Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Your Paper Your Way
    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of paper
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Policy and Ethics
    • Conflict of Interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    • Additional Information
    PREPARATION
    • NEW SUBMISSIONS
    • References
    • Formatting requirements
    • REVISED SUBMISSIONS
    • Cover letter
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Stereochemistry abstract
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and Units
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Open data
    • Data at PANGAEA
    • Google Maps and KML files
    • Interactive Phylogenetic Trees
    • Interactive plots
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Your Paper Your Way

    We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
    To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.



    Please read all information carefully and follow the instructions in detail when preparing your manuscript.
    Manuscripts that are not prepared according to our guidelines will be sent back to authors without review.

    Biological Conservation encourages the submission of high-quality manuscripts that advance the science and practice of conservation, or which demonstrate the application of conservation principles for natural resource management and policy. Given the broad international readership of the journal, published articles should have global relevance in terms of the topics or issues addressed, and thus demonstrate applications for conservation or resource management beyond the specific system or species studied.

    Types of paper

    Word counts include text, references, figures and tables. Each figure or table should be considered equal to 300 words.

    1. Full length articles (Research papers)
    Research papers report the results of original research. The material must not have been previously published elsewhere. Full length articles are usually up to 8,000 words.

    2. Review articles
    Reviews should address topics or issues of current interest. They may be submitted or invited. Review articles are usually up to 12,000 words and must include a Methods section explaining how the literature for review was selected.

    3. Systematic reviews:
    A systematic review applies a methodology to collect together and appraise the scientific evidence on a specific question or hypothesis. Its main strengths are the transparent approach to minimizing bias in considering importance of data. For a more elaborate explanation of systematic reviews, please check the following link: http://www.environmentalevidence.org/Authors.html.

    Systematic reviews should not exceed 8,000 words. Although the manuscript should report the main outcomes of the systematic review, it is expected that the full review and associated data will be made available online.

    Authors who intend to conduct a systematic review and submit a manuscript are kindly advised to contact Reviews Editor Andrew Pullin (a.s.pullin@bangor.ac.uk) at an early stage. Initial guidance can be crucial in ensuring that the review qualifies as a systematic review.

    4. Perspectives
    These articles provide an opportunity for authors to present a novel, distinctive, or even personal viewpoint on any subject within the journal's scope. The article should be well grounded in evidence and adequately supported by citations but may focus on a stimulating and thought-provoking line of argument that represents a significant advance in thinking about conservation problems and solutions. Perspectives articles should not exceed 8000 words.

    5. Short communications
    Short communications are meant to highlight important research that is novel or represents highly significant preliminary findings, and should be less than 4,000 words.

    6. Book Reviews
    Book reviews will be included in the journal on a range of relevant titles that are not more than two years old. These are usually less than 2,000 words. Please submit your requests/ideas to Philip Cafaro at philip.cafaro@colostate.edu.

    7. Letters to the Editor
    Letters to the editor are written in response to a recent article appearing in the journal. Letters should be less than 800 words, with references kept to a minimum (three or fewer references).

    8. Special Issue papers
    Biological Conservation accepts special issue proposals. Please complete the special issue proposal form and send it to the Editor-in-Chief Richard Primack at primack@bu.edu

    9. Reviewer Commentary
    A Reviewer Commentary is an elaboration on a review report, written by a referee upon invitation by the Editor only. It expresses an interesting or useful view on the article that the referee reviewed. A reviewer commentary contains a maximum of 1500 words and 6 references.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Policy and Ethics

    All appropriate ethics and other approvals were obtained for the research. Where appropriate, authors should state that their research protocols have been approved by an authorized animal care or ethics committee, and include a reference to the code of practice adopted for the reported experimentation or methodology. The Editor will take account of animal welfare issues and reserves the right not to publish, especially if the research involves protocols that are inconsistent with commonly accepted norms of animal research.

    Conflict of Interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest.

