Guide for Authors
Prospective authors should consult these instructions carefully before preparing manuscripts for submission. The Editorial Office may decline to review manuscripts that do not comply with the requirements for content and format. The use of deception in research may be taken into account in decisions regarding publication of a manuscript. Papers that are accepted but incorrectly prepared may be subject to delays in the press. Authors may find recent articles in Evolution & Human Behavior to be useful models for the instructions outlined below.
All manuscripts must be accompanied by appropriate statements regarding ethical approval, informed consent, and authors industry affiliation.
Whenever applicable authors must include a statement that appropriate procedures were followed in obtaining informed consent from subjects or patients.The journal publishes all material relating to human and animal investigations with the understanding that the work has been approved by the local ethics committees and that the work reported conforms to guidelines on animal care and use currently applied in the country of origin.
A conflict of interest may exist when an author or an author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the authors work. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of any and all such relationships. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures at its discretion.General Information
Article typesTheoretical contributions. These papers are original contributions to the theoretical foundations of evolution and human behavior, and will usually, but not necessarily, entail mathematical formalization. Simulations, agent-based models, and so forth will also be considered as theoretical contributions.
Research reports. These papers are reports of original research, using experimental or non-experimental methods, conducted in the laboratory, field settings, or archival sources.
Research reports and theoretical contributions should be as concise as possible, and may not be longer than 8,000 words. This limit includes both the main text and the references. Each Figure and each Table should be counted as 250 words.Review articles. These papers, critically reviewing and synthesizing a body of published research, are normally by invitation of the editors. Authors who wish to submit an uninvited review article should first e-mail the editors with a brief proposal.
Commentaries. These are short papers in response to articles published in the journal, and if accepted, will typically be published along with the original authors' reply.Book reviews. Evolution and Human Behavior no longer publishes book reviews.
SubmissionWhen submitting online via our Web-based system, authors must upload the following items as separate files: a cover letter, an abstract, the manuscript, and any tables and figures. Revised or resubmitted manuscripts should also include a detailed explanation of how the author has dealt with each of the reviewer's and Editor's comments and these comments should be uploaded as a 'Revision Comments' file on the system.
Authors are required to submit manuscripts online to the Elsevier Editorial System at http://ees.elsevier.com/evolhumbehav/ . When submitting online, authors are requested to select the article type (Research report, Theoretical contribution, Review article, Commentary, Book review). Authors who are submitting a manuscript online for the first time should read the Author Tutorial on the Elsevier Editorial System site.
For questions or concerns about the online system, authors should contact the author support team (email@example.com).File formats
For online submission the following file formats are acceptable for the initial submission: Word or WordPerfect, RTF, LaTeX2e, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, PostScript, PICT, bmp, Excel, PowerPoint or EPS. For the final accepted and revised version of the manuscript, graphics must be in TIFF, EPS, or MS Office. Please do not submit material (initially or for the final version) as PDF, PhotoShop or Adobe Illustrator files. Word is strongly preferred for the manuscript files.
Please note that the Publishers cannot accept electronic copies of manuscripts in LaTex2e. Although this format is acceptable during peer review, final versions of manuscripts should be converted to another format.Cover Letter
A cover letter file by the corresponding author must accompany the manuscript and should provide the following information:Explanation of any overlap with other articles published or in press in journals, books or conference proceedings, or in preparation. Evolution & Human Behavior will not consider submissions that have been published elsewhere, nor will it republish data found in other publications, unless the data are re-evaluated to provide new information not found in the original. Abstracts that appear in published conference proceedings with ISBNs or ISSNs, such as special editions of journals, and provide explicit quantitative summaries of the key results, are considered as prior publication. Overlap between submitted manuscripts and published abstracts containing qualitative descriptions of the manuscript will be allowed, provided that such abstracts are not verbatim reproductions of the abstract contained within the submitted manuscript. Include all abstracts and other published materials with the submitted manuscript as 'Related Material' on Editorial Manager. The cover letter must also include a statement to the effect that all co-authors have seen and approved the submitted article. Any appropriate statements regarding ethical approval, informed consent, and authors industry affiliation must be included in the cover letter as well.
Formatting of Text
- Type all manuscripts with double line spacing and aligned left, including the abstract, references, figure legends and tables.
- Use Times New Roman 12-point or Arial 11-point font.
- Manuscripts should have continuous line numbers, page numbers and wide margins throughout (including the abstract, references, figure legends and tables).
- Indent each new paragraph.
- Use two returns to end headings and paragraphs.
- Do not use lower-case 'l' (el) for '1' (one) or 'O'(oh) for '0' (zero); they have different typesetting values.
Headings in the body of the manuscript should be brief. The usual main headings for Research reports are: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments and References. All headings in the body of the manuscript are numbered in consecutive order, e.g. 1.0, 2.0, 3.0. Subheadings are numbered within the headings, e.g. 2.1, 2.2. Papers should not be forced to fit into this pattern of headings, however, if they do not naturally do so.
