Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of Paper
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Informed consent and patient details
    • Submission
    • Additional Information
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • LaTeX
    • Article structure
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Keywords
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and Units
    • Database linking
    • Chemical compounds
    • GenBank accession numbers
    • Formulas and equations
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Manuscripts submitted to the journal are accepted on the understanding that: (1) they are subject to editorial review, (2) they have not been and will not be published in whole or in part in any other journal and (3) the recommendations of the most recent version of the Declaration of Helsinki, for humans, and the European Community guidelines as accepted principles for the use of experimental animals, have been adhered to. The European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences will, therefore, only consider manuscripts that describe experiments which have been carried out under approval of an institutional or local ethics committee.

    Types of Paper

    Research articles

    The European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences publishes research articles in the multidisciplinary field of pharmaceutical sciences, with a focus on topics relevant for drug discovery and development.

    More specifically, the Journal publishes reports on medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, drug absorption and metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, drug delivery (including gene delivery), drug targeting, pharmaceutical technology, pharmaceutical biotechnology and clinical drug evaluation.

    The journal will typically not give priority to manuscripts focusing primarily on organic synthesis, natural products, adaptation of analytical approaches, or discussions pertaining to drug policy making.

    Important other criteria for manuscript acceptance are conceptual novelty, scientific rigorousness of the experiments, relevance for a broad readership beyond the specific topic of the manuscript, and adherence to high ethics standards of experimentation. Research articles should comply with the format requirements set forth in the section “Article Structure below”.

    Review articles

    The manuscript of a review article should be arranged as described for research articles but according to the following sections: title page, abstract and keywords (indexing terms, normally 3-6 items), Introduction, Specific sections determined by the author, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References, Figure legends and Figures, Tables. Sections ranging from the Introduction to the Conclusions should be numbered. Subdivisions within a section should also be numbered within that section: 2.1., 2.2., 2.3. etc. All pages should be numbered consecutively, the title page being p.1.

    Commentaries and Mini-reviews

    One page suggestions for comprehensive reviews, commentaries or mini-reviews should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief at ejps@sdu.dk for consideration. Please see detailed information on commentaries and mini-reviews below.

    Commentaries (Guidance)

    The definition of a Commentary for EJPS is three-fold. Firstly, it can be an argued piece of provocative scientific writing purporting to take a balanced position on a controversial pharmaceutical science topic. A second option is for the author to approach the topic from a particular viewpoint on one side of an argument. A third option is to provide a topical update on a hot topic in Pharmaceutical Sciences and this can be more informative than controversial.

    Commentaries will be commissioned by the editors in advance or invited from non-commissioned authors if they wish to initially submit a one page summary of the intended Commentary to the editors in advance. All manuscripts will be assessed by 2-3 independent referees.

    The journal is looking for a stimulating and provoking essays, with referenced material, but without an extensive reference list. Commentaries can contain one summary figure and/or table and should have no more than 30 references to preferably recent peer-reviewed material. The word count should be approximately 2,000 words maximum.
    The commentary should have a short abstract summary of 150 to 200 words and 4-5 key words should be included, The text should be broken down into 4-5 numbered sections beginning with an Introduction and ending with a Conclusions section. A model of the structures is to be found in Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 19, 1-11 by R.D. Combes.

    Mini-review (Guidance)

    Mini-reviews are thought provoking reviews of contemporary pharmaceutical research. Themes are as described in the Scope of the Journal section.

    Mini-reviews will usually be commissioned by the editors in advance, but contributions are invited from non-commissioned authors if they wish to initially submit a one page summary of the intended review to the editors in advance. All manuscripts will be assessed by 2-3 independent referees.

    The structure of the mini-review is as follows: a title page followed by a 200-300 word abstract with 4-5 key words. The text is then divided into numbered sections finishing with a Summary section. References should be kept to a maximum of 60 and should be mostly to recent peer-reviewed material. There is a combined maximum of 5 figures / tables. Authors are encouraged to submit their original unpublished work as part of the review if appropriate. The total length of the review should be a maximum of 4,000 words.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. More information about this can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authors/article-transfer-service.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Additional Information

    Editorial review: All manuscripts are generally submitted to 2-3 reviewers who are selected for their ability to evaluate the work. Supplementary material may be included to facilitate the review process. Authors may request that certain reviewers should not be chosen, but should then also explain why. Members of the editorial board will usually be called upon for advice when there is disagreement among the reviewers or between reviewers and authors, or when the editors feel that the manuscript has not received adequate consideration by the reviewers.

    Please submit, with the manuscript, the names, postal addresses and e-mail addresses of at least four potential reviewers. Good suggestions lead to faster processing of your paper. Please note:

    • Reviewers who do not have an institutional e-mail address will only be considered if their affiliations are given and can be verified.
    • Please ensure that the e-mail addresses are current.
    • International reviewers who have recently published in the appropriate field should be nominated, and their areas of expertise must be stated clearly.
    Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are contacted. To aid the editorial process when suggested reviewers are not chosen or decline to review, ensure that the classifications chosen are as detailed as possible. It is not sufficient to select e.g. 'analytical chemistry' or 'physical pharmacy and pharmaceutical technology'.

