Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Article Categories
• Disclosure of conflicts of interest
• Reporting Clinical Trials
• Changes to Authorship
• Copyright
• Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
• Manuscript preparation
• Title Page
• Abstracts and Keywords
• Acknowledgements
• Figures
• Tables
• References

The Asian Journal of Surgery (ASJSUR) is published every 3 months andinvites original scientific contributions in the broad field ofclinical and experimental surgery.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at

Article Categories

Review Articles
Reviews of contemporary topics of regional interest may be submitted. These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and current subject inthe field, and should be systematic and critical assessmentsof literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspectsthat remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of studyor analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. Personal views not based on documented evidence are discouraged.
Format guide

  • Word limit: 4000 words
  • Abstract: unstructured, up to 250 words
  • References: 100 or less

Original Articles
These may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.
Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction,Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable),Conflicts of Interest (if any), and References.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study,and state a precise study question or purpose.
The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, patient samples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratory methods followed), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, and the main results.
The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the resultsin context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.Hypotheses and impressions should be stated as suchand only if supported by available facts. Patient groups andapplicable conditions must be carefully defined whenever recommendations for treatment are made.
Format guide

  • Word limit: 3000 words
  • Abstract: structured, up to 275 words
  • References: 80 or less

Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or case series withunique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They maydescribe novel techniques, novel use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion,Acknowledgments (if applicable), Conflicts of Interest (ifany), and References.
The Introduction should describe the purpose of thepresent report, the significance of the disease and its specificity,and briefly review the relevant literature.
The Case Report should include the general data of thecase, medical history, family history, chief complaint,present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosisand treatment, and outcome.
The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss thesimilarities and differences between the reported case andsimilar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussingthe differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis ofthe disease and possibility of prevention.
*Authors should note that case reports are rarely accepted unless the report is of a truly exceptional and unique case.
Format guide

  • Word limit: 1000 words
  • Abstract: unstructured, up to 250 words
  • References: 30 or less
  • Tables/Figures: 5 figures/no limit for tables

Letters to the Editor
These are short comments on previously published articles inthe Journal; it must be accompanied by a Cover Letter.
Format guide

  • Author: 4 or less
  • Word Limit: 500 words
  • References: 5 or less
  • Tables/Figures: 1 maximum

The Editors reserve the right to edit any letter received.

Technical Notes and Video Vignettes
Technical notes are a brief communication describing a novel surgical technique. Both images and videos may be included with submissions. While patient results may be included, individual case reports or case series should not be included in the text. The focus of the manuscript should be on the technique itself. The videos are included with technical notes.
Format guide

  • Text limit: 1500 words
  • Abstract: structured; follow the format of Technique; Results; Conclusions.
  • References: No limit
  • Video length: a single video up to 5 minutes in length, or up to 3 videos, with a total running time of up to 5 minutes.

Video vignettes are submissions where the video is the major component of the article. Text should be limited to that which provides a brief introduction to the video only and should NOT include case reports or results.
Format guide

  • Text limit: 300 words
  • References: No limit
  • Video length: a single video up to 5 minutes in length, or up to 3 videos, with a total running time of up to 5 minutes.

Videos for both technical notes and video vignettes MUST be narrated and in English. No accompanying music soundtrack should accompany the video(s). The content of the videos must be identical to that reviewed and accepted by the editors of the Asian Journal of Surgery.

Disclosure of conflicts of interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individuals objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. ASJSUR Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.
Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.
Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in either Section I or Section II on page 2 of the ASJSUR Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an authors name cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to the ASJSUR through the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

Editorial Office
Asian Journal of Surgery
Room 929, Research Building
Department of Surgery
National Taiwan University Hospital
No. 7 Chun-Shan South Road
Taipei 100, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-23123456 ext. 65113
Fax: (+886) 2-33938506
Email: :

Reporting Clinical Trials

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (available at This Journal has adopted theproposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration.Further information can be found at

Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include:

(i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and

(ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.

In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed. After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.