Parts of the ManuscriptArrange manuscripts in the following order: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, appendices, and figure legends. Figure and tables should be saved as individual files and be uploaded separately. If you have a large figure or a number of figures, you may compress them into a Zip file and upload this at one step. The system will unpack the files automatically and present you with a page on which you will be prompted to name the individual files.
The title page must include the following information:
- Title. This should be brief and informative, and should not exceed 120 characters.
- Running headline. Provide a short title that does not exceed 50 spaces.
- Authors' names (in capitals) and academic affiliations below the title. Affiliations should not include street, box number, postal (zip) code, country (when that is obvious) or city, state, province, etc., when that is redundant with the University name.
- Correspondence. At the bottom of the page, give the full postal address and email address of the corresponding author
- A word count for the text.
The Abstract should describe the purpose of the study, outline the major findings and state the main conclusions. It should be concise, informative, explicit and intelligible without reference to the text. Abstracts should usually be limited to 250 words. Avoid using references. Introduction
The Introduction should be brief. It should explicitly state the aims of the paper and place it within the context of existing work.
The Methods section in a Research Report should be sufficiently detailed to allow someone else to replicate the study. Repetition of methodological details can sometimes be avoided by referring to previous studies, however. In many cases, the Methods section should also contain a description of the kinds of statistics used.
The text of a Research Report's Results section should complement material given in Tables or Figures but should not directly repeat it. Give full details of statistical analysis either in the text or in Tables or Figure legends. Include the type of test, the precise data to which it was applied, the value of the relevant statistic, the sample size and/or degrees of freedom, and the probability level. Number Tables and Figures in the order to which they are referred in the text.
It is often helpful to begin the Discussion with a summary of the main results. The main purpose of the Discussion, however, is to comment on the significance of the results and set them in the context of previous work. The Discussion should be concise and not excessively speculative.
For references in the text, give full surnames for papers by one or two authors, but only the surname of the first author, followed by 'et al.' for three or more (note that 'et al.' is not underlined). Check that all references in the text are in the reference list and vice versa, that their dates and spellings match, and that complete bibliographical details are given, including page numbers, names of editors, name of publisher and full place of publication if the article is published in a book. Do not include issue numbers in references.Cite references in the text as, for example, Cosmides & Tooby (1992) or, if in parentheses, as (Williams, 1966). Use lower-case letters to distinguish between two papers by the same authors in the same year (e.g. Hamilton, 1964a,b). List multiple citations in alphabetical order (e.g. Alexander, 1974; Trivers, 1972; Williams, 1966), using a semicolon to separate each reference. Cite references in the reference list in alphabetical, and then chronological, order according to the authors' surname and date.
Type references in the following form, using the hanging indent system. Please see articles published in the Journal for guidance.Buss, D.M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 1-49.
Chagnon, N. (1979). Is reproductive success equal in egalitarian societies? In N. Chagnon, & W. Irons (Eds.), Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: An anthropological perspective (pp. 374-401). North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.Hawkes, K., & Bliege Bird, R. (2002). Showing-off, handicap signaling, and the evolution of men's work. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11, 58-67.
For papers in the course of publication, use 'in press' to replace the date and give the journal name in the references. Cite unpublished manuscripts (including those in preparation or submitted), talks and abstracts of talks in the text as 'unpublished data' following a list of all authors' initials and surnames. Do not include these in the reference list.Tables
Upload Tables as separate files. Tables should be as simple as possible and make them understandable without reference to the text. Type each table on a separate page. In addition:
- Use Arabic numerals to number Tables.
- Give brief titles above the table.
- Give extra information (e.g. the results of statistical tests) as a footnote below the table.
- Upload figures as separate files, or Zip all figures together an upload them at one step. (To download a trial version of WinZip, go to www.winzip.com.)
- A figure and its legend should be sufficiently informative that the results can be understood without reference to the text. Figure legends should not appear on the same page as figures.
- The publisher will charge for printed colour figures, but will publish colour figures electronically so upload both when submitting the manuscript.
- Figures should be large enough to allow for reproduction but not larger than letter size, and should be designed with the Journal format in mind.
- The preferred point symbols are open circle, open square, open triangle, filled circle, filled square, filled triangle. The preferred shadings are black, white and bold hatching. Avoid stippling, which does not reproduce well. The preferred font for axis labels and keys is Arial.
- Ticks should be drawn outside the figure axes; they should not be extended to form lines across the whole figure.
- Give keys and other explanations either in the legend or in the figure caption.
- Number figures consecutively in Arabic numerals.
- Abbreviate 'Figure' to 'Fig.' and 'Figures' to 'Figs' except when starting a sentence.
