Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    Editorial and Introduction
    • Aims and Scope
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Editors
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • NEW SUBMISSIONS
    • References
    • Formatting requirements
    • REVISED SUBMISSIONS
    • LaTeX
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Keywords
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and units
    • Database linking
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Journal Abbreviations Source
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Interactive plots
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Your Paper Your Way
    your paper your way



    Editorial

    New procedures for articles reporting thermophysical properties

    Fluid Phase Equilibria, along with other journals in the field, established collaboration with the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 for the purpose of ensuring the quality of published experimental data. In a joint statement [1], the editors of the five journals involved set out the rational for the cooperation in terms of helping to ensure that authors and reviewers were made aware of any previously-published literature values for the properties and systems in question. The process involved NIST 'capturing' the new experimental data, comparing it against existing values in the NIST data archive and providing a report that: (a) listed relevant literature sources; and (b) highlighted any obvious discrepancies in the new data.

    In order to streamline the process and to further enhance the quality of published articles, we are now introducing one change to the way in which the NIST cooperation is implemented. Effective in February 2013, responsibility for preparing a Literature Report will shift from NIST to the submitting authors. Submitting authors will be able to prepare their own Literature Report by using ThermoLit, a publicly available (http://trc.nist.gov/thermolit/) program. This will eliminate NIST's role in providing this report, and thus speed the review process and provide added benefit to authors who will have literature citation results on hand at a stage when they can do the most good. Please, note that use of ThermoLit is designed as an aid to the traditional required literature review and must not be used as a substitute.

    NIST will continue to provide a data evaluation at the end of the review process, immediately prior to final acceptance of the article. This data evaluation will compare the reported experimental data with that existing in the NIST Data Archive and highlight any unexpectedly large discrepancies, such as those arising from typographical errors. Though the data evaluation step has not changed, we will use this opportunity for a reminder that experimental results and their uncertainties must be tabulated in the way described in the Guide for Authors. A key feature is that tables be self-contained and include the uncertainties of all reported quantities (variables, constraints, and properties). In addition, we have incorporated new standards relating to the description of chemical samples and we encourage authors to present details of their samples in an easily-readable tabular form. To assist authors, a large number of example tables have been prepared by NIST and are available (http://trc.nist.gov/FPE-Support.html).

    The new procedures will provide literature citations to authors before submission of their manuscript and speed the review process. Indeed, authors are encouraged to use ThermoLit in advance of experiments to help minimize duplication of effort. In 2012, new IUPAC guidelines for the reporting of phase equilibrium measurements were published (Pure Appl. Chem. 2012, 84(8), 1785-1813), and the requirements of this journal are consistent with these recommendations. Prior to submission, authors are strongly encouraged to review a checklist based on these recommendations, which is available (http://trc.nist.gov/FPE-Support.html). We are certain that the new Literature Report tool and the procedures described here will further enhance the already high quality of articles published in Fluid Phase Equilibria.

    Th.W. de Loos, Editor
    Clare McCabe, Editor
    J.P. O'Connell, Editor

    References
    1. P.T. Cummings, Th.W. de Loos, J.P. O'Connell, Fluid Phase Equilibria 276 (2009) 1165-1166.

    Aims and Scope

    Fluid Phase Equilibria publishes high quality papers dealing with experimental, theoretical and applied research related to equilibrium and transport properties of fluid and solid phases.

    The fluid phase properties of interest include:
    PVT, enthalpies, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients, Gibbs and Helmholtz energies, chemical potentials, activity and fugacity coefficients, critical properties, chemical equilibria, multiphase equilibria and interfacial properties, thermal conductivity, viscosity and rheological properties, and diffusion coefficients.

    A wide range of pure and mixed fluids may be considered:
    Non-polar and polar small organic and inorganic molecules, ions, metals, polymers, surfactants, ionic liquids, gas hydrates, complex and biological molecules (e.g. proteins). Fluids should be well-characterized with respect to composition, or be specified with sufficient information for the experimental results to be reproduced (e.g. analysed by up-to-date techniques, or mixtures that can be obtained through a well-established published protocol).

    Experimental measurements:
    Unless they are accompanied by contemporary or new theory, papers will be refused if they report experimental data only at pressures and temperatures close to ambient on any of the following liquid or liquid mixture properties: viscosity; density; speed of sound; refractive index; surface tension. Similarly, papers will be refused if they only report phase equilibrium compositions, such as solubilities, at conditions near ambient without theoretical analysis and interpretation. All data reports and analyses will be examined by NIST for consistency with the requirements posted at http://trc.nist.gov/FPE-Support.html

    Theoretical and modeling studies:
    Theoretical techniques may be chemical thermodynamics, applied statistical mechanics, molecular physics, molecular simulation, quantum chemistry, applied mathematics. Papers with new models, or modifications of available models, are expected to show comparisons for accuracy and predictive ability with applicable data and contemporary existing models.

