Guide for Authors
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine is available through Elsevier's Electronic Submission System (EES) http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine is dedicated to the scientific development, implementation and exchange of formal methods and computer software systems in biomedical research and medical practice. It is designed to serve biomedical researchers; biomedical and clinical / health informaticians; medical researchers and practitioners; biologists; biochemists; biophysicists; geneticists; neuroscientists; cardiologists; psychologists; epidemiologists; immunologists; pharmacologists; biostatisticians; computer scientists, programmers and systems analysts; biomedical, clinical and other engineers; teachers of medical informatics and users of educational software. The aims of the journal are: (1) to encourage the development of formal computing methods, and their application in biomedical research and medical practice, by illustration of fundamental principles in biomedical informatics; (2) to stimulate basic research into biomedical application software design; (3) to report the state of research of biomedical information processing projects; (4) to report new computer methodologies applied in biomedical areas; (5) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of existing software, by describing implementations that can be directly used by other interested researchers; (6) to optimise contact between national organisations and regional user groups by promoting an international exchange of information on formal methods, standards and software in biomedicine; (7) to announce and report meetings of central interest.
Fields of interest
The application of computer science methodology and software to the full range of theoretical and clinical biomedical specialties, including: Biochemistry; Biophysics; Molecular biology; Genetics; Immunology; Microbiology; Cardiology; Neurophysiology; Radiotherapy; Pharmacology; Clinical psychology; Psychophysiology and social medicine; Biomedical informatics; Biostatistics; Biomedical mathematics and cybernetics; Biomedical, clinical and electrical engineering; Clinical decision support; Hospital information systems; Process control; Medical imaging; Ambulatory monitoring.
ContentsIn Focus Papers These include: state of research papers on ongoing projects; future trends; software applications; computer-aided instruction in the laboratory and clinical practice; evolving hardware and software technology and its influence on health application design; developments in the science of biomedical computing, and areas listed under 'Section I. Methodology' below.
Section I. MethodologyPapers on methodology in established and maturing areas such as: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) man/machine interaction and interfaces (e.g., CAI, CAL, CAD/CAM, Decision support systems and voice-computer interaction); (3) database management; (4) biomedical modelling and simulation; (5) signal analysis; (6) image processing; (7) biosignal-based electronic prosthesis; (8) computer control of laboratory machines and devices; (9) computer communication networks; (10) computer architecture/software interaction, may be structured as follows:
1. Introduction. A discussion of the research or clinical issues underlying a project's design, the need for the methodology / system, and any pilot studies done to demonstrate the demand for, or feasibility of, such a methodology / system.2 Background. This should be divided into two subtopics: a discussion of prior work by the authors that led to the current design decisions; and an analysis of related work in the literature. An acknowledgment, analysis and integration of lessons from related work by others is crucial.
3. Design considerations. A discussion of the principle design, performance and implementation goals, against which the success of the methodology / system should be assessed.4. Description of method / system. A description of the theoretical basis of the computational method. A technical exposition of the overall architecture, the pertinent data structures, control mechanisms, etc. and a brief description of the hardware used, is required.
5. Status report. A description of the current status of the implementation, informal indicators of the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology / system, and examples of its current level of performance are required.6. Lessons learned. An analysis of the key insights gained from the work to date, focusing on the statement of general principles that can contribute to the knowledge in the field. The statement of such lessons must be well supported by examples. The emphasis should be on the statement of principles in such a form that they will be of use to other investigators in the field.
7. Mode of availability of software. The availability of demonstration/application software is a preferential criterion for acceptance.8. Future plans. A discussion of how the research to date, and the lessons learned, have led to a specification of future research goals, and possible revisions in the design and implementation of the method / system.
9. References. A listing of literature consulted in order of citation in the text, according to the standard abbreviations and form described under 'Manuscript preparation' below.Section II. Systems and program
In addition to papers describing software related to the methodology section above, papers on biomedical computer applications, original from the point of view of theoretical or technological approach, or describing the adaptation of existing software to the solution of specific problems, may be considered. No restrictions are made on the use of computer languages; the description and exchange of software widely applied in biomedical research and medical practice is considered of most importance. Papers on programs intended for Section II should cover the following items: (i) Introduction; (ii) Computational methods and theory; (iii) System or program description, preferably with structograms, or block diagrams and flow charts; (iv) Samples of typical system or program runs; (v) Hardware and software specifications; (vi) Mode of availability of the system or program; clear information is required; (vii) Listing of literature in order of citation in the text; (viii) Appendix expanding, when necessary, material in the text.Section III. Experiences with methods, systems and programs - Reader's forum
Evaluation of methods and software applications, comments on existing computer applications published in related books or journals, and discussions of practical problems related to biomedical computing are invited from users. Cross evaluations of specific hardware and software, and letters to the Editor, are welcome.
Authors of methodological papers and systems and programs papers are encouraged to make their code or software programs available to others, in the first case in form of demonstration code, and in the second case as usable applications with suitable user interface.
International newsInternational conferences, regional symposia and workshops are announced and reported. Newsletters from biomedical informatics associations are abstracted.
Publications reviewsRelevant books, journals and software products received are listed or reviewed. Promotion material for recent publications is abstracted.
Submission of Articles Manuscripts are accepted on the understanding that they report unpublished work that is not under consideration elsewhere, that all authors have agreed to its submission and that, if accepted, it will not be published again in the same form, in any language, without the prior consent of the publisher. All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Authors who wish to submit papers for publication are requested to submit their manuscripts and figures online via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES): http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb/ to the editor for the relevant geographical area (see below).Authors are requested to submit their manuscripts and figures online via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES): http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb/ to the editor for the relevant subject area or geographic area.