    Editors likewise require reviewers to disclose current or recent association with authors and other special interest in this work.

    All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. This declaration (with the heading 'Role of the funding source') should be made in a separate section of the text and placed before the References. Authors must described the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. (In addition some funding organizations have particular policies to enable their grant recipients to publish open access in Elsevier journals - for more detail on this, please visit our Funding Body Agreements page.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authors/article-transfer-service.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

    Referees

    Authors are at liberty to suggest the names of up to three potential reviewers (with full contact details). Potential reviewers should not include anyone with whom the authors have collaborated during the research being submitted.

    Additional Information

    Editorial Process


    Publishing space in the journal is limited, such that many manuscripts must be rejected. To expedite the processing of manuscripts, the journal has adopted a two-tier review process. During the first stage of review, the handling editor evaluates the manuscript for appropriateness and scientific content, taking advice where appropriate from members of the editorial board. Criteria for rejection at this stage include:

    • Manuscript lacks a strong conservation focus or theme, or management implications not well-developed. Please note that research on a rare or endangered species or ecosystem is not sufficient justification to merit publication in Biological Conservation. Published research must also advance the science and practice of conservation biology, and thus have broader application for a wide international audience.
    • Manuscript subject matter more appropriate for another journal. Natural history or biodiversity surveys, including site descriptions, are usually better suited for other outlets, such as a regional or taxon-specific journal. Similarly, manuscripts with a primarily behavioral, genetic or ecological focus are more appropriate for journals in those fields. For example, studies reporting on disturbance effects, species interactions (e.g., predator-prey, competitive, or pollinator-host plant interactions), species-habitat relationships, descriptive genetics (e.g., assays of genetic variation within or between populations), or behavioral responses to disturbance will be referred elsewhere if they lack a clear conservation message. Authors are advised to contact an Editor prior to submission if there are any questions regarding the appropriateness of a manuscript for the journal.
    • Study primarily of local or regional interest. Biological Conservation is international in scope, and thus research published in the journal should have global relevance, in terms of the topics or issues addressed.
    • Study poorly designed or executed. Research lacks spatial or temporal replication, has insufficient sample sizes, or inadequate data analysis. Such obvious indications of poor-quality science will be cause for immediate rejection.
    • Manuscript poorly written. Poor writing interferes with the effective communication of science. Authors for whom English is not the first language are advised to consult with a technical language editor before submission.
    • Conservation research ethics violated. Research was unnecessarily destructive, was conducted for the express purpose of causing harm/mortality (e.g., simulation of treatment or disturbance effects on survivorship), or violated ethics in the treatment and handling of animals. Where appropriate, authors must provide a statement and supporting documentation that research was approved by the authors' institutional animal care and use committee(s).
    Manuscripts that pass this first stage of editorial review are then subjected to a second stage of formal peer review. This involves evaluation of the manuscript by at least two specialists within the field of study, which may include one or more members of the editorial board. Beyond a critical assessment of the scientific content and overall presentation, referees are asked to evaluate the originality, likely impact and global relevance of the research. Referees make a recommendation to the handling editor, but note that it is ultimately the decision of the handling editor as to whether a manuscript is accepted for publication in Biological Conservation.

    Editor-in-Chief
    Dr Richard B. Primack
    Biology Department
    Boston University
    5 Cummington Street
    Boston, MA 02215
    USA
    Phone: +1 617 353 2454
    Email: primack@bu.edu

    Editors

    Dr. Karen H. Beard, Utah State University, Dept. of Wildland Resources and the Ecology Center, Logan, UT 84322-5230, USA, karen.beard@usu.edu

    Dr. Richard Corlett, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun, 666303 Yunnan, China, Email: corlett@xtbg.org.cn

    Dr. Mark Costello, Institute of Marine Science, Leigh Marine Lab., PO Box 349, University of Auckland, 0941 Warkworth, New Zealand, Email: m.costello@auckland.ac.nz

