Guide for Authors
Clinical Biomechanics aims to strengthen the link between clinic and laboratory by publishing biomechanics research which helps to explain the causes of musculoskeletal disorders and provides knowledge contributing to improved management.
Clinical Biomechanics explores all facets of musculoskeletal biomechanics with an emphasis on clinical management. The role of basic and medical science is recognized in a clinical context. The readership of the journal closely reflects its contents, being a balance of scientists, engineers and clinicians.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Collaborators who do not satisfy the criteria for authorship can be listed as 'contributors' under the Acknowledgments section.
Changes to AuthorshipOpen Access
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research;2. Subscription
1. Open Access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
• No Open Access publication fee
All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY NC SA).
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): available only for authors funded by organizations with which Elsevier has established an agreement. For a full list please see http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies
Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body Open Access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC-BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodiesTo provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles. The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $3000 USD, excluding taxes.
Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricingInstructions for Authors
Contributions falling into the following categories will be considered for publication and are accepted on the understanding that they have not been published previously, nor are under consideration for publication in any other journal.
Papers - scientific reports within the scope of the journal. The length of the main text should not normally exceed 4000 words with around six figures/tables (large data tables and multi-part figures are generally best placed in Supplementary Data - see below). Reports focused on validity/reliability of methods in the absence of an experimental application are not acceptable. Reports on model development should address a specific question of clinical interest or report a novelty not yet understood. Reports of implant tests should involve a clinical application, not solely a laboratory test. Study subjects should match the object of the study, e.g. young healthy volunteers are generally inappropriate for studies about patients or elderly subjects. Single clinical case reports are usually considered to be unsuitable.Brief Reports - around 1500 words with few figures or tables.
Review Papers - authoritative, comprehensive, and well referenced reviews of a relevant subject (which are likely to be be longer than research papers).Correspondence - letters relating to matters published in the journal are encouraged.
Submissions are screened by an editorial panel; if considered suitable for the journal, two or more peer reviewers will be allocated. Only a proportion of scientifically acceptable papers can be accepted for publication, so authors should be aware that submissions requiring extensive revisions are unlikely to be offered the opportunity to revise and resubmit. The same applies to revised papers requiring substantial revision following re-review. In cases where the original reviewers disagree, the editor may opt to obtain further opinion. Appeals can only be considered where the authors can identify an irregularity in the review process: it is not acceptable simply to state that the reviewers' concerns can be addressed.
Authors are invited to submit to the journal online http://ees.elsevier.com/clbi/. You will be guided through the creation and uploading of the various files. Once the uploading is done, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revisions, will be by e-mail.Enquiries about the suitability of potential articles should be sent to the Editor: Prof Kim Burton, Clinical Biomechanics, 30 Queen Street, Huddersfield HD1 2SP, UK Tel: +44(0)1484 535200; fax: +44(0)1484 435744; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
When submitting a paper you are expecting a number of colleagues to review your work. As a matter of courtesy you should ensure your manuscript is neatly presented as well as complying with the journal's requirements. Submissions will be returned immediately without review if they do not follow all these guidance notes.The difficulties facing authors whose native language is not English is appreciated. Nevertheless, it is the authors' responsibility to ensure correct use of English (through a scientific translator or similar). It is also the responsibility of the author to check the manuscript carefully for errors prior to submission.
• English language; double spaced; single sided; page-numbered and line-numbered.
• A title page including name(s) of author(s), qualifications, institute and correspondence addresses should be provided. Also provide a word count for the abstract and the main text (excluding reference list), and give the number of Tables and Figures.
• When compiling the author list for a manuscript, please list only those members of the team who have made a significant contribution to the work. To assist the Editor in accepting a list of more than five authors, a statement detailing the part played by each author must be included in the cover letter.
The Journal has a list of topics used to classify papers. During the online submission process, authors must select as many as are relevant to their paper. These classifications are included in issue 1 of each volume, and as a PDF file on the Journal's homepage http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30397/description#descriptionReferences: Must follow the Harvard style and should be listed alphabetically at the end of the text. Please consult an issue of the journal for the details of how references should be formatted.
• An accompanying cover letter should include:
(a) information on any duplicate publication elsewhere of any part of the work;
(b) a statement of any commercial relationships which may lead to a conflict of interests;
(c) a statement that the typescript has been read and agreed by all authors; (d) name, address and e-mail of the corresponding author.
(d)a reference to any closely related paper you have previously published in Clinical Biomechanics.