Electronic supplementary material
Material that aids in the understanding or clarification of the printed article, such as video clips (AVI or MPEG), colour photographs (GIF or JPEG), sound recordings (WAV), or large data tables, may be posted on ScienceDirect with electronic access details provided in the text. Supplementary material should be uploaded as such to the Elsevier Editorial System or sent separately to the Editorial Office. The material will be considered to be part of a manuscript and will be reviewed as such. Please note that because the supplementary materials are part of the material reviewed, care should be taken during the submission process that identifying information is stripped from it to preserve anonymity of the authors. Instructions regarding formats for supplementary material can be found under Artwork Instructions on Elsevier's Author Gateway page http://www.authors.elsevier.com .
Use footnotes only to add information below the body of a Table.
Write numbers of 10 or more as numerals except at the beginning of a sentence. Write the numbers one to nine in words, unless they precede units of measure or are used as designators. Give years in full; e.g. '1986-1987' and dates as 1 January 2000. Measurement should be metric.
Statistical conventionsFor significance tests, give the name of the test followed by a colon, the test statistic and its value, the degrees of freedom or sample size (whichever is the convention for the test) and the P value (note that F values have two degrees of freedom). The different parts of the statistical quotation are separated by a comma.
Means and standard errors/standard deviations (and medians and interquartile ranges/confidence limits), with their associated sample sizes, are given in the format Mean± SE = 10.20±1.01, N = 15, not Mean = 10.20, SE = 1.01, N = 15.
If the test statistic is conventionally quoted with degrees of freedom, these are presented as a subscript to the test statistic. For example:ANOVA: F1,11 = 7.89, P = 0.017
Paired t test: t12 = 1.99, P = 0.07If the test is conventionally quoted with the sample size, this should follow the test statistic value. For example:
Spearman rank correlation:rs = 0.80, N = 11, P < 0.01
Copyright• The Publishers will send the author a copyright transfer agreement and offprint order form by email shortly before the paper proofs are ready. The author must complete these forms and return them to the Publishers via mail or fax. The author can purchase reprints. Authors may post the final PDF version of their article on personal and/or institutional Web pages after it has appeared in the Journal.
• Papers are accepted on the understanding that they are contributed only to this Journal. Copyright in the article, including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to the Journal. The transfer of copyright to the Journal takes effect when the manuscript is accepted for publication.
ProofsArticles in Press
The author will receive a PDF proof by email and should return corrections within 48 hours.
Aricles will be published online after corrected proofs have been returned by the author, and these are embargoed --- that is, the author should not discuss them with the press until that time.
Digital Object IdentifiersTo facilitate cross-referencing of articles on the Web, the DOI for papers in Elsevier journals will now be included in their reference citation as follows:
Elsevier assigns a unique digital object identifier (DOI) to every article it publishes. The DOI appears on the title page of the article. It is assigned after the article has been accepted for publication and persists throughout the lifetime of the article. Because of its persistence, it can be used to query Elsevier for information on the article during the production process, to find the article on the Internet through various Web sites, including ScienceDirect, and to cite the article in academic references. Further information may be found by clicking on the 'Cite or Link using DOI' query at the top of every abstract page of each article on ScienceDirect.
Scheib, J. E., Gangestad, S. W., & Thornhill, R. (1999) Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 1913-1917. (DOI 10.1098/rspb.1999.0866.)The DOI of a cited paper can be found at the top of its title page. If authors are aware of a paper's DOI, it would be helpful if they could include it.
Author enquiriesChanges to Authorship This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
For enquiries relating to articles that have been accepted by the Journal and forwarded to the Publisher, Elsevier, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/authors . The site also provides the facility to track articles at the Publisher and set up email alerts to inform authors when an article's status has changed, as well as detailed artwork guidelines, copyright information, frequently asked questions and more. The Elsevier Editorial System will inform authors when an article is sent to the Publishers, and contact details for questions arising about an article, especially those relating to proofs, are provided after its receipt at Elsevier.
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Archiving PolicyThe raw data used in analyses reported in Evolution & Human Behavior ought to be available to readers of the journal to support transparency, good practice, and the scientific mission of the journal. Therefore, authors are strongly encouraged to archive their data in a publically available online site, whether through their institution, as Supplementary Online Material, or other means. In some cases, there will be reasons that such archiving is impossible, impractical, or illegal; when appropriate, an explanation to this effect should be included with the cover letter accompanying the submission. The Author Note should include a web address where the data can be located, preferably in a standard delimited file with accompanying code book. While archiving is currently optional, this policy will be enforced beginning January 1st, 2013.
Open AccessThis journal offers you the option of making your article freely available to all via the ScienceDirect platform. To prevent any conflict of interest, you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication. The fee of $3,000 excludes taxes and other potential author fees such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/openaccessform.pdf). Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights .