Guide for Authors
Clinical Nutrition, the official journal of ESPEN, The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, is an international journal providing scientific information on nutritional and metabolic care and the relationship between nutrition and disease both in the setting of basic science and clinical practice. Published bi-monthly, each issue combines original articles, reviews and other types of publications that will provide an invaluable reference for any specialist concerned with the field of interest.
Nutrition and nutritional care have gained wide clinical and scientific interest during the past decades. The increasing knowledge of metabolic disturbances and nutritional assessment in chronic and acute diseases has stimulated rapid advances in design, development and clinical application of nutritional support. The aims of ESPEN are to encourage the rapid diffusion of knowledge and its application in the field of clinical nutrition and metabolism.
Being the journal of ESPEN with members having various interest fields, either focused on basic research or clinical disciplines, the journal reflects the scientific nature of this multidisciplinary background and encourages the coordination of investigation and research from these disciplines. The journal publishes guidelines, consensus statements, review papers, original articles, short communications, and letters to the editor on those factors in acute and chronic diseases, which have metabolic and nutritional implications. It also publishes scientific works related to the development of new techniques and their application in the field of clinical nutrition.
The e-SPEN Journal is an electronic-only official publication of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). Published bimonthly, the e-SPEN Journal focuses on publishing articles on the relationship between nutrition and disease in the setting of basic science and clinical practice. e-SPEN is available to all members of ESPEN and to all subscribers of Clinical Nutrition. Should the Editor-in-Chief feel that a paper which has been submitted to Clinical Nutrition is more suitable for publication in the e-SPEN Journal, the author will be advised by the Editorial Office and will then have the choice whether to proceed with publishing their paper in the e-SPEN Journal or to withdraw their paper. Manuscript submission directly to the e-SPEN Journal should be clearly indicated in the covering letter.GENERAL INFO ABOUT MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSIONS
Authors are requested to submit their original manuscript and figures online via http://ees.elsevier.com/yclnu/ together with a covering letter which should be signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors and should include statements that all authors have approved the submitted version of the manuscript and that the manuscript, including related data, figures and tables has not been previously published and that the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere.
Author contributions. The specific contribution of each author to the work should be listed in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined by ICMJE (http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html) should be listed in the Acknowledgements section.Role of the funding source. All sources of funding should be declared in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.
Ethics Work on Human Beings. Work on human beings that are submitted to Clinical Nutrition or e-SPEN Journal should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki; Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Patients' and volunteers' names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.Animal Research. Work on in vivo animal experiments that is submitted to Clinical Nutrition or e-SPEN Journal should comply with the principles laid down in the ARRIVE Guidelines - Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments at http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/ARRIVE/. This requirement is to improve the reporting of animal experiments.
Full instructions for manuscript submission are on http://ees.elsevier.com/yclnu/ - a Guide for Authors and a Guide for Online Submission. Please follow these guidelines. A checklist for submitting manuscripts is available and needs to be completed during manuscript submission. A PDF proof is generated from the uploaded files and this is then used for reviewing. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, the source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revisions, will be managed via this system, and authors will also be notified via e-mail, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.If you have any problems submitting your paper through this system, please contact the Editorial Office on: e-mail: email@example.com. You may also contact the Author Support Department at Elsevier: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manuscript preparation and format. Manuscripts may be submitted from any country and must be written in clear, concise English. When the editorial board feels that the English language needs to be improved, you should seek help from our professional language support. Elsevier supplies this service on http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authors.authors/languagepolishing. Manuscripts should be double-spaced (including references, tables, and figure legends). Lines should be numbered continuously, beginning in the title page and thus every line has a unique number (Microsoft WORD: file/page setup/layout/line numbers). Each section in the manuscript should start on a separate page. When applicable refer to Clinical Nutrition papers from the last 2 years. The number of figures and tables should be in balance with the length of the manuscript, and carefully prepared to avoid duplication of data in the text, tables and figures. Tables and Figures should be submitted as separate documents outside of the Manuscript file, as Tables and Figures files. Standard abbreviation may be used without definition, while non-standardized abbreviations should be explained in the text (as well as tables and figures) and should be listed on the title page.ARTICLE TYPES
Full Length Articles. Should not contain more than 30 references and should be organized in the following successive sections and Manuscript preparation and format information above to be followed: Title Page, Abstract (Background & Aims - Methods - Results - Conclusions). Introduction, Materials and Methods (including statistical considerations and ethical statement), Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Statement of Authorship, Conflict of Interest Statement and Funding sources, References; Figure and Table Legends.