    Dr. Mauro Galetti, Departa. de Ecologia, CP 199, Lab. de Biologia da Conservação, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, Email: mgaletti@rc.unesp.br

    Dr. Lian Pin Koh, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia, Email: lianpinkoh@gmail.com

    Dr. Vincent Devictor, UMR CNRS-UM2 5554 cc065, Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34090 Montpellier, France Email: vincent.devictor@univ-montp2.fr

    Professor Robin Pakeman, The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, UK, Email: robin.pakeman@hutton.ac.uk

    Dr. Andrew S. Pullin, Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, School of Environment and Natural, Resources, University of Wales, Bangor Bangor, Gwynedd UK LL57 2UW, Phone: +44 1248 382 289, Email: a.s.pullin@bangor.ac.uk

    Dr. Tracey Regan, The School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010, Victoria, Australia, Email: tregan@unimelb.edu.au.

    Book Review Editor
    Professor Philip Cafaro
    Colorado State University, USA Email: philip.cafaro@colostate.edu

    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    Please use correct, continuous line numbering and page numbering throughout the document.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements

    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
    If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
    Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    Tables and Figures
    Please place legends above Tables and below Figures. They should follow the References at the end of the manuscript.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Use of word processing software

    Please use correct, continuous line numbering and page numbering throughout the document.

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Please use single spacing throughout the document. Use continuous line numbering throughout the document. Avoid full justification, i.e., do not use a constant right-hand margin. Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated. Number every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references tables, etc. Present tables and figure legends on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Layout and conventions must conform with those given in this guide to authors. Journal style has changed over time so do not use old issues as a guide. Number all pages consecutively. Italics are not to be used for expressions of Latin origin, for example, in vivo, et al., per se. Use decimal points (not commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above).

    Use of word processing software
    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Cover letter

    Submission of a manuscript must be accompanied by a cover letter that includes the following statements or acknowledgements:

    • The work is all original research carried out by the authors.
    • All authors agree with the contents of the manuscript and its submission to the journal.
    • No part of the research has been published in any form elsewhere, unless it is fully acknowledged in the manuscript. Authors should disclose how the research featured in the manuscript relates to any other manuscript of a similar nature that they have published, in press, submitted or will soon submit to Biological Conservation or elsewhere.
    • The manuscript is not being considered for publication elsewhere while it is being considered for publication in this journal.
    • Any research in the paper not carried out by the authors is fully acknowledged in the manuscript.
    • All sources of funding are acknowledged in the manuscript, and authors have declared any direct financial benefits that could result from publication.
    • All appropriate ethics and other approvals were obtained for the research. Where appropriate, authors should state that their research protocols have been approved by an authorized animal care or ethics committee, and include a reference to the code of practice adopted for the reported experimentation or methodology. The Editor will take account of animal welfare issues and reserves the right not to publish, especially if the research involves protocols that are inconsistent with commonly accepted norms of animal research.
    • Please include a short paragraph that describes the main finding of your paper, and its significance to the field of conservation biology.
    • The authors should state in the cover letter if the paper in any form has previously been submitted to Biological Conservation. In that case the authors should specify the original manuscript number.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Theory/calculation
    A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Glossary
    Please supply, as a separate list, the definitions of field-specific terms used in your article.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative, yet not overly general. If appropriate, include the species or ecosystem that was the subject of the study, or the location where the study was done. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length of 250 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the methods used, the principal results and major conclusions. Please try to keep each sentence as specific as possible, and avoid such general statements as "The management implications of the results are discussed". An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical abstract

    Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Stereochemistry abstract

    For each important chiral compound you are requested to supply a stereochemistry abstract detailing structure, name, formula and all available stereochemical information for eventual incorporation into a database. An abstract for only one enantiomer per compound is required.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Nomenclature and Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI) for all scientific and laboratory data. If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.

