Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of article
    • Page charges
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Policy and ethics
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Contributors
    • Authorship
    • Changes to Authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • Article Structure
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • References
    • Math formulae
    • Tables
    • Figures
    • Artwork
    • Supplementary data
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details on the requirements for submitting your paper to Domestic Animal Endocrinology. The guidelines described in this document should be adhered to carefully, to ensure high-quality and rapid publication of your manuscript.

    Aims and scope
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology publishes scientific papers dealing with fundamental, translational, and clinical aspects of the endocrinology of domestic animal species at all levels of organization (organismal, cellular, and molecular). Those manuscripts utilizing other species as models for clinical or production problems associated with domestic animals will also be considered. Clinical Case Reports will generally not be accepted unless the research report provides significant new information regarding mechanisms responsible for a phenomenon. Topics covered include the regulation of hormone secretion, hormone action, and biochemical endocrinology.

    Types of article

    1. Original Research Papers (Regular Papers)
    2. Review Articles
    3. Short Communications

    Original Research Papers should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form.

    Review Articles should cover subjects falling within the scope of the journal that are of active current interest. They may be submitted or invited.

    Short Communications are concise but complete descriptions of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications should be as completely documented, both by reference to the literature and description of experimental procedures employed, as an Original Research Paper. They should not occupy more than six printed pages (about 12 manuscript pages, including figures, tables and references).

    Page charges

    This journal has no page charges.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Policy and ethics

    The work described in your article must have been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. This must be stated at an appropriate point in the article.

    Unnecessary cruelty in animal experimentation is not acceptable to the Editors of Domestic Animal Endocrinology.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Contributors

    Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    Changes to Authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:

    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Editor-in-Chief from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript before development of Author Proofs and before the manuscript is published online. Requests must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.

    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • A open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3,000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information. If it is determined by the Editor-in-Chief that the English grammar usage within a submitted manuscript fails to meet a minimum level of acceptability, the manuscript will be returned to the authors with a request to have it edited by a native English-speaking editor or editing service as described above. Failure to meet minimum language requirements in subsequent submissions of the article will be grounds for rejection of the manuscript.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/dae/.

    Referees

    Please submit, as part of the covering letter with the manuscript, the names, full affiliation (department, institution, city and country) and email addresses of 3 potential Referees. Appropriate Referees should be knowledgeable about the subject but have no close connection with any of the authors. You may also suggest reviewers you do not want to review your manuscript, but please state your reasons for doing so.



    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format, double-spaced, and with all lines numbered continuously on the left margin to facilitate the review process. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article Structure

    Title page

    • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

    • Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Use initials only for first and middle names. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names in italicized font. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

    • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

    • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Abstracts must be limited to a single paragraph with no more than 2,500 keystrokes (characters plus spaces).

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Subdivision - numbered sections

    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Main headings (1. Introduction; 2. Materials; 3. Methods; 4. Results; 5. Discussion) should be written in sentence case, bold font. Subheadings should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering), italicized and not bolded. Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction

    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Introduction should not exceed 1.5 manuscript pages.

    Materials and methods

    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Results

    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion

    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Although there are always exceptions, a good rule of thumb is for the Discussion section to not exceed 5 double-spaced manuscript pages and to limit the number of references to no more than 35.

    Conclusions

    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) arabic numerals placed within brackets and separated by commas in the order in which they appear in the text.
    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Place on the left margin in brackets. Please list the names of all co-authors. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).

    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    [1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    [2] Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    [3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be placed on a separate page following References. To facilitate editing, tables should be created using the word processing program with the caption included. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions in a separate “List of figures”, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Figures

    Each figure should be placed on a separate page following the tables. Do not place figures or illustrations in the text of the manuscript.

    Artwork

    Image manipulation
    While it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Text graphics
    Present incidental graphics not suitable for mention as figures, plates or schemes at the end of the article and number them "Graphic 1", etc. Their precise position in the text can then be indicated. See further information under Electronic artwork. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left, but such embedding should not be done specifically for publishing purposes. Further, high-resolution graphics files must be provided separately.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Important style notes
    Please use the following words, phrases, abbreviations, and stylistic conventions:
    • Do not use the term 'significant' redundantly throughout the text. Cite a P value (recommended for Abstract and for Results) associated with each statistical inference.
    • Terms with a specific statistical meaning (i.e. significant, tended and correlated), should only be used in a strict statistical context.
    • Numbers less than 10 are written as a word, unless followed by an abbreviation for unit of measure, e.g. five embryos, 5 min
    • Abbreviate units of measure when they follow a quantity: days, d; hours, h; weeks, wk; years, yr; minutes, min; For example, 4 d, 5 h, 6 yr.
    • When using a time-descriptive noun as a name (e.g., hour of the experiment or day of the experiment), spell out the noun.

