Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Requirements for Specific Article Types
    • Contact Information
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in Publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Authorship
    • Changes to Authorship
    • Reporting clinical trials
    • Registration of Clinical Trials (ICMJE)
    • Copyright
    • Role of the Funding Source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open Access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    PREPARATION
    • Use of Wordprocessing Software
    • LaTeX
    • Article structure
    • Essential Title Page Information
    • Structured Abstract
    • Keywords
    • Acknowledgements
    • Units
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • Supplemental data
    • Submission Checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    • Standards for reporting research
    • General Information
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES


    Only those manuscripts which are original, have not been published elsewhere, and are not currently being considered for inclusion in another publication will be considered for publication in Fertility and Sterility®. Authors are advised to keep a copy of all manuscripts submitted.

    All manuscripts will be evaluated by peer reviewers who will remain anonymous. These peer reviewers may or may not be the reviewers suggested by the author, and selection of the peer reviewers is at the sole discretion of the Fertility and Sterility® editors. The editors and reviewers do not disclose any information about a manuscript or its review. If revisions are required, authors are asked to return the revised manuscripts within 40 days for the first revision, and within 30 days for any subsequent revisions. Please notify the editorial office if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revision.

    Authors are strongly encouraged to limit article length to 3,500 words for effective and efficient communication. If substantial merit would be gained from increasing the number of words in an article, longer submissions may be considered for publication. A combined maximum of 4 total figures and tables is allowed for the print version. Article length does not include the running title, title page, capsule, abstract, or references.

    If you wish, you may include expanded discussion of the materials and methods section, or additional figures or tables, as supplemental material. This supplemental material will be published in the online version only, and will be referenced in the print version. Please indicate in your cover letter which sections are intended to be supplemental material. Title any supplemental figures or tables as “Supplemental figure 1,” and so on.

    Requirements for Specific Article Types

    Reviews
    Reviews are generally by invitation only, but unsolicited systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be considered if they are in the style of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA), details of which can be found at http://www.prismastatement.org. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses should be formatted according to the “Preparation of Manuscript” section above.

    Video Articles
    Original video articles are peer-reviewed and, if accepted, are indexed and citable. Authors should submit a cover letter, title page, structured abstract, and reference list (submit the title page, abstract, and references as the “Manuscript”) through the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) website for this journal (http://ees.elsevier.com/fns. Specifics regarding preparation of a video article can be found at http://fertstertforum.com/video-article-instructions. The video itself should be submitted to a Dropbox file. The submitting author will receive an invitation to the Dropbox after the manuscript has been submitted through EES.

    Monographs, Supplements, and Compilations
    Supplements are paginated like a regular journal issue and consist of peer-reviewed original research. The cover is clearly identified with the volume and number, and the articles can be cited. Monographs are not peer-reviewed, are not identified as part of the regular journal, are not paginated, and cannot be cited. Compilations are previously published journal articles with an index indicating where each article was published. All requests for publication of monographs, supplements, or compilations should be referred to the Publications Committee.

    Letters to the Editor
    Fertility and Sterility is phasing out “Letters to the Editor” in favor of the real-time, interactive Fertility and Sterility Forum. For instructions on how to post your comments regarding articles in our journal, please see fertstertforum.com/fertstertforum-discussion.

    Complete instructions for authors may be found in the January and July issues of the journal and at the journals website, http://www.fertstert.org.

    Contact Information

    All correspondence regarding submitted manuscripts will be handled via e-mail through EES. Send all other correspondence to:

    Craig Niederberger, M.D., and Antonio Pellicer, M.D.
    Co-Editors-in-Chief, Fertility and Sterility®
    American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)
    1209 Montgomery Highway
    Birmingham, AL 35216
    P: 205-978-5000 x139
    F: 205-978-5005
    E: fertstert@asrm.org

    Ethics in Publishing

    Authors

    Conditions of Authorship.

    • Authors should have made significant conceptual, intellectual, experimental, and analytical contributions to the research, as well as having participated in writing and revising the manuscript.
    • Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for its content.
    • Honorary authorship (i.e., not adhering to the conditions of authorship and, none-the-less, being granted authorship) is not permitted.
    • All authors must sign the Statement of Authorship (typed or printed name is not acceptable) and include the form on initial submission.

