analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and testsor outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selectedsystematically for inclusion in the review and criticallyevaluated. The text should not exceed 4500 words, andthere should be no more than 50 references. By invitationonly. The format for review articles will be jointly decidedby the Editors and the contributing author.
7.2. Original Articles7.3. Mini-review Articles
These articles typically include randomized trials, interventionstudies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests,laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectivenessanalyses, case-control studies, and surveys withhigh response rates, which represent new and significantcontributions to the field.
Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction,Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable),Conflicts of Interest (if any), and References.
The Introduction should provide a brief background tothe subject of the paper, explain the importance of thestudy, and state a precise study question or purpose.
The Methods section should describe the study designand methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, ordata sources and how these were selected for the study,patient samples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratorymethods followed), and state the statistical proceduresemployed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study resultspresented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tablesand/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat datathat are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasizeand summarize the essential features of any interventions,the main outcome measures, and the main results.
The Discussion section should be used to emphasize thenew and important aspects of the study, placing the results incontext with published literature, the implications of the findings,and the conclusions that follow from the study results.
The text should not exceed 3500 words, and there shouldbe no more than 30 references.
A mini-review article is a critical assessment and short reviewof an issue in research or clinical practice. Systematicmethods for inclusion of all data sources and critical reviewof those sources should be described in the paper. There isno fixed format for mini-review articles. However, an Englishabstract of no more than 250 words and 3-5 keywordsshould be included. The text should be between 1000 and2000 words. The maximum number of references is 30. Onlya single author is allowed, and the author should have publishedin a SCI-indexed journal.
7.4. Case Reports7.5. Surgeon at Work
These are short discussions of a case or case series withunique features not previously described that make an importantteaching point or scientific observation. They maydescribe novel techniques, novel use of equipment, or newinformation on diseases of importance. Section headingsshould be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion,Acknowledgments (if applicable), Conflicts of Interest (ifany), and References.
The Introduction should describe the purpose of thepresent report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.
The Case Report should include the general data ofthe case, medical history, family history, chief complaint,present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosisand treatment, and outcome.
The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss thesimilarities and differences between the reported case andsimilar cases reported in other published articles. The importanceor specificity of the case should be restated whendiscussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosisof the disease and possibility of prevention.
There should be no more than 6 authors, the text shouldnot exceed 2000 words, and there should be no more than10 references.
These articles should provide unique information about anoperation or procedure that has an impact on the clinical practice of surgeons, or a "how to do it". The text shouldnot exceed 1200 words, including artwork as needed. Thereshould be no more than 5 references.
7.6. Images for Surgeons7.7. Meeting Reports
These may include X-rays, pathology photographs, imagestaken in the operating room, or other relevant clinical picturesof unusual findings of surgical diseases, typical featuresof uncommon diseases, and rare presentations or findingsof common surgical problems. Images with relevant history,clinical and laboratory findings, details of (any) surgical interventionand outcomes should be presented. Descriptionsof the images must be included in the text. All informationthat could identify patients in the images must be removedbefore they are submitted. There should be no more than5 references.
These are reports and comments on recent surgicalmeetings and should explain the importance of the surgicalmeetings.
7.8. Short Communications7.9. Letters to the Editor
These reports should be concise presentations of clinical orpreliminary experimental results. The abstract should notexceed 250 words. The text should not exceed 1200 words,with no more than four figures or tables and no more than10 references. The editors reserve the right to decide whatconstitutes a Short Communication.
Letters are welcome in response to previously publishedarticles, and may also include interesting cases that donot meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, andother communications of general interest. Letters shouldhave a title and include appropriate references (maximumof 5), and include the author's mailing and e-mail addresses.The text should not exceed 500 words. Letters are edited,sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. Theymay be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editors.Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, andspace.
8. Manuscript PreparationText should be typed double-spaced on one side of whiteA4 (297 x 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm.The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text,acknowledgments, conflicts of interest statement, references,and figures and tables as appropriate. Each sectionof the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages shouldbe numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.
8.1. Title Page• category of paper
The title page should contain the following information (inorder, from the top to bottom of the page):
• article title
• names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and the institutionswith which they are affiliated
• running title not exceeding 50 characters
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address,telephone and fax numbers)
*The name of each author should be written with the familyname last, e.g., Jing-Long Huang. Authorship is restrictedonly to direct participants who have contributed signifi-cantly to the work.8.2. Abstract
Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstractsfor Original Articles should be structured, with thesection headings: Background/Introduction, Purpose(s)/Aim(s), Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for CaseReports are unstructured, but should include the signifi-cance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnosticmethods of the case, the key data, and brief comments andsuggestions with regard to the case. For Review Articles,Original Articles, Mini-review Articles, Case Reports andShort Communications, 3-5 relevant keywords should alsobe provided in alphabetical order.
8.3. Main Text8.3.1. Abbreviations
The text for Original Articles should be organized into sectionsas follows: Background/Introduction, Purpose(s)/Aim(s), Methods, Results and Discussion. Sections for CaseReports are: Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion.Each section should begin on a new page.
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, itmust be written in full when it first appears in the text, followedby the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter,the abbreviation may be used. Restrict the number ofabbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.
8.3.2. Units8.3.3. Names of Drugs, Devices and Other Products
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exceptionof blood pressure values which are to be reportedin mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expressionof length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to begiven in degrees Celsius.
The generic term should be used, unless the specifictrade name is directly relevant to the discussion. Where acommercial product is referred to, the manufacturer andits location should be provided the first time it is mentionedin the text, for example, "...SPSS version 11 was used (SPSSInc., Chicago, IL, USA)."