Review Article. Should not contain more than 50 references and contain at least 2 figures (color figures encouraged at no extra charge for the author) and 2 tables to summarize the most important data and/or concepts.(Inter)national Guidelines. Can be submitted after consultation with the Editorial Office.
ESPEN Guidelines. Are submitted in collaboration with the Editorial Office.ESPEN Endorsed Recommendations. Are submitted in collaboration with the Editorial Office.
Letter to the Editor. Is considered for publication provided it does not contain material that has been submitted or published elsewhere. The text, not including references, must not exceed 450 words. The letter must have no more than five references and one figure or small table and should not be signed by more than three authors. When a letter refers to an article recently published in Clinical Nutrition, the opportunity for reply will be given to the authors of the original article. Such a reply will be published along with the letter. Start the letter with "Dear Editor".Editorial. Are submitted by members of the Editorial Board.
Short Communications. Should not contain more than 10 references and organized as Full Length articles. Maximum 1500 words.Opinion Papers. Should not contain more than 30 references and organized as Full Length articles.
Educational Papers. Should not contain more than 30 references and organized as Full Length articles and contain at least 2 figures (color figures encouraged at no extra charge for the author) and 2 tables to summarize the most important data and/or concepts.Invited Editorial. Is by invitation from the Editor-in-Chief to submit an Invited Editorial to the journal.
Randomized controlled trials. Should not contain more than 30 references and organized as Full Length articles. All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication in Clinical Nutrition should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials CONSORT 2010 checklist. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at http://www.consort-statement.org for more information. The checklist can also be downloaded from here. You will be asked to upload this completed checklist at the time of submission. Clinical Nutrition and e-SPEN Journal have adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Clinical trials are defined as "biomedical or health related studies in human beings that follow a defined protocol." In addition to intervention studies, this definition encompasses observational, prevention, quality of life, diagnostic, and screening trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov). Any clinical trial for which subject recruitment began after July 1, 2008 must be registered in one of the five ICMJE-approved public trials registries (i.e.,www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.actr.org.au, www.isrctn.org, www.umin.ac.jp, www.trialregister.nl). Is this study appropriately registered? If so, please report the study ID number and the website where the clinical trial is registered on the title page of the paper. If the study is not registered, authors must do so before the submitted paper will be considered for peer-review. If the study began before July 1, 2008, the initial recruitment date should be reported in the appropriate place in the Methods section. Clinical Nutrition and e-SPEN Journal require prospective registration of all trials.Report. Should not contain more than 30 references and organized as Full Length articles.
Meta-analyses. Should not contain more than 50 references and organized as Full Length articles. All Meta-analyses submitted for publication in Clinical Nutrition should also include a completed uploaded PRISMA Statement. We have adopted the definitions of systematic review and meta-analysis used by the Cochrane Collaboration. A systematic review is a review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyze and summarize the results of the included studies. Meta-analysis refers to the use of statistical techniques in a systematic review to integrate the results of included studies. Downloadable forms are located at http://www.prisma-statement.org/statement.htm.MORE DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT THE SECTIONS IN THE MANUSCRIPTTitle Page. The title page must include the following elements.
- Title. It should be brief (no more than 25 words) and specific and must not include abbreviations or trade names. We suggest not including any reference to localities as the information in the paper should be of interest to the readers of a global journal.
- Authors. Provide contact details for all authors. The title page should include a list consisting of the last name of each author for the purpose of PubMed indexing. (Note: the "title page" can be more be more than one page long)
- Short title. A short title (no more than 50 characters) for the purposes of running head must be provided.
- Non-standard abbreviations. Define abbreviations that are not standard in the field at their first occurrence in the article and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. List all non-standard abbreviations on the title page.
