Guide for Authors
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine is available through Elsevier's Electronic Submission System (EES) http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine is dedicated to the scientific development, implementation and exchange of formal methods and computer software systems in biomedical research and medical practice. It is designed to serve biomedical researchers; biomedical and clinical / health informaticians; medical researchers and practitioners; biologists; biochemists; biophysicists; geneticists; neuroscientists; cardiologists; psychologists; epidemiologists; immunologists; pharmacologists; biostatisticians; computer scientists, programmers and systems analysts; biomedical, clinical and other engineers; teachers of medical informatics and users of educational software. The aims of the journal are: (1) to encourage the development of formal computing methods, and their application in biomedical research and medical practice, by illustration of fundamental principles in biomedical informatics; (2) to stimulate basic research into biomedical application software design; (3) to report the state of research of biomedical information processing projects; (4) to report new computer methodologies applied in biomedical areas; (5) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of existing software, by describing implementations that can be directly used by other interested researchers; (6) to optimise contact between national organisations and regional user groups by promoting an international exchange of information on formal methods, standards and software in biomedicine; (7) to announce and report meetings of central interest.Field of Interest
The application of computer science methodology and software to the full range of theoretical and clinical biomedical specialties, including: Biochemistry; Biophysics; Molecular biology; Genetics; Immunology; Microbiology; Cardiology; Neurophysiology; Radiotherapy; Pharmacology; Clinical psychology; Psychophysiology and social medicine; Biomedical informatics; Biostatistics; Biomedical mathematics and cybernetics; Biomedical, clinical and electrical engineering; Clinical decision support; Hospital information systems; Process control; Medical imaging; Ambulatory monitoring.
ContentsSection I. Methodology
In Focus Papers These include: state of research papers on ongoing projects; future trends; software applications; computer-aided instruction in the laboratory and clinical practice; evolving hardware and software technology and its influence on health application design; developments in the science of biomedical computing, and areas listed under 'Section I. Methodology' below
Papers on methodology in established and maturing areas such as: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) man/machine interaction and interfaces (e.g., CAI, CAL, CAD/CAM, Decision support systems and voice-computer interaction); (3) database management; (4) biomedical modelling and simulation; (5) signal analysis; (6) image processing; (7) biosignal-based electronic prosthesis; (8) computer control of laboratory machines and devices; (9) computer communication networks; (10) computer architecture/software interaction, may be structured as follows:1. Introduction. A discussion of the research or clinical issues underlying a project's design, the need for the methodology / system, and any pilot studies done to demonstrate the demand for, or feasibility of, such a methodology / system.
2 Background. This should be divided into two subtopics: a discussion of prior work by the authors that led to the current design decisions; and an analysis of related work in the literature. An acknowledgment, analysis and integration of lessons from related work by others is crucial.3. Design considerations. A discussion of the principle design, performance and implementation goals, against which the success of the methodology / system should be assessed.
4. Description of method / system. A description of the theoretical basis of the computational method. A technical exposition of the overall architecture, the pertinent data structures, control mechanisms, etc. and a brief description of the hardware used, is required.5. Status report. A description of the current status of the implementation, informal indicators of the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology / system, and examples of its current level of performance are required.
6. Lessons learned. An analysis of the key insights gained from the work to date, focusing on the statement of general principles that can contribute to the knowledge in the field. The statement of such lessons must be well supported by examples. The emphasis should be on the statement of principles in such a form that they will be of use to other investigators in the field.7. Mode of availability of software. The availability of demonstration/application software is a preferential criterion for acceptance.
8. Future plans. A discussion of how the research to date, and the lessons learned, have led to a specification of future research goals, and possible revisions in the design and implementation of the method / system.9. References. A listing of literature consulted in order of citation in the text, according to the standard abbreviations and form described under 'Manuscript preparation' below.
Section II. Systems and programSection III. Experiences with methods, systems and programs - Reader's forum
In addition to papers describing software related to the methodology section above, papers on biomedical computer applications, original from the point of view of theoretical or technological approach, or describing the adaptation of existing software to the solution of specific problems, may be considered. No restrictions are made on the use of computer languages; the description and exchange of software widely applied in biomedical research and medical practice is considered of most importance. Papers on programs intended for Section II should cover the following items: (i) Introduction; (ii) Computational methods and theory; (iii) System or program description, preferably with structograms, or block diagrams and flow charts; (iv) Samples of typical system or program runs; (v) Hardware and software specifications; (vi) Mode of availability of the system or program; clear information is required; (vii) Listing of literature in order of citation in the text; (viii) Appendix expanding, when necessary, material in the text.
