Guide for Authors

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    Introduction
    • Pre-submission Inquiries
    • Types of submissions
    • Manuscript fees and page charges
    • Express track submission fees
    • Waiver Policy
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in Publishing
    • CHEERS/Health Economic Evaluations
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Authorship
    • Changes to Authorship
    • Reporting and registration of clinical trials
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Informed consent and patient details
    • Submission
    • Additional Information
    PREPARATION
    • Double-blind review
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Chemical compounds
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements (see Types of submissions)
    • Conflict of Interest statement (see Types of submissions)
    • Units
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Supplementary data
    • Interactive Phylogenetic Trees
    • Submission checklist
    • Upon Revision - Promotion of Your Article
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints



    Clinical Therapeutics is dedicated to the dissemination of reliable and evolving evidence from many areas of research and clinical practice. Providing such information is especially important in this era of harmonization and globalization of drug development. Clinical Therapeutics strives to achieve its mission by providing peer-reviewed, rapid publication of recent developments in drug therapies, as well as in-depth review articles on specific agents, treatment strategies, and disease states. Our readership consists of an international audience of scientists and clinicians working in a variety of research, academic, and clinical practice settings.

    Published articles range from pivotal studies exploring new chemical entities in large, multicenter trials to those exploring repurposing of marketed agents. Additionally, pilot studies; reports that assess drug safety and tolerability in all phases of development; new routes of administration and new formulations; pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, bioequivalence and biosimilarity; and changes in practice guidelines and standards, are all of interest for publication.

    Clinical Therapeutics also understands the importance of strengthening the body of evidence surrounding particular agents through the publication of replication studies, negative trials, and failed trials.

    Beyond the clinic, we seek reports that examine the real-world implications of therapeutics such as comparative effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics studies as well as work that has implications for health policy.

    Commentaries, perspectives, and contemporary issues are sought to offer a balance of viewpoints and scholarly opinion on a broad array of drug-related topics. Case reports, which remain a vital part of our mission, offer clinically valuable lessons.

    All manuscripts are peer reviewed by independent clinicians or scientists for clinical relevance, technical accuracy, methodological rigor, clarity, and objectivity using a double-blind review process. Most articles are available online within 20 business days after acceptance.

    Articles appearing in Clinical Therapeutics are indexed by all major biomedical abstracting databases.

    Pre-submission Inquiries

    Clinical Therapeutics is delighted to respond to pre-submission inquiries. Please send a letter of inquiry together with your proposed manuscript title and abstract for consideration to the editorial office at clinther@elsevier.com; all queries will be dealt with promptly.

    Types of submissions

    All types of submissions with the exception of Research Letters and Case Reports must include a structured abstract of 400 words or less, as directed by the extension to the CONSORT statement for abstracts (http://www.consort-statement.org/extensions/data/abstracts/), followed by 4 to 6 carefully chosen keywords for indexing.

    The abstract should be formatted as follows:

    Purpose: Briefly provides the frame of reference for the reader and identifies the knowledge gap that the article seeks to address: clearly states the purpose of the research; and identifies the scientific hypotheses and questions being asked.

    Methods: Succinctly outlines study methodology, including detailed study design, exclusion and inclusion criteria, statistical approaches, and adverse event assessment methodology.

    Findings: Includes study demographics, adverse events, principle data and statistical analyses.

    Implications: Covers any limitations or problems in interpretation or generalization from the study findings as well as implications and future directions: must be strictly limited to what can be supported directly by the Findings, and what was identified in the Purpose section.

    Study registry identification number should be included immediately following the Implications section of the abstract.

    Abstracts are often presented separately from the article; therefore, an abstract must be brief and able to stand alone. References should be avoided (if essential, the complete reference per AMA style must be given with the lines of text). Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided (when necessary, they must be defined at their first use in the abstract).

    Additionally, all manuscript types should also include an Acknowledgements section and a Conflict of Interest statement as described below:

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (eg, providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc).

    Conflicts of Interest

    At the end of the text and preceding the references section, under a subheading “Conflict of interest statement” all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should state so. As a guideline see the ICMJE form for disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest at: http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf. In order to maintain the double-blind peer review process, we recommend that first and last initials are used in place of author names within this section.

    Original Research

    Review Articles and Commentaries

    Brief Reports

    Research Letters

    Case Reports

    Letters to the Editor

    Manuscript fees and page charges

    Corresponding authors of manuscripts accepted for publication will be charged the following rates:

    •For Original Research papers: $500 USD per composed journal page

    •For Review articles: A flat fee of $2500 USD

    •For Commentaries, Brief Reports, and Case Reports: A flat fee of $2000 USD

    •For Research Letters: A flat fee of $1000 USD

    Upon article acceptance and delivery of a composed article proof, payment instructions will be provided to corresponding author with a link to a payment portal (“Submission Start”). Author is expected to complete payment with 48 hours, and to do so, prior to returning article proofs. Please note: author’s article will not be published until such time payment has been satisfied.