•The Abstract should start on a new page, and must be in structured format. The following section headings (in italics) should each start a new line: Background, Methods, Findings, Interpretation. Please give an idea of the effect size of the results of hypothesis tests rather than simply quoting the statistical significance. The interpretation paragraph should explain how the findings add to understanding of the topic and outline the clinical implications. Only universally accepted and understood abbreviations are allowed in the Abstract (e.g. CT, MR), but no specialties or author-defined abbreviations (e.g. OA, osteoarthritis; TKR, total knee replacement etc). References are not permitted. The abstract should not exceed 250 words in total. Keywords should be added for indexing.
•The main text should be divided into appropriate headings, e.g. Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions. Subheadings may also be used, and review papers may use other formats. The technical basis of new experiments should be fully detailed; previously used methods should also be described briefly, together with reference to previous publications. Statistical methods should be detailed where appropriate. Footnotes are not permitted.
•Ensure all acronyms/abbreviations are defined at first use. The use of many abbreviations in the text makes reading difficult and tiring: keep to a minimum. For products ensure the source details are complete (company, city, country) [All US addresses must include USA].
•Authors must suggest two or more referees although the choice is left to the Editors. Please supply the address and e-mail address. Papers will be reviewed by at least two referees and their comments will be made known to the corresponding author.
•In a separate file labelled "Conflict of Interest Statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
•All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of the study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data: in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.
Text: All citations in the text should be referenced:In-text citation styles: Citations may be made directly (or parenthically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Multiple citations to a single point are generally not required and can impact on readability: if unavoidable, they must come at the end of a sentence.
1. Single author - the author's name (without initials unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors - both authors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors - first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Reference list: Starting on a new page in these styles:Journal articles:Van der Greer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51-59.
List all authors when six or less; when seven or more, list the first six and add et al.
Books:Strunk Jr., W., White E.B., 1979. The elements of style, third ed. Macmillan, New YorkChapter in an edited book:Mettam, G.R., Adams L.B., 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith R.Z., (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281-304.
References should be restricted to those that are retrievable through normal library sources. References to conference proceedings, internal reports and theses are only appropriate when they have been published and readily can be retrieved. Otherwise the reference should be in-text as (Author name, year, personal communication). Around 30 references is typical for original papers, though review papers will be more extensively referenced.Tables
These must be provided as a separate file. Each table should begin on a separate page and should be numbered as Table 1, Table 2 etc., each with its fully explanatory title above the table with footnotes (if any) beneath. Vertical rules and shading should be avoided.
FiguresFigures and Tables must be constructed and labelled in such a way that they may be understood without reference to the text.
The final reproduction will be either single or double column; single column is preferred: please scale your originals accordingly. Ensure legibility of all components, and avoid excessive "white space". All figures to be referred to as Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. Legends to figures to be listed together on a separate page.
If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article.
Scientific measurementsRandomised controlled trials
Avoid the +/- symbol both in tables and text - use for example "mean xx (SD yy)". Ensure statistical abbreviations are in correct case and style (e.g., capital italic for P). Use n for number. SI units must be used. Conventions for abbreviations can be found in Units, Symbols and Abbreviations (available from the Royal Society of Medicine, www.rsmpress.co.uk ). Confidence intervals are preferred over just P values; their use is described in Statistics with Confidence (BMJ Books, 2000).
All randomised controlled trials submitted for publication in Clinical Biomechanics should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at http://www.consort-statement.org for more information. Clinical Biomechanics has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.
EthicsFinite element simulations
Work on human beings that is submitted to Clinical Biomechanics should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki; Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. For all studies involving human or animal participants. The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Patients' and volunteers' names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.
The journal has strict requirements for papers in which results obtained from numerical models are used to draw clinically relevant recommendations - submissions involving finite element simulations will need to comply with those requirements (see Viceconti et al. Extracting clinical data from finite element simulations. Clin Biomech 2005;20:451-454. Click here to access the paper.Authors must confirm in their covering letter that their paper complies with the journal's requirements and for the benefit of the readers they may wish to cite Viceconti et al.
Preparation of Supplementary DataProofs
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material. Supplementary files offer the author possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect: www.sciencedirect.com . In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. In order to allow peer review, it is essential that any supplementary material is included with your submission and/or revision. It is important within your manuscript to point to the supplementary material on the website, in much the same way as you would point to a normal figure. For more detailed instructions please visit: http://ees.elsevier.com/clbi/ and click on Artwork Guidelines. Please upload supplementary files together with your initial submission of your manuscript via the electronic system.
One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post). Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated: for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html.. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/acrrsystemreqs.html#70win.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting the line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post.Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proof reading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://ees.elsevier.com/clbi/). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail (or letter) will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form.If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases : contact Elsevier's Rights Department, Philadelphia, PA, USA: Tel. (+1) 215 238 7869; Fax (+1) 215 238 2239; e-mail email@example.com . Requests may also be completed online via the Elsevier homepage (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions).
AudioSlidesThe journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.