    Common names must be in lower-case except proper nouns. All common names must be followed by a scientific name in parentheses in italics. For example, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). Where scientific names are used in preference to common names they should be in italics and the genus should be reduced to the first letter after the first mention. For example, the first mention is given as Tursiops aduncus and subsequent mentions are given as T. aduncus.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style
    Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
    1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
    2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
    3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
    Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
    Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'
    List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    The supplementary material should be cited as an online Appendix to the paper, usually in the Methods. If it contains several tables, images and/or figures, these should be cited as Table A1, Figure A1 and so on.

    Authors are strongly encouraged to make the data supporting their paper available to readers through an open-access data repository and/or as an Appendix to the paper. For more details on journal data policy see the paragraphs on Data Depositing and Linking to and depositing data at PANGAEA.

    Data Depositing

    Ideally, data should be freely available online through a specialist data centre that provides a permanent archive (repository) for the dataset, and may integrate the data with other datasets using international standards. Examples include PANGAEA, and GBIF and its major contributors such as OBIS and VertNet. Some Ocean Data Centres may also provide this service. Where such a data centre does not exist, we ask that the data be made freely available online from a permanent archive (repository). Where possible, it should follow international data standards. This may be an institutional repository for its staff. The data should be accompanied by sufficient information (metadata) for the reader to understand its composition and origins, and determine if it is fit for their purpose. In particular, the data should allow the results of the publication to be reproduced. Data being downloadable from departmental or personal websites is not regarded as permanently archived.

    Open data

    This journal supports Open Data, enabling authors to submit any raw (unprocessed) research data with their article for open access publication on ScienceDirect under the CC BY license. For more information, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/about/research-data/open-data.

    Data at PANGAEA

    Electronic archiving of supplementary data enables readers to replicate, verify and build upon the conclusions published in your paper. We recommend that data should be deposited in the data library PANGAEA (http://www.pangaea.de). Data are quality controlled and archived by an editor in standard machine-readable formats and are available via Open Access. After processing, the author receives an identifier (DOI) linking to the supplements for checking. As your data sets will be citable you might want to refer to them in your article. In any case, data supplements and the article will be automatically linked as in the following example: doi:10.1016/0016-7037(95)00105-9. Please use PANGAEA's web interface to submit your data (http://www.pangaea.de/submit/).

    Google Maps and KML files

    KML (Keyhole Markup Language) files (optional): You can enrich your online articles by providing KML or KMZ files which will be visualized using Google maps. The KML or KMZ files can be uploaded in our online submission system. KML is an XML schema for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based Earth browsers. Elsevier will generate Google Maps from the submitted KML files and include these in the article when published online. Submitted KML files will also be available for downloading from your online article on ScienceDirect. For more information see http://www.elsevier.com/googlemaps.

    Interactive Phylogenetic Trees

    You can enrich your online articles by providing phylogenetic tree data files (optional) in Newick or NeXML format, which will be visualized using the interactive tree viewer embedded within the online article. Using the viewer it will be possible to zoom into certain tree areas, change the tree layout, search within the tree, and collapse/expand tree nodes and branches. Submitted tree files will also be available for downloading from your online article on ScienceDirect. Each tree must be contained in an individual data file before being uploaded separately to the online submission system, via the 'phylogenetic tree data' submission category. Newick files must have the extension .new or .nwk (note that a semicolon is needed to end the tree). Please do not enclose comments in Newick files and also delete any artificial line breaks within the tree data because these will stop the tree from showing. For NeXML, the file extension should be .xml. Please do not enclose comments in the file. Tree data submitted with other file extensions will not be processed. Please make sure that you validate your Newick/NeXML files prior to submission. For more information please see http://www.elsevier.com/phylogenetictrees.

    Interactive plots

    This journal encourages you to include data and quantitative results as interactive plots with your publication. To make use of this feature, please include your data as a CSV (comma-separated values) file when you submit your manuscript. Please refer to http://www.elsevier.com/interactiveplots for further details and formatting instructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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