    Use the following expressions:
    • Estrus is a noun; estrous is an adjective.
    • 120 to 125, not 120-125
    • treatment by period, not treatment X period
    • gravity: 100 X g (in lieu of speed for centrifugation)

    Abbreviations
    The following abbreviations represent DAE-terms that do not require definition by the author. All units of measure associated with numerical values must be abbreviated according to DAE form as indicated below. All others should be defined in the abstract (if used) and again the first time the term appears in the text. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Never use an abbreviation to start a sentence (e.g., mRNA should be Messenger ribonucleic acid); otherwise, rephrase the sentence so that it doesn't begin with the word in question.

    Units of time
    s - second(s)
    min - minute(s)
    h - hour(s)
    d - day(s)
    wk - week(s)
    mo - month(s)
    yr - year(s)

    Units of volume
    µL - microliter
    mL - milliliter
    L - liter
    dL - deciliter

    Other physical units
    Bq - becquerel
    °C - degree Celsius
    Cal - calorie
    Ci - curie
    cM - centimorgan (spell out morgan if used without a prefix)
    Da - dalton
    Eq - equivalent
    g - gram
    ha - hectare
    Hz - hertz
    IU - international unit
    J - joule
    lx - lux
    m - meter
    M - molar (concentration; preferred over mol/L)
    mol - mole
    N - normal (concentration)
    Pa - pascal
    t - metric ton (1,000 kg)
    V - volt
    W - watt

    Statistical symbols and abbreviations
    P- as in P < 0.05
    ANOVA - analysis of variance
    CV - coefficient of variation
    df - degree(s) of freedom
    F - F-distribution (variance ratio)
    LSD - least significant difference
    n - sample size (used parenthetically or in footnotes)
    P - probability
    r - simple correlation coefficient
    r2 - simple coefficient of determination
    R - multiple correlation coefficient
    R2 - multiple coefficient of determination
    s2 - variance (sample)
    SD - standard deviation (sample)
    SE - standard error
    SED - standard error of the differences of means
    SEM - standard error of the mean

    Other acronyms/abbreviations
    ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
    ADG - average daily gain
    ADP - adenosine diphosphate
    AI - artificial insemination
    ATP - adenosine triphosphate avg - average (use only in tables, not in the text)
    BCS - body condition score
    bp - base pair
    BSA - bovine serum albumin
    BW - body weight
    cDNA - complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
    C/EBP - CAAT-enhancer binding protein
    cfu - colony-forming unit
    CoA - coenzyme A
    Co-EDTA - cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetate
    CP - crude protein (N x 6.25)
    d - dextrodiam. diameter
    DE - digestible energy
    DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
    EBV - estimated breeding value
    eCG - equine chorionic gonadotropin
    EDTA - ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
    EIA - enzyme immunoassay
    ELISA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    Exp. - experiment (always followed by a numeral)
    FFA - free fatty acid(s)
    FSH - follicle-stimulating hormone
    g - gravity
    GE - gross energy
    GLC - gas-liquid chromatography
    GLM - general linear model
    GnRH - gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    GH - growth hormone
    GHRH - growth hormone-releasing hormone
    hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin
    HEPES - N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid
    HPLC - high-performance (pressure) liquid chromatography
    i.d. - inside diameter
    Ig - immunoglobulin (when used to identify a specific immunoglobulin)
    IGF - insulin-like growth factor
    IGFBP - insulin-like growth factor-binding protein(s)
    IL - interleukin
    kb - kilobase(s)
    LD50 - lethal dose 50%
    LH - luteinizing hormone
    LHRH - luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
    ME - metabolizable energy
    Misc. - miscellaneous
    NAD - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    NADH - reduced form of NAD
    NDF - neutral detergent fiber
    NDIN - neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen
    NE - net energy
    NEg - net energy for gain
    NEl - net energy for lactation
    NEm - net energy for maintenance
    NEFA - nonesterified fatty acid
    No. - number (use only in tables, not in the text)
    NRC - National Research Council
    o.d. - outside diameter
    PAGE - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    PBS - phosphate-buffered saline
    PCR - polymerase chain reaction
    PG - prostaglandin
    PMSG - pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin
    PPAR - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
    PUFA - polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)
    QTL - quantitative trait locus (loci)
    RFLP - restriction fragment length polymorphism
    RIA - radioimmunoassay
    RNA - ribonucleic acid
    rpm - revolutions/minute (not to be used to indicate centrifugal force)
    RQ - respiratory quotient
    SDS - sodium dodecyl sulfate
    SFA - saturated fatty acid
    SNP - single nucleotide polymorphism
    ssp. - subspecies
    ST - somatotropin
    spp. - species
    TDN - total digestible nutrients
    TLC - thin layer chromatography
    Tris - tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
    USDA - US Department of Agriculture
    UV - ultraviolet
    VFA - volatile fatty acid(s)
    vol - volume
    vol/vol - volume/volume (used only in parentheses)
    vs. - versus
    wt - weight (use only in tables, not in the text)
    wt/vol - weight/volume (used only in parentheses)
    wt/wt - weight/weight (used only in parentheses)

    Submission checklist
    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
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    • Full postal address
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    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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