Evaluation of methods and software applications, comments on existing computer applications published in related books or journals, and discussions of practical problems related to biomedical computing are invited from users. Cross evaluations of specific hardware and software, and letters to the Editor, are welcome.Authors of methodological papers and systems and programs papers are encouraged to make their code or software programs available to others, in the first case in form of demonstration code, and in the second case as usable applications with suitable user interface.
International newsInternational conferences, regional symposia and workshops are announced and reported. Newsletters from biomedical informatics associations are abstracted.
Publications reviewsRelevant books, journals and software products received are listed or reviewed. Promotion material for recent publications is abstracted. Ethics in publishing
For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.
Work on human beings that is submitted to Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki; Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines.
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent which should be documented in your paper. Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patients¿ images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian or next of kin where applicable). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to Elsevier on request.Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.Conflict of Interest
At the end of the text, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
Changes to authorshipCopyright
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open Access and Subscription.
For Subscription articlesFor Open Access articles
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).
Retained author rightsRole of the funding source
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.
Funding body agreements and policiesLanguage (usage and editing services)
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.
This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $2500 applies (for further information on open access see http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-options). Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/openaccessform.pdf). Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.
Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.
The publication fee for this journal is $2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.
Language EditingSubmission of Articles
International Science Editing and Asia Science Editing can provide English language and copyediting services to authors who need assistance before they submit their article or before it is accepted for publication. Authors can contact these services directly: International Science Editing http://www.internationalscienceediting.com) and Asia Science Editing (http://www.asiascienceediting.com) or, for more information about language editing services, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org who will be happy to deal with any questions.
Manuscripts are accepted on the understanding that they report unpublished work that is not under consideration elsewhere, that all authors have agreed to its submission and that, if accepted, it will not be published again in the same form, in any language, without the prior consent of the publisher. All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Authors who wish to submit papers for publication are requested to submit their manuscripts and figures online via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES): http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb/ to the editor for the relevant geographical area (see below).
EES is a web-based submission and review system. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system to publication. In case of technical submission problems, please contact Elsevier Author Support at email@example.comAuthors are requested to submit their manuscripts and figures online via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES): http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb/ to the Editor-in-Chief (details below):
Editor: Yu-Chuan (Jack) Li, M.D., Ph.D., Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsin Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgAll special issue papers should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief who will assign them to the appropriate Managing Guest Editor. Authors should clearly state the title of the special issue their manuscript is intended for.
As a service to the community, this journal makes available online the accepted manuscripts as soon as possible after acceptance. At this stage, the author's accepted manuscript (in both full-text and PDF) is given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and is fully citable, and searchable by title, author(s) name and the full-text. The article also carries a disclaimer noting that it is an unedited manuscript which has not yet been copyedited, typeset or proofread. When the fully copyedited version is ready for publication, it simply replaces the author accepted manuscript version.Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/cmpb/. Manuscript
The letter must contain: why the submission is appropriate for publication in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine; what is known about the topic discussed; what your study adds; and confirmation that the paper has not been published elsewhere. Title PageA separate sheet should include the title, the names and full addresses of the authors, and the name, full postal and email address and telephone number of the author for correspondence. Title should not be all capitals. The Original research manuscript
Manuscripts should be typed in English with double spacing and wide margins. should not normally exceed 3500 words excluding abstract of 350 words. Tables and Figures in total up to 5 and References up to 50. Greek letters and mathematical symbols should be defined initially in the margin.Abstract. This should be structured under the following headings: Background and Objectives Methods Results Conclusions Keywords. 3-6 keywords should follow the abstract
The Abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 350 words and must be structured into separate sections: Background and Objective: the context and purpose of the study; Methods: how the study was performed and statistical tests used; Results: the main findings including evaluation with precision, sensitivity and specificity values; Conclusions: brief summary and potential implications. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. • Introduction • Methods • Results • Discussion • Acknowledgements including declarations: Statements of ethical approval, funding and competing interests.The Reviews manuscript Review articles contain systematic reviews of the literature on topics of broad interest to the readers or target audience and scope (covered topics). The structured abstract and text for a systematic review should follow the same format as described above with the word count: up to 4000 words excluding abstract of 350 words, Tables and Figures in total up to 5 with unlimited References. Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor are considered for publication as provided they do not contain material that has been submitted or published elsewhere.Letters in reference to a Journal article must not exceed 1000 words (excluding references), and must be received within three weeks after publication of the article.