8.3.4. Statistical Requirements8.3.5. Acknowledgments
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papersexcept case reports. Use correct nomenclature for statisticalmethods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpairedt test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scalesused in data description. Inferential statistics are importantfor interpreting results and should be described indetail.
All p values should be expressed to 2 digits to the right ofthe decimal point, unless p < 0.01, in which case the p valueshould be expressed to 3 digits to the right of the decimalpoint. The smallest p value that should be expressedis p < 0.001, since additional zeros do not convey usefulinformation; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.
General acknowledgments for consultations, statisticalanalysis, etc., should be listed concisely at the end ofthe text, including the names of the individuals who weredirectly involved. Consent should be obtained from thoseindividuals before their names are listed in this section.
All financial and material support for the research andwork from internal or external agencies, including commercialcompanies, should be clearly and completely identified. Ensure that any financial and non-financial conflicts ofinterest are explicitly declared.8.4. References
8.4.1. In the Main Text, Tables, Figure Legends8.4.2. In the References Section
• References should be identified using superscripted numbers,and numbered consecutively in order of appearancein the text; the numbers should be placed after periodsand commas and before colons and semicolons.
• References cited in tables or figure legends should be includedin sequence at the point where the table or figureis first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yetbeen accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation","personal communication") as references.
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only availablereference to an important concept.
• References should be limited to those cited in thetext and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order.
• References should include, in order, authors' surnamesand initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year,volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names andinitials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, butwhen authors number 7 or more, list the first 3 authorsonly followed by "et al".
• Abbreviations for journal names should conform to thoseused in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information, articletitle, website address and the date you accessed theinformation.
• Reference to an article that is in press must state thejournal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completenessof their references and for correct text citation.Examples are given below.
Standard journal articlesQuintini C, D'Amico G, Brown C, et al. Splenic artery embolizationfor the treatment of refractory ascites after livertransplantation. Liver Transpl. 2011;17:668-673.
Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A,Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donorand recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. Int Angiol.2011;30:247-255.
Journal supplementJournal article not in English but with English abstract
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor andtherapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? JCardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(suppl 3):S78-80.
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient withcerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka.2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]
BookBook chapter in book with editor and edition
Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management. Philadelphia:Saunders; 1982:72-95.
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: UnderwoodJCE, ed. General and Systematic Pathology. 4th ed.London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004:615-672.
World Health Organization. World Health Report 2002: ReducingRisk, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organization; 2002.
Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, eds. Stress:Current Neuroendocrine and Genetic Approaches. 8th Symposiumon Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters inStress, June 28-July 3, 2003, Smolenice Castle, Slovakia.New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 2004.
Ayers AJ. Retention of Resin Restorations by Means ofEnamel Etching and by Pins [MSD thesis]. Indianapolis:Indiana University; 1971.
Wisdom Teeth. American Association of Oral and MaxillofacialSurgeons Web site. http://www.aaoms.org/wisdom_teeth.php. Accessed November 15, 2008.
Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet8.5. Tables
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. CatalogNo. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977:2-3.
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. Theyshould have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory,and numbered consecutively in the order of their citationin the text. Information requiring explanatory footnotesshould be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters inalphabetical order (a, b, c, etc.). Abbreviations used in thetable must be defined and placed after the footnotes. Ifyou include a block of data or table from another source,whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledgethe original source.
8.6. Figures9. The Editorial and Peer Review Process
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimumnecessary to support the textual material. They should havean informative figure legend and be numbered in the orderof their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviationsshould be defined in the legend. Patient identificationshould be obscured. All lettering should be done professionallyand should be in proportion to the drawing, graphor photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, the type of specimen, original magnificationand stain.
Figures must be submitted as separate picture files (TIF,JPG, etc.) at the correct resolution of a minimum of 300 dpifor halftone images, 600 dpi for combination art (halftone+ line art), and 1000 dpi for line art. The files should benamed according to the figure number and format, e.g.,"Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".
The cost of color illustrations will be charged to theauthor.
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledgedwithin 2 weeks of submission, and authors willbe provided with a manuscript reference number for futurecorrespondence. If such an acknowledgment is not receivedin a reasonable period of time, the author should contactthe Editorial Office.Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief,who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscriptdoes not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriatefor the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejectedwithout review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returnedto authors unless requested.
Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensurethat it contains all parts. The Editorial Office will notaccept a submission if the author has not supplied all partsof the manuscript and supporting documents as outlined inthese instructions.
Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate forthe Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Boardmembers or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. Authors will usually be notified within 10 weeks ofwhether the submitted article is accepted for publication,rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However,do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.10. Preparation for Publication
Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to theJournal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDFfile are e-mailed by the Publisher to the correspondingauthor for final approval. Authors are responsible for allstatements made in their work, including changes madeby the copy editor.11. Publication Charges and Reprints
The journal will bear the cost of publication for articles of7 printed pages or less for Original Articles, and 5 printedpages or less for Case Reports and Short Communications.Authors will be charged for the cost of extra pagesat US$150/page. Authors will also be charged US$75 perillustration, figure or table that is in color. For manuscriptsthat require extensive English editing, authors will becharged for the correction of English grammar at US$20/page.12. Copyright
Authors receive 10 stapled offprints of their articlesfree of charge, which will be sent by the Editorial Office tothe corresponding author. Additional professional reprints(which include a cover page for the article) may be orderedat prices based on the cost of production. The reprintorder form is available from the Journal's website at www.e-fjs.com.
The Formosan Journal of Surgery is the official peer-reviewedpublication of the Taiwan Surgical Association (theProprietor), Taipei, Taiwan. Published manuscripts becomethe permanent property of the Proprietor and maynot be published elsewhere in any form without writtenpermission.•Checklist •Copyright Form