    All reviewers' comments must be responded to, and suggested changes be made. The author should detail the changes made in response to the referees' comments and suggestions in an accompanying letter. If the author disagrees with some changes, the reason, supported by data, should be given. The editors may refuse to publish manuscripts from authors who persistently ignore referees' comments. A revised manuscript should be received by the editorial office no later than 2 months after the editorial decision was sent to the author(s); otherwise it will be processed as a new manuscript.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    LaTeX

    You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class elsarticle.cls (http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/elsarticle) to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX (http://www.bibtex.org) to generate your bibliography.
    For detailed submission instructions, templates and other information on LaTeX, see http://www.elsevier.com/latex.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Text, tables and figures must show minimal overlap, and must be internally consistent.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information
    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Corresponding author.
    The manuscript must be submitted by the person who is in charge of correspondence at all stages of the editorial process, production, and post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area codes) are provided, in addition to the e-mail address (preferably an institutional e-mail address) and the complete postal address. Contact details of the other authors must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Author names and affiliations. Where names may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name, or possible confusion about first/last names), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the e-mail address (preferably an institutional email address) of each author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more, but should be readable on screen at a size of 200 × 500 pixels (at 96 dpi this corresponds to 5 × 13 cm). Bear in mind readability after reduction, especially if using one of the figures from the article itself. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Abbreviations are a hindrance for the reader. Use as few abbreviations as possible and write out names of compounds, receptors, etc., in full throughout the text of the manuscript, with the exceptions given below. Unnecessary and nonsense abbreviations are not allowed. Generic names should not be abbreviated. As an example, AMP, HAL, HIST, RAMH, TAM, SST, for amphetamine, haloperidol, histamine, (R)-&agr; -methylhistamine, tamoxifen, somatostatin, are not accepted. Abbreviations which have come to replace the full term (e.g., GABA, DOPA, PDGF, 5-HT, for &Ugr; -aminobutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PDGF, 5-hydroxytryptamine) may be used, provided the term is spelled out in the abstract and in the body of the manuscript the first time the abbreviation is used. Unwieldy chemical names may be abbreviated. As an example, 8-OH-DPAT, DOI, DTG, BAPTA, for 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, 1,3-di(2-tolyl)-guanidine, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, are acceptable; however, the full chemical name should be given once in the body of the manuscript and in the abstract, followed in both cases by the abbreviation. Code names may be used, but the full chemical name should be given in the text and in the abstract. Authors not conforming to these demands may have their manuscripts returned for correction with delayed publication as a result.

    Some abbreviations may be used without definition:

    ADP,CDP, GDP, IDP5'-pyrophosphates of adenosine
    UDPcytidine, guanosine, inosine, uridine
    AMP etc.adenosine 5'-monophosphate etc.
    ADP etc.adenosine 5'-diphosphate etc.
    ATP etc.adenosine 5'-triphosphate etc.
    CM-cellulosecarboxymethylcellulose
    CoA and acetyl-CoAcoenzyme A and its acyl derivatives
    DEAE-celluloseO-(diethylaminoethyl)-cellulose
    DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
    EGTAethylene glycol-bis(&bgr;-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid
    FADflavin-adenine dinucleotide
    FMNflavin mononucleotide
    GSH, GSSGglutathione, reduced and oxidized
    Hepes4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-ethanesulphonic acid
    NADnicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
    NADPnicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    NMNnicotinamide mononucleotide
    Pi, PPiorthophosphate, pyrophosphate
    RNAribonucleic acid
    Tris2-amino-2-hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-diol

    Two alternative conventions are currently in use in some cases. For example, for the phosphoinositides there are both the abbreviations recommended by the IUPAC-IUB and those of the Chilton Convention (e.g., PtdIns(4,5)P2 vs. PIP 2for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate). The journal will accept either of these forms but not their combination.

    Abbreviations of units of measurements and other terms are as follows:

    Units of mass

    kilogramkg
    gramg
    milligrammg
    microgram&mgr;g
    nanogramng
    mole (gram-molecule)mol
    millimolemmol
    micromole&mgr;mol
    nanomolenmol
    picomolepmol
    femtomolefmol
    equivalenteq

    Units of time

    hourh
    minutemin
    seconds
    millisecondms
    microsecond&mgr;s

    Units of volume

    litrel
    millilitreml
    microlitre&mgr;l

    Units of length

    metrem
    centimetrecm
    millimetremm
    micrometre&mgr;m
    nanometrenm

    Units of concentration

    molar (mol/l)M
    millimolarmM
    micromolar&mgr;M
    nanomolarnM
    picomolarpM

    Units of heat, energy, electricity

    jouleJ
    degree Celsius (centigrade)°C
    coulombC
    ampereA
    voltV
    ohm&OHgr;
    siemensS

    Units of radiation

    curieCi
    counts per minutecpm
    disintegrations per minutedpm
    becquerelBq