Manuscripts published in the Asian Journal of Surgery become the permanent property of the Asian Surgical Association, Taipei, Taiwan, and may not be publishedelsewhere in any form without written permission. Allarticles published in the Journal are protected by copyright,which covers the exclusive rights to reproduceand distribute the article, as well as translation rights.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored inany retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without prior written permissionfrom the Asian Surgical Association.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriateinstitutional review board or ethics committee approval is required,and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do nothave formal ethics review committees, the principles outlinedin the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at:

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consentwas obtained from all participating adult subjects and fromparents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults,together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

For work involving experimental animals, the guidelinesfor their care and use should be in accordance with European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments(available at; this should be stated in themethods section of the manuscript.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Important Information

• Articles submitted should be in Microsoft Word documentformat and prepared in the simplest form possible. Wewill add in the correct font, font size, margins and so onaccording to the Journal's style.
• You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT useother kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes,endnotes, headers and footers.
• Put text, references, and table/figure legends in onefile.
• Figures must be submitted separately as picture files, atthe correct resolution. The files should be namedaccording to the figure number, e.g., "Manuscript1_Fig1", "Manuscript1_Fig2". Also see section Figures below.

Supporting Documents

The following documents must be included (refer also to the Publication Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.
(1) Cover Letter. This must include the name, address, telephoneand fax numbers, and e-mail address of the correspondingauthor. The letter should be signed by the corresponding author.
(2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the Form Authorship & Conflict of Interest Statement that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the ASJSUR, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Asian Surgical Association. Please use the Form Copyright Transfer Agreement that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
(4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering human or animalexperiments must be accompanied by a letter of approvalfrom the relevant review committee or authorities. Alsosee Section 3 below.
(5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT)flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted forpublication. Also see Section 4 below.
(6) Articles where human subjects can be identified indescriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompaniedby a signed statement of informed consent to publish(in print and online) the descriptions, photographsand pedigrees from each subject who can be identified.Also see Section 5 below.
(7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

Identification of Patients in Descriptions,Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in printand online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons(parents or legal guardiansfor minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographsor pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specificto de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understandingthat they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clearand concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supportedby the data.

Manuscript preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of whiteA4 (297 x 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm.The manuscript should include a title page, abstract,text, acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables asappropriate. Each section of the manuscript shouldbegin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively,beginning with the title page.

Title Page

The title page should contain the following information(in order, from the top to bottom of the page):
• category of paper
• article title
• names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letterafter the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation
• declaration of any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailingaddress, telephone and fax numbers)
• running title not exceeding 50 characters

*The name of each author should be written with thefamily name last, e.g., Jing-Lin Chang. Authorship is restrictedonly to direct participants who have contributedsignificantly to the work.

Abstracts and Keywords

Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length.Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background/Objective, Methods,Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured,but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. Abstracts for Review Articles are also unstructured. For all article categories(except Letters to the Editor), 3-5 relevant keywords should be provided in alphabetical order.


General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analysises should be listed concisely at the end ofthe text, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section.

All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified.


General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimumnecessary to support the textual material. Figuresshould have an informative figure legend and be numberedin the order of their citation in the text. All symbolsand abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Tables section.

Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details (such as their name and date of birth) of the patient must be removed. If their face is shown, use a black bar to cover their eyes so that they cannot be identified (for further information, see

All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportionto the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographsmust include an internal scale marker, and the legendshould state the type of specimen, original magnificationand stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture filesat the correct resolution (see Section 9.7.2. below). Thefiles should be named according to the figure number,e.g., "Manuscript1_Fig1", "Manuscript1_Fig2".

Regardless of the application used, when your electronicartwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the imagesto one of the following formats (note the resolutionrequirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
• EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save thetext as "graphics".
• TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones):always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
• TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of1000 dpi.
• TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone(color or grayscale): a minimum of 600 dpi isrequired.
• DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is createdin any of these Microsoft Office applications,please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (likeGIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately largefor the content.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at


Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.


In the main text, tables, figure legends
• References should be identified using superscriptednumbers, and numbered consecutively in order ofappearance in the text; the numbers should beplaced after periods and commas and before colonsand semicolons.
• References cited in tables or figure legends shouldbe included in sequence at the point where thetable or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has notyet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") asreferences (also see Section 'Personal communications and unpublished data').
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.