    Standard page charges do not include publication of color figures. Consult the editorial office for color figure fees after article acceptance.

    Express track submission fees

    Clinical Therapeutics offers Express Track peer review service for time-sensitive manuscripts, for a fee of $1000 USD per submitted manuscript for Original Research. This fee is nonrefundable and noncancellable. Payment instructions are provided at the time of submission. Express Track submission fee guarantees you:

    •High-quality peer review, completed within 5-10 business days.

    •A reject or revise decision provided to the author within 3 business days of receipt of reviewers' comments by the editorial office.

    •A final decision on revised manuscripts within 15 business days of receipt (excluding requests for subsequent revisions).

    A fee of $750 per printed journal page is charged for accepted Express Track papers. Upon article acceptance and delivery of a composed article proof, payment instructions will be provided to corresponding author with a link to a payment portal (“Submission Start”). Author is expected to complete payment with 48 hours, and to do so, prior to returning article proofs.

    Accepted manuscripts are published online in advance of print within 20 days from acceptance (pending author approval of finished proof and payment of page charges), and are scheduled for publication in the next available issue.

    If you would like to use Express Track peer review service, please request this in your cover letter.

    Waiver Policy

    If you have no funding for page charges, you MUST state the reason at the time of submission, and provide appropriate formal documentation which supports your request, and clearly indicates that your research/study/grant does not support funds for publication. Such documentation may include a copy of the grant proposal, or an official letter from institution or sponsor which clearly states there is no money for publication fees.

    Please complete the Waive Fee Request form and upload it with your manuscript and formal documentation at the time of submission. Waive Fee Requests that are not supported by formal documentation will not be considered. Please note: No fee waiver or reduction in fees will be granted after a manuscript is submitted.

    The ability to pay the fee does not influence decisions regarding the acceptance of a paper, which is solely dependent on the peer-review process. Please note: Express Track manuscripts are not eligible for a reduced or waived fee.

    Ethics in Publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Prospective authors are encouraged to read the Authors' Submission Toolkit: A practical guide to getting your research published (available at http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1185/03007995.2010.499344). The Author Toolkit summarizes tips and "best practices" to increase awareness of editorial requirements, journal selection, submission processes, publication ethics, peer review, and effective communication with editors.

    Policy & Ethics

    The work described in your article must have been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EC Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. This must be stated at an appropriate point in the article.

    CHEERS/Health Economic Evaluations

    To optimize the quality, consistency, and transparency of health economic and outcomes research reporting and dissemination, Clinical Therapeutics endorses the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. Authors submitting economic evaluations of pharmacotherapies and other treatment interventions for publication should consult with the CHEERS statement and follow its 24-item checklist of recommendations. Please refer to the statement published in Clinical Therapeutics (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.03.003; Husereau D, Drummond M, Petrou S, Carswell C, Moher D, Greenberg D, Augustovski F, Briggs AH, Mauskopf J, Loder E, CHEERS Task Force. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) Statement. 2013;35:356-363) or the CHEERS statement website at http://www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp for more information. For this purpose, health economic evaluation is defined as the comparative analysis of alternative pharmaceutical and health interventions in terms of their costs and their consequences. All health economic evaluations assess costs, but approaches to measuring consequences of health interventions may differ and can be valued in terms of monetary units; natural units, such as life years gained or disability days avoided; and preference-based health measures, such as quality-adjusted life years or disability-adjusted life years.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Authorship

    Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the acknowledgments.

    Changes to Authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names , must be sent to the editorial office from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Note that publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in an erratum.

    Reporting and registration of clinical trials

    All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at http://www.consort-statement.org for more information. This journal has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrollment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions including vitamin or herbal supplements, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.

    Studies that were initiated without registration can be registered retrospectively and will be considered for publication on a subjective basis.

    PROSPECTIVE, OBSERVATIONAL, OR INTERVENTIONAL PRE- AND POST -MARKETING STUDIES

    Pre- or post-marketing studies must undergo review by an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee. Patients must give written informed consent unless a waiver of consent is allowed by the IRB. Patients must be informed of any real or potential conflicts of interest, including compensation of the investigator and potential costs to the patient that may result from their participation in the study. The amount of the remuneration of the investigators for their participation in pre- or post-marketing studies must be approved by the IRB/ethics committee. If the design of a prospective pre- or post- marketing study calls for a treatment intervention such as a switch or withdrawal, then criteria must be established a priori for patient selection, the implementation of the intervention, and assessment of success/failure of such intervention. Such criteria must be scientifically justified, documented, uniformly applied and enforced, and clearly reported in the study report. Additionally, the patient or his/her insurance provider will not be required to pay for costs related to prospective interventions, such as those that may result from a drug switch or withdrawal.