EES is a web-based submission and review system. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system to publication. In case of technical submission problems, please contact Elsevier Author Support at firstname.lastname@example.org
Editor: Yu-Chuan (Jack) Li, M.D., Ph.D., Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsin Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan.E-mail: email@example.comAssociate Editor "Biomedical Image Analysis":
Ewert Bengtsson, Centre for Image Analysis, Uppsala University, Box 337, SE-751 05 Uppsala, Sweden. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgAssociate Editor "Biomedical Modelling & Simulation":
Karl Thomaseth, ISIP-CNR Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padua, Italy.E-mail: email@example.comAssociate Editor "Biomedical Modelling & Simulation":
Ewart R. Carson, Centre for Health Informatics, City University, Northampton Square, London EC 1V OHB, UK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgAssociate Editor " Biosignal Analysis and Interpretation (processing, pattern recognition, classification), Personal Health Systems"
Ioanna Chouvarda, Laboratory of Medical Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; The Centre for Research & Technology, Hellas, Greece. E-mail: email@example.com.US-Associate Editor "Biomedical image analysis, Medical informatics, Pattern recognition / Machine learning in biomedicine":
J.J. Corso , Computer Science and Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgAcknowledgements
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.Conflict of interest At the end of the text, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
Role of the funding sourceEthics
All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.
Work on human beings that is submitted to Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki; Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines.
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent which should be documented in your paper. Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patients¿ images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian or next of kin where applicable). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to Elsevier on request.Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.Language Editing: International Science Editing and Asia Science Editing can provide English language and copyediting services to authors who need assistance before they submit their article or before it is accepted for publication. Authors can contact these services directly: International Science Editing http://www.internationalscienceediting.com) and Asia Science Editing (http://www.asiascienceediting.com) or, for more information about language editing services, please contact email@example.com who will be happy to deal with any questions.
Manuscript preparationThe manuscript
Manuscripts should be typed in English with double spacing and wide margins. Greek letters and mathematical symbols should be defined initially in the margin.Title page
A separate sheet should include the title, the names and full addresses of the authors, a concise but complete abstract of about 150 words, 3-6 key words for indexing purposes, and the name, full postal and email address and telephone number of the author for correspondence.Non-text material
All material for direct reproduction should be carefully prepared in order to allow reduction in size to fit into one column (7.5 x 20 cm. max.) or two columns (16 x 20 cm. max.). In particular, lettering should be of sufficient size and quality to be clearly legible after reduction.Electronic illustrations
Artwork should also be submitted in an electronic format as this allows the production of images to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail. Make sure that uniform lettering and sizing of the original artwork is used, and save text as "graphics" or enclose the font. Please use only the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol. Number the illustrations according to their sequence within the text. Use a logical naming system for the artwork files, and supply a separate listing of the files and the software used. All illustrations should be provided as separate files. Images should be produced near to the desired size of the printed version. Files can be stored on 3 1/2 inch diskette, ZIP-disk or CD (either MS-DOS or Macintosh). A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.Captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.Line drawings
The lettering and symbols, as well as other details, should have proportionate dimensions, so as not to become illegible or unclear after possible reduction; in general, the figures should be designed for a reduction factor of two to three. The degree of reduction will be determined by the Publisher. Illustrations will not be enlarged. Consider the page format of the journal when designing the illustrations. Dye-line prints or photocopies are not suitable for reproduction. Do not use any type of shading on computer-generated illustrations.Photographs (halftones)
Please supply high quality files of sharp images with good contrast. Remove non-essential areas of a photograph. Do not mount photographs unless they form part of a composite figure. Where necessary, insert a scale bar in the illustration (not below it), as opposed to giving a magnification factor in the legend. Note that photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.Colour illustrations
Submit colour illustrations as original files close to the size expected in publication. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures, Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge that these figures will appear in colour on the web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to 'grey scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in print) please submit in addition, usable black and white files corresponding to all the colour illustrations.Data input forms (optimal mark sheets,etc.)
If notations are not in the English language, a translation of terms should be given.Tables
Each table should be typed, double-spaced, on a new page, and be designed to fit in one or two column(s). Vertical lines should not be used: Tables should be given a separate Arabic numbering system to the figures, and have concise headings, clearly defined subheadings and, where necessary, detailed footnotes (indicated by superscript letters). When preparing tables, using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.
Hardware and software specificationsA brief but complete description, including the language used, the computer specifications and special equipment, the amount of computer time and memory required by the program, etc., should be given.
ReferencesCitations should be allocated Arabic numerals in order of appearance in the text. The number should be enclosed in square brackets in the text and in the reference list at the end of the text, where it should be followed by the full details according to the following examples (the 'Harvard' system is not used):
 F.T. de Dombal,Transporting databanks of medical information from on location to another, Effective Health Care 1 (1983) 155-162. P.F. Lemkin and L.E. Lipkin, Database techniques for two-dimensional electrophoretic gel analysis, in Computing in Biomedical Science, eds. M.J. Geisow and A.J. Barrett, pp. 181-234 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York NY, 1983).
 J.A. Roels, Relevance of the relaxation times concept to the modeling of bioengineering systems, in Energetics and Kinetics in Bio-technology, pp. 217-220 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York NY, 1983). R.B. Barlow, Line-fitting by least-squares: Expressions solved by iteration, in Biodata Handling with Microcomputers, Chap. 4 (Elsevier-Biosoft, Cambridge UK,1983).
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