Letters not related to a Journal article must not exceed 1500 words (excluding references) and contains no more than five references and one figure or table.NEW SUBMISSIONS
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.
Figures and tables embedded in textREVISED SUBMISSIONS
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.
Use of word processing softwareArticle structure
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - numbered sectionsIntroduction
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Theory/calculation
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis. Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page informationTitle Page
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A separate sheet should include the title, the names and full addresses of the authors, a concise but complete abstract of about 150 words, 3-6 key words for indexing purposes, and the name, full postal and email address and telephone number of the author for correspondence.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter. Electronic illustrations
Artwork should also be submitted in an electronic format as this allows the production of images to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail. Make sure that uniform lettering and sizing of the original artwork is used, and save text as "graphics" or enclose the font. Please use only the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol. Number the illustrations according to their sequence within the text. Use a logical naming system for the artwork files, and supply a separate listing of the files and the software used. All illustrations should be provided as separate files. Images should be produced near to the desired size of the printed version. Files can be stored on 3 1/2 inch diskette, ZIP-disk or CD (either MS-DOS or Macintosh). A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Hardware and Software SpecificationsLine Drawings
A brief but complete description, including the language used, the computer specifications and special equipment, the amount of computer time and memory required by the program, etc., should be given.
The lettering and symbols, as well as other details, should have proportionate dimensions, so as not to become illegible or unclear after possible reduction; in general, the figures should be designed for a reduction factor of two to three. The degree of reduction will be determined by the Publisher. Illustrations will not be enlarged. Consider the page format of the journal when designing the illustrations. Dye-line prints or photocopies are not suitable for reproduction. Do not use any type of shading on computer-generated illustrations.
Electronic artworkData input forms (optimal mark sheets,etc.)
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
If notations are not in the English language, a translation of terms should be given.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Please supply high quality files of sharp images with good contrast. Remove non-essential areas of a photograph. Do not mount photographs unless they form part of a composite figure. Where necessary, insert a scale bar in the illustration (not below it), as opposed to giving a magnification factor in the legend. Note that photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
Illustration servicesColor Illustrations
Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Submit colour illustrations as original files close to the size expected in publication. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures, Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge that these figures will appear in colour on the web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to 'grey scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in print) please submit in addition, usable black and white files corresponding to all the colour illustrations.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Each table should be typed, double-spaced, on a new page, and be designed to fit in one or two column(s). Vertical lines should not be used: Tables should be given a separate Arabic numbering system to the figures, and have concise headings, clearly defined subheadings and, where necessary, detailed footnotes (indicated by superscript letters). When preparing tables, using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Reference linksWeb references
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones  obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
Reference to a book:
 W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.
Citations should be allocated Arabic numerals in order of appearance in the text. The number should be enclosed in square brackets in the text and in the reference list at the end of the text, where it should be followed by the full details according to the following examples (the 'Harvard' system is not used):
 F.T. de Dombal,Transporting databanks of medical information from on location to another, Effective Health Care 1 (1983) 155-162. P.F. Lemkin and L.E. Lipkin, Database techniques for two-dimensional electrophoretic gel analysis, in Computing in Biomedical Science, eds. M.J. Geisow and A.J. Barrett, pp. 181-234 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York NY, 1983).
 J.A. Roels, Relevance of the relaxation times concept to the modeling of bioengineering systems, in Energetics and Kinetics in Bio-technology, pp. 217-220 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York NY, 1983). R.B. Barlow, Line-fitting by least-squares: Expressions solved by iteration, in Biodata Handling with Microcomputers, Chap. 4 (Elsevier-Biosoft, Cambridge UK,1983).
Journal abbreviations sourceVideo data
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.
Use of the Digital Object IdentifierOnline proof correction
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints/myarticlesservices/booklets).
For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs at http://www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ and/or contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.