    Responsibilities of Authors.
    • Authors must describe the research in sufficient detail such that others could repeat it.
    • Written, informed consent under protocols approved by an institutional or local review board or approved animal protocols are essential if the research involves human or animal subjects, respectively. This information should be stated in the manuscript and the protocol number or exempt status of approved protocols should be stated in the manuscript at the time of submission for review.
    • Authors of clinical trials are required to register their trial with one of the ICMJE-recognized trial registries (5).
    • Selective reporting of data is inappropriate, especially if unreported data are in disagreement with the findings of the selectively reported data. In accordance with the ICJME, the ASRM supports publication of negative studies.
    • Authors should cite publications in the literature that are relevant to the uniqueness of the research and should including publications by others, as well as of their own research group.
    • Previous publication of a preliminary report on the data is permissible, if this is stated clearly in a footnote in the manuscript.

    Scientific Misconduct. Definition. The DHHS Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification.

    The ASRM accepts these definitions and considers them to constitute scientific misconduct. Additional unethical behavior that comprises scientific misconduct includes: submission of results from animal or clinical research that was conducted without appropriate approval and written, informed consent; duplicate publication; and honorary authorship. Research misconduct occurs when results are falsified, fabricated or plagiarized. The actions are willful or intentional, although the actual definition of misconduct varies somewhat by country. This can occur at various times during the process of proposing, performing or reviewing research.
    Differences of opinion or honest errors do not constitute misconduct.
    • Fabrication: Data, results or recording or reporting information that does not exist
    • Falsification: Changing research materials, equipment or processes; omission of data or results. As a consequence, the research is not accurately represented in the research records.
    • Plagiarism: Using another person’s words, ideas, results, and processes without giving credit to them. Plagiarism includes the theft of intellectual property, ideas or methods such as the use of information gained by personal communication, or during a grant or manuscript review. Plagiarism also includes the direct textual copying of another person’s work. Direct copying of 100-250 words constitutes plagiarism. Authorship disputes are not included in this definition. Citation plagiarism is the failure to credit others with prior discoveries and is extremely common. Self-plagiarism can include multiple publications of the same manuscript in different journals or books.


    Submission without animal or human subjects oversight approvals. Any manuscript submitted without proof of animal or human subjects approval by institutional or local IRBs will not be reviewed and will be returned to the authors.

    Duplicate publication. Duplicate publication can take several forms:
    • Duplicate Publication with other journals. On occasion ASRM journals may decide to publish an article simultaneously with another journal, e.g., with consensus statements from consensus conferences. Such intention on the part of the Editor-In-Chief should be discussed with the Publications Committee immediately after the two journals have had discussion so that Publications Committee members can assess the appropriateness of such joint publications and approve or disapprove.
    • Publication of seminal papers in another language. The ASRM permits this if the authors disclose this to the editor upon submission and if the original publisher has given consent and appropriately receives credit.
    • Publication of identical data. The ASRM considers that disclosure, citing the original publication, and obtaining permission are essential. Without all of these, publication of identical data is inappropriate and not permissible.
    • “Salami” publications. Dividing data, analysis, and presentation into “minimally publishable units” is a slippery slope, and can be used to extend one data set over several manuscripts. While this may be acceptable for clarity of presentation and focus on specific outcomes in different manuscripts, a motivation may also be to increase the publication list in an author’s CV. The latter is unethical and unacceptable. Therefore, please acknowledge in your cover letter any similar publications or submitted manuscripts

    Investigation of scientific misconduct. All cases of suspected misconduct will be investigated initially by the Editor-In-Chief and the Publications Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine to determine if the evidence of misconduct is sufficient to proceed with a formal inquiry. If so, the author will be notified in writing of the allegations, and will be asked to provide information useful to the investigation, including access to all original data, notes, and copies of prior publications. The author’s institution may be contacted, as well. Processing and publication of the manuscript will be delayed while the matter is resolved. Confidentiality will be maintained and care taken to protect the rights and reputations of all concerned. The final decision on disposition of the paper and any sanctions against the author will be made by the Editor-In-Chief in concert with the Publications Committee.

    Potential sanctions include, but may not be limited to: rejection of a manuscript in process; a letter of reprimand to the author, copied to the author’s institution; correction or retraction of the manuscript, including a statement in the print issue detailing the nature of the misconduct; and a ban on publication in the journal for two or more years.