In the references list
• References should be limited to those cited in thetext and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabeticalorder.
• References should include, in order, authors' surnamesand initials, article title, abbreviated journalname, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.The last names and initials of all the authors up to6 should be included, but when authors number 7or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by"et al". Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information,article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
• Reference to an article that is in press must statethe journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation. Examples are given below. Standard journal articles
Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A,Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donorand recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. IntAngiol. 2011;30:247-255.

Quintini C, D'Amico G, Brown C, et al. Splenic arteryembolization for the treatment of refractory as cites after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2011;17:668-673.

Journal supplement
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor andtherapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? JCardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka.2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management.Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982:72-95.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In:Underwood JCE, ed. General and Systematic Pathology.4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004:615-672.

World Health Organization. World Health Report 2002:Reducing Risk, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva,Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Conference proceedings
Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, eds.Stress: Current Neuroendocrine and Genetic Approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neuro transmitters in Stress, June 28-July 3, 2003,Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New YorkAcademy of Sciences; 2004.

Ayers AJ. Retention of Resin Restorations by Means of Enamel Etching and by Pins[MSD thesis]Indianapolis,IN: Indiana University; 1971.

Website Wisdom Teeth. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Web site. Accessed November 15, 2008. Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals.Catalog No. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977:2-3.

The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will beacknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authorswill be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time,the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office toensure that it contains all parts. The Editorial Office willnot accept a submission if the author has not suppliedall parts of the manuscript and supporting documents asoutlined in these instructions.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscriptdoes not appear to be of sufficient merit or isnot appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscriptwill be rejected without review. Rejected manuscriptswill not be returned to authors unless requested.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriatefor the Journal are reviewed by at least two EditorialBoard members or expert consultants assigned by theEditor-in-Chief. The results of the peer reviews are thendiscussed in a committee meeting with the AssociateEditors. Authors are usually notified within 10 weeks ofwhether the submitted article is accepted for publication,rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance.However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable. If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office by e-mail to (NOT via EES) within 30 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication,the authors should submit the final version of the manuscriptin MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable,to the Editorial Office by e-mail to (NOT via EES).

Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to theJournal's style and PDF page proofs are e-mailed by thePublisher to the corresponding author for final approval.Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proofreading is solely the authors responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

Publication Charges and Reprints

Authors of accepted articles will be charged a publication fee of US$800. In the event that a manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be instructed by the Editorial Office on how to transmit their payment to the Journal. The accepted article will be processed to the next stage only upon receipt of payment. Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered from the Publisher at prices based on the cost of production. A reprint order and credit card payment form can be downloaded from the Journal's website at

Main Text
The text for Original Articles should be organized intosections as follows: Introduction, Methods, Results,Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction,Case Report, Discussion. The text for Review Articlesshould be divided into logical sections with appropriateheadings. Each section should begin on a new page.

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to,it must be written in full when it first appears in thetext, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses.Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. Anabbreviation should not be first defined in any sectionheading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequentsection heading. Restrict the number of abbreviationsto those that are absolutely necessary.

Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

Système International (SI) units must be used, with theexception of blood pressure values which are to be reportedin mmHg. Please use the metric system for theexpression of length, area, mass, and volume.Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of drugs, devices and other products:
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example,"AKIBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

Statistical requirements:
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papersexcept case reports. Use correct nomenclature forstatistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpairedt test). Descriptive statistics should follow thescales used in data description. Inferential statisticsare important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.
All p values should be expressed to 2 digits to theright of the decimal point, unless p < 0.01, in whichcase the p value should be expressed to 3 digits to theright of the decimal point. The smallest p value thatshould be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zerosdo not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p<0.01.

Personal communications and unpublished data:
These sources cannot be included in the references listbut may be described in the text. The author(s) mustgive the full name and highest academic degree of theperson, the date of the communication, and indicatewhether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail)form. A signed statement of permission should be includedfrom each person identified as a source of informationin a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

Announcements of forthcoming regional conferencesand meetings are published free of charge. Please specifythe title of the meeting, the dates and venue, organizers and correspondence or secretariat address. Notices should be e-mailed to the Editorial Office at