- Address for correspondence. Give the name, complete address, telephone and fax numbers, and Email address of the corresponding author (to whom requests for reprints should be addressed).
- Conference presentation. When applicable, indicate the conference (name, location and year) where (part of) the work was presented.
Abstract. This should be typed, double-spaced on a separate page. The abstract must be organized to the following headings: Background & Aims, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. No abbreviations and references should be used in the abstract. For randomized controlled trials, the clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract. The abstract should be written in complete sentences and limited to 250 words. The Introduction should be limited to 1.5 pages (450 words) and the Discussion to 4 pages (1200 words).Keywords. Immediately after the abstract provide a maximum of six keywords for indexing purposes.
Manuscript. See Manuscript preparation and format for instructions for structure of submission.The acknowledgment section should be included at the end of the manuscript text, just before the list of references and should include:
- Acknowledgements: to all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair that provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
- Statement of authorship: Each author must have participated sufficiently, intellectually or practically, in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the article, including the conception, design, and conduct of the experiment and for data interpretation (authorship). Therefore, each author is required to list his or her specific contribution to the work (such as design of the experiment, collection of data, analysis of data, writing of the manuscript, or provision of significant advice or consultation), according to the Vancouver rules: (http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html). We suggest the following format, using initials to refer to each author's contribution: "AA carried out the studies and data analyses and drafted the manuscript. BB carried out the samples analyses. CC participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. DD conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript".
- Sources of funding: Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.
- Conflict of Interest Statement: All authors must make a statement of the Conflict of Interest.
Sample ReferencesFigure legends. Legends should be typed double-spaced in consecutive order on a separate sheet, using Arabic numbers (for example, Figure 1). Provide a short title (in the legends, not on the figure itself) and brief but sufficient information to permit interpretation of figures without reference to text. Do not exceed 250 words for each legend and provide a key for each symbol used.
Article in a journal
1. Cummings J H, MacFarlane G T. Role of intestinal bacteria in nutrient metabolism. Clin Nutr 1997; 16: 3-11.
1. McLaren D S, Meguid M M. Nutrition and its disorders, 4th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1988.
Chapter in a book
1. Goodwin S C, Liu S. Radiologic techniques for enteral access. In: Rombeau J L, Rolandelli R H, Eds. Enteral and tube feeding, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders, 1997: 193-206.
1. U.S. positions on selected issues at the third negotiating session of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Washington, D.C.: Committee on Government Reform, 2002. (Accessed March 4, 2002, athttp://www.house.gov/reform/min/inves_tobacco/index_accord.htm.)
Online journal article
Tenesa A, Noble C, Satsangi J et al. Association of DLG 5 and inflammatory bowel disease across human populations. Eur Journal Hum Genet 2006: published online Jan 4. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201516
Tables. Tables should be typed double-spaced, each on a separate file, and contain only horizontal rules. The tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals and contain a brief specific title. Data presented in tables must be logically and clearly organized; they should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text. Use superscript capitals starting from "a" and in alphabetical order for footnotes and provide a key for each symbol used.Figures. Figures and photographs should be submitted online as separate files. Photographs, photomicrographs, electron micrographs, roentgenograms, and (professionally drawn) drawings are not required to accompany online submission, but should be submitted as black-and-white high-quality glossy prints once the manuscript is accepted for publication. A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Generally: Each table and figure should stand alone without reference to the text. Each table and figure should include an indication of the variability of the data (SEM, SD etc.), the results of the statistical analysis, and the n. Please identify in table footnotes and figure legends the statistical test used to analyze the data.General points
- Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
- Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
- Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
- Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
- Provide all illustrations as separate files.
