Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Article Categories
• Contact details for submission
• Ethics in publishing
• Ethical approval of studies and Informed consent
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Reporting clinical trials
• Copyright
• Author Rights
• Funding/support Statement
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Identification of patients in descriptions, photographs and pedigrees
• Submission
• General
• Length of articles
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Acknowledgements
• Units
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Editorial Process
• Preparation for Publication and Proofs
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health (CEGH) is the official journal of the Indian Clinical Epidemiology Network (IndiaClen). This is a multidisciplinary e-journal published thrice a year. The mandate of the journal is to promote clinical epidemiology and global health internationally and particularly in India and Asian countries. This will be done by providing through the Journal a platform for publishing high quality research works, building capacity for cutting edge research by continuing education, improving practices and policy by evidence updates and engaging with and mentoring the future generation by students' section.

IndiaClen is dedicated to improving the health of the people by promoting clinical practice based on the best evidence of effectiveness and the efficient use of resources. Our goal is to strengthen national health care systems and improve health practices by providing professionals in the field with the tools to analyze the efficacy, efficiency, and equity of interventions and preventive measures. All articles published in our journal are peer reviewed to the highest standard, published online for immediate access.

Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health publishes original research work across all disciplines of medicine and allied sciences, related to clinical epidemiology and global health. Continuing education, evidence updates, students' pre-specified contributions, journal clubs, health-related information of interest to our readers and letters to editors are published.

Article Categories

Editorials are always solicited, although unsolicited editorials can also be considered. Editorials are limited to 1200 words and 10 references.

Original Research Articles are full-length papers that address research questions with appropriate study design and methodology. The entire manuscript, excluding the abstract, tables, figures and references, should not exceed 3000 words and should not contain more than 30 references. Original research articles are typically RCTs and other interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiological assessments, observational studies, surveys, economic analysis, decision analysis and manuscripts which deal with screening test, diagnostic test evaluation, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and qualitative studies, health service research etc. Clinical trials must be registered in either Indian CT registry or any one of the internationally available registries and the registration number must be provided.

Submitted manuscripts must follow the International Committee of Medical Editors Revised Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals (See Names of authors and author information must not be included in the manuscript. The manuscript should be presented in the following order: 1) Title page; 2) Abstract with key words; 3).Text; 4) Acknowledgements; 4) References; and 5) Tables and Figures with legends. The data included in the study must be original and must be timely and current as possible. Manuscripts previously published in other journals or data bases are not accepted for publication in the journal.

Title Page: The title page should contain 1) Concise title of the paper and running title; 2) Full names of all authors, including the corresponding author; 3) Address of institutions; 4) E-mail and contact phone number of the corresponding author; 5) Total word count in main text; 6) Total number of references; 7) Number of Tables and Figures in the manuscript.

Abstract and Key words: Abstract should be structured into problem considered, methods, results and conclusion. It should not exceed 250 words. Up to 5 keywords can be given.

Text: It must be structured into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD) format. The manuscript should clearly state the importance of the problem, current knowledge bearing on the question, why this work adds to what is currently known and the objectives or hypothesis in the Introduction section. Methods must include study design, setting, subjects/patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, details of interventions, if any, the exposure factor and how it was measured and the primary outcome and the secondary outcomes if any. It must also give details on data management and analysis. The result section should provide data with confidence interval and statistical significance, whenever appropriate. Conclusions must be consistent with the results and must relate to the research question addressed. It should include summary of main results, related literature, strengths and limitations, and implications. Internationally accepted check lists/guidelines should be followed like the CONSORT, STROBE, PRISMA, STRAND, STREGA etc. (See There can be up to 4 tables and 3 Figures. Additional data can be given as hyperlinks, if needed. The main article should not contain any information that discloses the identity of the authors.

Figures: Figures are classified as line drawings and photographs. High-resolution photographs(300 dpi:dots per inch or greater resolution) of all figures including graphs, black and white light and electron micrographs and color photographs in *.jpg, *.tif, *.eps format , must be submitted. The use of color illustrations is encouraged, but authors should contact the editor prior to their preparation for advice and assistance. All figures should be clearly labelled. Photomicrographs should be sized to fit one column (8 cm) or two columns (17 cm); the maximum plate size is 17 × 22 cm. Written permission must accompany any illustration that has already been published. All illustrations must be numbered as cited in the text in consecutive numeric order. Line figures must be sharp. Diagrams must be drawn with a computer graphics package.

Legends: to figures must be typed separately. It should include definitions to any abbreviations used and specify units of measurement. Graphs must be digitally scanned if not prepared initially as an electronic file in a graphic program. Avoid 3-D charts. Legends should state degree of magnification or scale bars to be used on the photograph. Computer generated graphs should be of laser quality. Graphs must be of professional quality. High contrast prints of roentgenographic photographs and electron micrographs are essential.