    Miscellaneous

    gravityg
    dissociation constantKd
    median dosesLD50, ED50
    probabilityP
    routes of drug administrationi.v., i.p., s.c., i.m.
    square centimetrecm2
    standard deviationS.D.
    standard error of the meanS.E.M.
    Svedberg unit of sedimentation coefficientS
    Hill coefficientnH

    The isotope mass number should appear before the atomic symbol, e.g., [3H]noradrenaline, [14C]choline. Ions should be written: Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+. The term absorbance (A) is preferred to extinction or optical density. For abbreviations not included in this list consult: Units, Symbols and Abbreviations, A Guide for Biological and Medical Authors and Editors, 1994 (The Royal Society of Medicine, London), ISBN 0-905958-78-0, or Scientific Style and Format. The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge), ISBN 0-521-47154-0.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g. lab technicians, statisticians, colleagues providing help preparing the manuscript).

    Nomenclature and Units

    Only generic and chemical names of drugs should be used, although a proprietary equivalent may be indicated once, in parentheses. Pharmacological and Chemical Synonyms, E.E.J. Marler, 9th edn. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990) may be consulted.

    The nomenclature of chemical substances should be consistent, clear and unambiguous, and should conform to the usage of the American Chemical Society and the convention recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). When in doubt, writers should consult the indexes of Chemical Abstracts; the various reports and pamphlets of the American Chemical Society Committee on Nomenclature, Spelling and Pronunciation; and from the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB): Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents (Portland Press, London).

    When drugs, which are mixtures of stereoisomers are used, the fact that they have a composite nature and the implication of this for interpretation of the data and drawing of conclusions should be made clear. The use of the appropriate prefix is essential. Use of the generic name alone without prefix would be taken to refer to agents with no stereoisomers. The nomenclature of the various isomers and isomeric mixtures can be found in: (i) IUPAC, Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, eds. J. Rigaudy and S.P. Klesney (Pergamon Press, London), 1979, p. 481; (ii) Signs of the times: the need for a stereochemically informative generic name system, Simonyi, M., J. Gal and B. Testa, 1989, Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 10, 349. For nomenclature of peptides, see Neuropeptides, Vol. 1, 1981, p. 231.

    The nomenclature of receptors and their subtypes should conform to the TIPS 1995 Receptor & Ion Channel Nomenclature Supplement (Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Receptor Nomenclature Supplement 1995). Copies of this supplement are available from the publisher (Elsevier Trends Journals, Oxford Fulfilment Centre, P.O. Box 800, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1DX, UK. Tel.: (44-1865) 843-699; Fax: (44-1865) 843-911).

    The trivial name of the enzyme may be used in the text, but the systematic name and classification number according to Enzyme Nomenclature, rev. edn. (Academic Press, New York, NY, 1984) should be quoted the first time the enzyme is mentioned.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    Chemical compounds

    You can enrich your article by providing a list of chemical compounds studied in the article. The list of compounds will be used to extract relevant information from the NCBI PubChem Compound database and display it next to the online version of the article on ScienceDirect. You can include up to 10 names of chemical compounds in the article. For each compound, please provide the PubChem CID of the most relevant record as in the following example: Glutamic acid (PubChem CID:611). The PubChem CIDs can be found via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound. Please position the list of compounds immediately below the 'Keywords' section. It is strongly recommended to follow the exact text formatting as in the example below:
    Chemical compounds studied in this article
    Ethylene glycol (PubChem CID: 174); Plitidepsin (PubChem CID: 44152164); Benzalkonium chloride (PubChem CID: 15865)
    More information is available at: http://www.elsevier.com/PubChem.

    GenBank accession numbers

    Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine. Authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources, should reference this information in the following manner:

    For each and every accession number cited in an article, authors should type the accession number in bold, underlined text . Letters in the accession number should always be capitalised. (See Example 1 below.) This combination of letters and format will enable Elsevier's typesetters to recognize the relevant texts as accession numbers and add the required link to GenBank's sequences.

    Example 1: "GenBank accession nos. AI631510 , AI631511 , AI632198 , and BF223228 ), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048 ), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117 )".

    Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully. An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link.

    In the final version of the printed article, the accession number text will not appear bold or underlined (see Example 2 below).

    Example 2: "GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)".

    In the final version of the electronic copy, the accession number text will be linked to the appropriate source in the NCBI databases enabling readers to go directly to that source from the article (see Example 3 below).

    Example 3: "GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)".

    Formulas and equations

    Structural chemical formulas, process flow diagrams and complicated mathematical expressions should be very clearly presented. All subscripts, superscripts, Greek letters and unusual characters must be identified. Structural chemical formulas and process flow diagrams should be prepared in the same way as graphs.
    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Image manipulation
    Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication and a copy of the title page of the relevant article must be submitted.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style
    Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
    1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
    2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
    3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
    Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
    Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'
    List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

    Additional information
    No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of the rapid advances made in the medical sciences, independent verification of diagnoses and drug doses should be made.



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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