Formats. Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
- EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
- TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
- TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
- TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
- DOC, XLS or PPT: If you're electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
Line drawings. The lettering and symbols, as well as other details, should have proportionate dimensions, so as not to become illegible or unclear after possible reduction; in general, the figures should be designed for a reduction factor of two to three. The degree of reduction will be determined by the Publisher. Illustrations will not be enlarged. Consider the page format of the journal when designing the illustrations. Do not use any type of shading on computer-generated illustrations.Colour illustrations. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to "grey scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Units & Abbreviations. Headings in the body of the paper should be appropriate to the nature of the paper and enhance readability. Usually, only two categories of heading should be used, but not be numbered. Abbreviations may be used when the term is used at least three times in the text, but the full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use unless it is a standard unit of measurement. Abbreviations used only in a table or figure may be defined in the legend. Identify drugs and chemicals used by generic name (if trademarks are mentioned, manufacturer name and city should be given). The metric system should be used for all measurements (weight, length, etc.). Temperatures should be expressed as Celsius (centigrade). Metric abbreviations should be expressed in lower case without periods and with no distinction between singular and plural. Both SI and traditional units may be used.Supplementary data. We accept supplementary electronic material to support and enhance the paper. Supplementary files offer additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online, alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com/. In order for your submitted material be directly usable; please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format, together with the article, and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our Author Gateway at http://www.elsevier.com/authors.
REVIEW AND FURTHER HANDLING OF THE MANUSCRIPTCopyright Information. Copyright of the papers published in Clinical Nutrition is shared by the publisher (Elsevier Ltd) and ESPEN, copyright of the papers published in e-SPEN Journal is with ESPEN.
The review process. The Editorial office assigns each submitted manuscript to an Associate Editor with expertise in the field; all manuscripts that are not prepared according to the Guide for Authors are returned to the author to make the requested adaptations. The Editorial Board may reject papers without external review when the subject is out of the scope of the journal, when the study has major methodological problems or when the manuscript cannot be assigned a high enough priority for further review. External review implies that at least two expert reviewers are asked to review the manuscript in a timely manner and to assign a priority based on content, originality, quality, relevance and interest. Authors are informed of the final decision by e-mail, with Reviewers' comments enclosed. Confidentiality is considered for all manuscripts during the peer-review process.
Only previously unpublished work should be submitted; all text, including requested material, will be subject to editorial review and revision. Only manuscripts in English will be accepted. The manuscripts become the property of the journal and may not be published elsewhere without written permission from the publisher.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions).If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Proofs. One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by postal mail). Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/acrrsystemreqs.html#70win.If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post.Offprints. The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. Additional paper offprints can be ordered by the authors. An order form with prices will be sent to the corresponding author.
Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.
Revisions, rejections. Revision should be resubmitted within three months of the initial decision and are carefully re-examined. However, no guarantee can be made about the final acceptability. If authors of a rejected manuscript are able to make new advances that go far beyond the original submission, they may consider submitting the manuscript again as a new submission, referring to the original submission in the cover letter.Funding body agreements and policies. Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to enable authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.
Authors' rights. As an author you (or your employer or institution) retains certain rights; for details you are referred to:http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorshome.authors/authorsrights.Author enquiries. For enquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available) please visit this journal's homepage at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/clnu. You can track accepted articles at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an article's status has changed. Also accessible from here is information on copyright, frequently asked questions and more.
Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher.
CHECKLIST FOR SUBMITTING MANUSCRIPTSConflict of Interest declarations. In the acknowledgements section, all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. In addition, each author must download, complete, and submit the Conflicts of Interest Checklist.
Opposed Reviewers. You may mention opposed reviewers who you would prefer not to review your paper; this is optional.Manuscript
- Double-spaced and spell checked
- Consecutive line numbers in left margin
- Title page: All requested elements: title, authors, short title, non-standard abbreviations, address for correspondence, conference presentation (when applicable)
- Abstract: Background & Aims - Methods - Results - Conclusions
- Keywords: max 6
- Main text: use sections as instructed
- Acknowledgments: including: (1) grants/funding, (2) acknowledgement to contributors who do not meet authorship criteria, (3) statement of authorship, (4) statement.of any conflicts of interest.
- References: according to requested format
- Figure legends
- Double spaced, each table on separate page
- Only horizontal rules
- Each figure on separate sheet, indicating figure number
- Color figures in original articles can be printed in black and white (and appear in color online), but are charged when printed in color; 1-2 color figures in review articles at no charge.