    All modeling of properties and phenomena based on artificial neural networks, machine learning algorithms, and similar information processing approaches will only be considered when comparisons of accuracy are made with existing physically-based models or if no thermodynamic models are available. Further, the work must describe the procedure well enough that readers may be able to independently reproduce the results.

    Important announcement regarding submission of manuscripts reporting experimental results Click here

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $2600, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    The only method of submission to this journal is through the online Elsevier Editorial System (EES). Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article. Via the online submission site of this journal (http://ees.elsevier.com/fluid) you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.

    Special instructions for manuscripts reporting experimental results

    Editors

    When submitting, please select one of the Editors below.

    Prof. C. McCabe
    Dept. of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
    308A Olin Hall, PMB-351604
    Vanderbilt University
    2301 Vanderbilt Place
    Nashville TN 37235, USA

    Dr. ir. Theo W. de Loos
    Associate Professor Physical Chemistry and Molecular Thermodynamics
    Process and Energy Department
    Delft University of Technology
    Leeghwaterstraat 39
    2628 CB Delft
    The Netherlands

    Prof. John P. O'Connell
    H.D. Forsyth Professor
    Department of Chemical Engineering
    University of Virginia
    102 Engineer's Way
    P.O. Box 400741
    Charlottesville, VA 22904-4741,USA Referees

    Please submit the names, full affiliations (department, institution, city and country) and email addresses of five potential Referees. Appropriate reviewers should be knowledgeable about the subject but have no close connection with any of the authors. At least three reviewers must be from outside the lead author's geographical region. Suggested reviewers must not be former co-authors or colleagues and must be from institutions other than those of any of the Authors. You may also name reviewers that you do not want to review your manuscript and state your reasons for doing so.

    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements

    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
    If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
    Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    Figures and tables embedded in text
    Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Use of word processing software
    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    LaTeX

    You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class elsarticle.cls (http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/elsarticle) to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX (http://www.bibtex.org) to generate your bibliography.
    For detailed submission instructions, templates and other information on LaTeX, see http://www.elsevier.com/latex.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Materials and Methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. In the case of experimental papers the numerical purity (mass fraction or mole fraction) of the investigated substances should be indicated, as well as the method of purity determination, if known. Any subsequent purification of the sample, such as distillation, crystallization, drying, etc., should be described.
    Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Theory/calculation
    A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Nomenclature
    Authors must provide a Nomenclature, to be published between the text of the paper and the list of references. The Nomenclature should be a list of all mathematical symbols in one column and their definitions with units, preferably including the equation number of first use, in an adjacent column. The symbols should follow the notation of the IUPAC, “Quantities, Units, and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, 2nd Ed.”, http://old.iupac.org/publications/books/gbook/green_book_2ed.pdf. In addition, all unusual abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper should be included in the Nomenclature. Authors should also consider defining symbols and acronyms when first used within the paper.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights
    Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please include 3 to 5 bullet points (max. 85 characters per bullet point including spaces). See http://www.elsevier.com/researchhighlights for examples.

    Note: for Asian authors, interpreting a character as a word, max 85 characters per bullet point corresponds with approx. 20 words max per bullet point.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Nomenclature and units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAC: Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: http://www.iupac.org/ for further information.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Non-electronic artwork
    Provide all illustrations as high-quality printouts, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) without retouching. Number illustrations consecutively in the order in which they are referred to in the text. They should accompany the manuscript, but should not be included within the text. Clearly mark all illustrations on the back (or - in case of line drawings - on the lower front side) with the figure number and the author's name and, in cases of ambiguity, the correct orientation.
    Mark the appropriate position of a figure in the article.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
    List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    [1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    [2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    [3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.

    Journal Abbreviations Source

    Journal names should be abbreviated according to
    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS): http://www.cas.org

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Interactive plots

    This journal encourages you to include data and quantitative results as interactive plots with your publication. To make use of this feature, please include your data as a CSV (comma-separated values) file when you submit your manuscript. Please refer to http://www.elsevier.com/interactiveplots for further details and formatting instructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    At the time the issue which includes your article is about to be printed, you will receive your offprint in an electronic form at, i.e. a PDF file, via e-mail. Not only should an electronic offprint mean ease of use to you, but more so it will significantly decrease delivery time, and therefore we would hope you receive a better service from us. Authors wishing to order additional paid reprints should indicate the number of reprints required when returning proofs.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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