    Reviewers. Reviewers have the responsibility to objectively and fairly review the manuscript. If there is a conflict of interest or if the reviewer does not have the requisite expertise, then the manuscript should be immediately returned to the Editor for reassignment. Strict confidentiality is required during the review process. If any portion of a manuscript is shared before the review is completed and before acceptance and publication, written consent of the authors is required.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    Changes to Authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:

    • Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    • After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


    Reporting clinical trials

    Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on http://www.consort-statement.org.

    Registration of Clinical Trials (ICMJE)

    Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org) recommendations. Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

    The ICMJE accepts registration in the following registries:

    http://www.anzctr.org.au

    http://www.clinicaltrials.gov

    http://www.ISRCTN.org

    http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm

    http://www.trialregister.nl

    https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/ (new registrations after June 20, 2011)

    In addition to the above registries, starting in June 2007 the ICMJE will also accept registration in any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Portal (see http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/index.html). Because it is critical that trial registries are independent of for-profit interests, the ICMJE policy requires registration in a WHO primary registry rather than solely in an associate registry, since for-profit entities manage some associate registries. Trial registration with missing or uninformative fields for the minimum data elements is inadequate even if the registration is in an acceptable registry.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the Funding Source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open Access

    This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $3500 ($1750 for Society members) applies (for further information on open access see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-options). Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/openaccessform.pdf). Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer-review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

    Submit Your Article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/fns.

    Use of Wordprocessing Software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables, and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.

    LaTeX

    You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class elsarticle.cls (http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/elsarticle) to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX (http://www.bibtex.org) to generate your bibliography.
    For detailed submission instructions, templates and other information on LaTeX, see http://www.elsevier.com/latex.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - unnumbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    A statement of Institutional Review Board (IRB) status must be included. Similarly, a statement of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval must be provided for research involving animals.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Essential Title Page Information

    Running title.A short version of your title, consisting of 40 characters or less, including spaces.

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

    Corresponding author. Only one corresponding author may be designated. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Capsule
    A summary of the abstract of 30 words or less, this will be published in the table of contents. It should describe the final conclusion(s) of the paper.

    Structured Abstract

    A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

    Required headings are Objective (beginning with a phrase like "To study..."), Design, Setting, Patients/Animals, Intervention(s), Main Outcome Measure(s), Results, and Conclusion.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide 3-5, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help or writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.).

    Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Figure Captions
    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately on the page of your manuscript file following the reference list. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference style
    References follow style of “Uniform Requirements” (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html).

    Examples:
    Journal article: 10. Fortier KJ, Haney AF III. The pathologic spectrum of utero-tubal junction obstruction. Obstet Gynecol 1985;65:93–8.

    Journal article—volume with supplement: 10. Friesen H, Tollis G. Use of bromocriptine in the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndromes: the Canadian Cooperative Study. Can Endocrinol 1977;6 Suppl 5:915–20.

    Journal article—issue with supplement: 10. Gardos, G, Cole JO. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988;8(Suppl 4):31S–7S.

    Journal article—letter: 10. Spargo PM, Manners JM. DDAVP and open heart surgery [letter]. Anesthesia 1989;44:363.

    Journal article in press: 10. Donald JA. Pulmonary blood flow regulation in aquatic snake. Science. In press.

    Books and other monographs: 10. Siegel S. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioural sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.

    Book, edited: 10. Diener HC, Wilkinson M, eds. Drug-induced headache. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

    Book, edition: 10. Zar JH. Biostatistical analysis. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983.

    Book, chapter: 10. Coutts JRT. The abnormal luteal phase. In: Jeffcoate SL Jr, Smith GS, eds. The luteal phase. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1985:101–10.

    Book, volume: 10. Colton T. Statistics in medicine. Vol. 1. Boston: Little Brown and Co., 1974.

    Scientific and technical report: 10. Akutsu T. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No.: NIH-NHLI-69-2185-4.

    Thesis or dissertation: 10. Youssef NM. School adjustment of children with congenital heart disease [dissertation]. Pittsburgh (PA): Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1988.

    Conference proceedings: 10. Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: a medical community response. Proceedings of the First AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect; 1984 Mar 30–31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1985.

    Conference paper: 10. Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In: Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 October 29–31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea (MI): Lewis, 1985:69–78.

    Web site: 10. Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. Available at: http://evernqeust-cgi.org. Accessed January 9, 2010.

    Reference List
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