Tables: Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Office software or similar packages. The data presented in the tables must be consistent with that given in the text and not repeat the same information. Type double-spaced with each Table on separate page; each table should have a title and be numbered in the order of appearance in the text. Use superscript letters to indicate footnotes typed at the bottom of the table.

Acknowledgements: Authors are responsible to obtain permission from those acknowledged, in the format available on the Journal website. Contributions and credits should be listed in this section. A statement disclosing conflicts of interest and financial interest must be included in the format available on the Journal website.

Funding: Source/s of funding for the study must be given with the grant number/s, wherever applicable.

References: List references in consecutive numerical order as given in the text and in Vancouver style. The maximum number of references is 25.

Continuing Education articles are usually by invitation but direct submissions will also be reviewed. These will be written by leaders in the field of Clinical Epidemiology/Global Health (CE/GH) and will serve the purpose of building global capacity for research. The length of review articles should not exceed fifteen typed pages (3500 - 4000 words) with 40 references. Hyperlinked files can also be uploaded.

Evidence updates are usually by invitation but direct submissions will also be reviewed. This section will present summaries from Cochrane Systematic Reviews in formats meant for clinicians with commentaries by clinicians, and will be editorially managed by the South Asian Cochrane Network and Center and the Effective Healthcare Research Consortium. This will serve the purpose of synthesizing evidence and have the potential to influence practise and policy. Those who want to contribute to this section can contact the Editor-In-Chief. This section will also be peer-reviewed.

Journal Club is a relatively novel section. Contributors to this section may review research published in any of the indexed, peer reviewed journals in his/her own specialty, in the past year, conducted on or relevant to humans and published in English. The article reviewed must be important to the clinical practice of medicine and its subspecialties and to ensure quality analysis must be consistent with the study question. The contributor must ensure that copy right provisions of the original article are not infringed and only reference to it is provided. The contributor reviews the article and presents it in the form of an original structured abstract of up to 450 words. One table may be included. In addition, the contributor should write a commentary of up to 500 words highlighting the context of the article in the research that has preceded it, any important methodological problems that affect interpretation, and recommendations for clinical application.
The completed submission to the Journal Club section thus consists of:
1. The names of contributors to the Journal Club section
2. The title and complete citation of the original article
3. Source of Funding of the original study, if any
4. Address for correspondence as given in the original article
5. Link to the original article.
6. The structured abstract prepared by the contributors to the journal club after independent review of the original article and in the following sections: Question, Methods, Main Results and Conclusion. This has to be within 450 words.
7. Commentary - up to 500 words
8. Contributor's name, affiliation and address for correspondence.
9. Relevant references - up to 5

Students' section publishes research work done by the doctors in training (undergraduates, interns and postgraduates) to reach the largest possible audience of biomedical professionals within their field. This section will publish opinions and brief research communications (see instructions for original research articles), including thesis work. Brief research communications, excluding abstract, tables, figures and references, should not exceed 2000 words and should not contain more than 15 references.This section will serve to build students' capacity in research, medical writing and publishing. Articles accepted in this section will be subject to the same high standards of research validity as other original research works. The lead author of the manuscript should have been a student either at the time of submission or conduct of the study.

Manuscript should conform to general instructions and requirements for manuscripts submission to biomedical journals.

Information and Commentary section publishes information about IndiaClen-related network activities, health-related non-profit activities by other institutions and organizations and commentary on national, regional and global conferences. This section will serve to promote academic and research activities and information sharing. Maximum word count is 500 words and 5 references.

Letters to the Editor publishes information about ongoing projects, opinions on management and policy issues, response to publications in the journal, brief preliminary research communications etc. This section promotes information sharing among communities of practice. Response to publications will only be considered if received within 30 days of the manuscript being published online. The replies to such letters, where applicable, will also be published as and when received from the authors. The letter and the reply should not exceed 500 words and should not contain more than 3 references.

Contact details for submission

If assistance is required by the authors, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

Editorial Office
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health

Dr. Shally Awasthi
16/8. Plot No 172. 22nd Cross Street,
Indira Nagar, Adyar,
Chennai, Tamil nadu 600020, India

Manuscripts submitted to Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health should not have been published previously or be under simultaneous consideration for publication by any other journal. Violation may lead to a retraction of the published article by the Journal and other actions as deemed necessary by the editor. All articles (including those invited) will be peer-reviewed, and accepted articles will be edited to the Journal's style. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the Journal and may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the written permission of the editor. Studies involving human subjects or animals should have received the approval of the institutional ethics committee. A statement to this effect and that informed consent was obtained from participating human subjects must be included in the manuscript text.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Ethical approval of studies and Informed consent

Studies involving human subjects or animals should have received the approval of the institutional ethics committee. A statement to this effect and that informed consent was obtained from participating human subjects must be included in the manuscript text. Please ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflict of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on


Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health(CEGH) is the official, peer-reviewed publication of IndiaClen. Manuscripts published in the CEGH become the permanent property of IndiaClen. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No IndiaClen article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from IndiaClen.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author Rights

As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Funding/support Statement

All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement. You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Articles should be written in English, using American English spelling. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Identification of patients in descriptions, photographs and pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

The Journal only accepts online submissions in electronic format. All new manuscripts must be submitted through Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health online and review website ( Please follow the following steps to submit your manuscript:
1. Open the homepage of the Journal's website
2. Register yourself for free by clicking on register on the top and create a user profile with a desired username and mandatory details. On submission of the information, you will receive an email confirming your registration along with the 'Password'
3. Click "Log In" on the main navigation menu at the top of the journal screen to open the login page.
4. Enter your username and password in the appropriate fields (e-mailed to you at the time of registration).
5. Click "Author Log in", this takes you to the "Author Main Menu".
6. After that you can submit the manuscript by following the instructions provided on the screen.
7. Revised manuscripts can be uploaded online using the same log in.
If you have any problems in submission of your manuscript, please send us an email at

Note : Please note that the username and password combination required for Elsevier Editorial System is different from your username and password combination used to "Track your paper" on the Elsevier "Authors' Home" website.

By submitting a manuscript online, the author agrees to the following:
1. The work is original and free from plagiarism.
2. It has neither been published, nor is it not under consideration for publication at another journal.
3. All authors are aware of the authorship order. The corresponding author shall be responsible in case of dispute.
4. Once published, copyright of manuscript shall stand transferred to the Journal.
5. 'Conflict of interest' if any, must be explicitly stated at the end of the manuscript.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via


Type the manuscript using 'Times New Roman' font, size 12 in double space throughout. Please arrange the manuscript as follows: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. All figures and Tables must be referred to in the manuscript. Consult a recent issue of the Journal for details. Only the Title page should bear the names and addresses of the author(s). Editorials, perspective and review articles are generally by invitation. However if you are interested in writing a review/perspective, you can send an email to the editor with the topic and a short summary of contents to be included. The editor will convey her decision in 7-10 days' time.

Length of articles

Text of original articles should be between 2000 and 3500 words. The article should not ordinarily contain more than 3 tables, 2 figures and 25 references. Letters discussing or criticizing material published recently in the Journal, brief presentations of data, or those pertaining to issues of relevance to health policy, practice of medicine, or the like, are welcome. These should not exceed 500 words, 1 table and 5 references.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Original articles should include a structured abstract of upto 250 words under the following headings: Background/Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. [See Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 69–76]. References should not be included. Upto 5 key words, not present in the title, to assist indexing, should be provided below the Abstract in alphabetical order; these may be obtained from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database of National Library of Medicine, USA.


These should appear at the end of the manuscript. The source of funding as well as a disclosure statement mentioning conflict of interest, if any, should appear under this heading.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Photographs of 300 dpi or higher resolution may be submitted as 'jpeg', or 'tiff ' files in a zipped folder. In clinical photographs, identity of the subjects should be suitably masked; in case this is not possible, a written permission from the concerned person should accompany the manuscript.

Legends to Figures
The figure number (numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals), title and explanations of the figures should appear in the legend (not on the figure). Type the legends on a separate page. Enough information should be included to interpret the figure without reference to the text.


Each table should be typed on a separate page and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Each table should have a title and all abbreviations should be explained in the footnote. Necessary explanatory notes, if any, may be given below the table.


Number the references in the order in which they first appear in the text and identify the reference numbers in the text in superscript. References must be placed at the end of the manuscript. Please use recent references as much as possible. The responsibility for accuracy of references lies with the respective authors. The Journal is in agreement with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( The general arrangement, abbreviations of Journal names and punctuations followed are as per the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals ( Please pay attention to the style of references and punctuations as follows:

Journal article
List all authors when six or less as shown in the example below:

Tallon D, Chard J, Dieppe P. Exploring the priorities of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Care and Res 2000; 13: 312–9.

When there are seven or more authors, list only the first six and add et al.

Book or monograph
Following is an example: Cassidy JT. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In: Textbook of Rheumatology 6th ed, Kelly et al (eds) Philadelphia Saunders 2000; pp. 1297–313.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Editorial Process

All articles submitted to the Journal undergo initial review by the Editor/associate editor and articles that are outside the scope of Journal or are not in the journal format are excluded. Later each article is reviewed by at least two reviewers. The time to first decision is usually less than 6 weeks.

As per the policy of the Journal, an Editor, who is either author of a manuscript or belongs to the same institution as any of the authors, is not assigned that manuscript and is not involved in decision-making regarding its publication. Reviewers/Editorial Board members should decline the invitation to review a manuscript which is submitted by authors from their institution.

Preparation for Publication and Proofs

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES. Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to the Journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via