    All other studies that involve identifiable human subjects, including retrospective studies, chart reviews, post-marketing surveillance studies, or government mandated phase IV trials require IRB or ethics committee approval or waiver. In each case, detailed IRB or ethics committee information should be clearly stated in the Methods section.

    Studies that only utilize pre-existing, de-identified (according to HIPAA standards) patient data are not required to seek IRB approval.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is 2500 US$, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in standard, grammatically correct English. If English is not your first language, authors are encouraged to consult with a colleague or professional whose native language is English to improve grammar and syntax prior to submission. Alternatively, authors may wish to visit Elsevier's language editing and copyediting services which are available both pre- and post-submission at: http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting or our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com for more information. Articles that are not cogent and clearly written will be returned to the author.

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/clinther.

    Additional Information

    Drugs should be referred to by their universally accepted generic names, not by company trademarks. US adopted names (USANs) are acceptable. If unnamed compounds are referred to, as much information as possible (eg, class of compound) should be included and published references to the compound should be provided. If this is not possible because of intellectual property reasons then this should be stated.

    Footnotes and uncommon abbreviations should be avoided whenever possible. When abbreviations or symbols are used, they should be defined in the text the first time they appear as well as in the tables and figures.

    Any material that has been published elsewhere must be accompanied by written consent from the original author and publisher for print and electronic reproduction.

    Double-blind review

    This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. For more information please refer to http://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
    Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including telephone and e-mail address.
    Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any Acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

    Article structure

    Structured abstract (see Types of submissions)

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide 4-6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Chemical compounds

    You can enrich your article by providing a list of chemical compounds studied in the article. The list of compounds will be used to extract relevant information from the NCBI PubChem Compound database and display it next to the online version of the article on ScienceDirect. You can include up to 10 names of chemical compounds in the article. For each compound, please provide the PubChem CID of the most relevant record as in the following example: Glutamic acid (PubChem CID:611). The PubChem CIDs can be found via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound. Please position the list of compounds immediately below the 'Keywords' section. It is strongly recommended to follow the exact text formatting as in the example below:
    Chemical compounds studied in this article
    Ethylene glycol (PubChem CID: 174); Plitidepsin (PubChem CID: 44152164); Benzalkonium chloride (PubChem CID: 15865)
    More information is available at: http://www.elsevier.com/PubChem.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements (see Types of submissions)

    Conflict of Interest statement (see Types of submissions)

    Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color Artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS [or PDF]), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (eg, ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs, if any, from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Submit each table as a separate file.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Citation in Text
    Indicate references by superscript number(s) or in brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    Example: "..... as demonstrated.3,6 Barnaby and Jones.8. obtained a different result ...." Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the list of title word abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Interactive Phylogenetic Trees

    You can enrich your online articles by providing phylogenetic tree data files (optional) in Newick or NeXML format, which will be visualized using the interactive tree viewer embedded within the online article. Using the viewer it will be possible to zoom into certain tree areas, change the tree layout, search within the tree, and collapse/expand tree nodes and branches. Submitted tree files will also be available for downloading from your online article on ScienceDirect. Each tree must be contained in an individual data file before being uploaded separately to the online submission system, via the 'phylogenetic tree data' submission category. Newick files must have the extension .new or .nwk (note that a semicolon is needed to end the tree). Please do not enclose comments in Newick files and also delete any artificial line breaks within the tree data because these will stop the tree from showing. For NeXML, the file extension should be .xml. Please do not enclose comments in the file. Tree data submitted with other file extensions will not be processed. Please make sure that you validate your Newick/NeXML files prior to submission. For more information please see http://www.elsevier.com/phylogenetictrees.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Upon Revision - Promotion of Your Article

    At the time you submit the revised version of your article, please compose a question for which your paper's subject, topic or title is an answer. We will take your question, attach your paper's web address, and use it for social media promotion on Twitter. See example, below: Author composed question: How common are adverse events after corticosteroid treatment?

    The answer is the author's paper, "Incidence and US Costs of Corticosteroid-Associated Adverse Events: A Systematic Literature Review," which the Clinical Therapeutics editorial office will translate to a bit.ly URL, http://bit.ly/sFmbgF (a shortened web address) and attach it to the question:

    The final product, the question and the shortened web address, is the message we will promote on Twitter, to boost awareness and drive traffic to the published content. What you will see on Twitter:

    How common are adverse events after corticosteroid treatment? http://bit.ly/sFmbgF

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

    AUTHOR INQUIRIES
    For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage or contact the editorial office (clinther@elsevier.com). For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs at http://www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ and/or contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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