Guide for Authors
The Asian Journal of Surgery is published every 3 months andinvites original scientific contributions in the broad field ofclinical and experimental surgery.
The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliancewith the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submittedto Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.
1. Manuscript SubmissionManuscripts should be submitted by e-mail to email@example.com. Please contact the Editorial Office if assistance isneeded.
Editorial Office1.1. Important Information
Asian Journal of Surgery
c/o Department of Surgery
National Taiwan University Hospital
No. 7 Chun-Shan South Road
Taipei 100, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-23123456 ext. 65104
Fax: (+886) 2-23568810
• Articles submitted should be in Microsoft Word documentformat and prepared in the simplest form possible. Wewill add in the correct font, font size, margins and so onaccording to the Journal's style.
• You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT useother kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes,endnotes, headers and footers.
• Put text, references, and table/figure legends in onefile.
• Figures must be submitted separately as picture files, atthe correct resolution. The files should be namedaccording to the figure number, e.g., "Manuscript1_Fig1", "Manuscript1_Fig2". Also see section 9.7. below.
1.2. Supporting Documents2. Disclosure of conflicts of interest
The following documents must be included (refer also to thePublication Checklist that follows these author instructions):
(1) Cover Letter. This must include the name, address, telephoneand fax numbers, and e-mail address of the correspondingauthor.
(2) Authorship Statement. You may use the form that followsthese author instructions. ALL the authors' signaturesmust be included.
(3) Conflict of Interest Statement. You may use the form thatfollows these author instructions. Also see Section 2 below.
(4) Copyright Transfer Agreement. You may use the form thatfollows these author instructions.
(5) Ethics Statement. Articles covering human or animalexperiments must be accompanied by a letter of approvalfrom the relevant review committee or authorities. Alsosee Section 3 below.
(6) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT)flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted forpublication. Also see Section 4 below.
(7) Articles where human subjects can be identified indescriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompaniedby a signed statement of informed consent to publish(in print and online) the descriptions, photographsand pedigrees from each subject who can be identified.Also see Section 5 below.
(8) Where material has been reproduced from othercopyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from thecopyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources mustbe supplied.
All authors are required to sign and submit a financial disclosurestatement at the time of manuscript submission, for example:
- I certify that all my affiliations with or financialinvolvement in, within the past 5 years and foreseeablefuture, any organization or entity with a financialinterest in or financial conflict with the subject matteror materials discussed in the manuscript are completelydisclosed (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria,stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants orpatents received or pending, royalties).
3. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed ConsentFor human or animal experimental investigations, appropriateinstitutional review board or ethics committee approval is required,and such approval should be stated in the methodssection of the manuscript. For those investigators who do nothave formal ethics review committees, the principles outlinedin the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (WorldMedical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principlesfor medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html).
For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in themethods section of the manuscript that informed consentwas obtained from all participating adult subjects and fromparents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults,together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained(ex. oral or written).For work involving experimental animals, the guidelinesfor their care and use should be in accordance with EuropeanCommission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments(available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm); this should be stated in themethods section of the manuscript.
4. Reporting Clinical TrialsAll randomized controlled trials submitted for publicationshould include a completed Consolidated Standards ofReporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (available at http://www.consort-statement.org). This Journal has adopted theproposal from the International Committee of MedicalJournal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of considerationfor publication of clinical trials, registration in a publictrials registry. Purely observational studies (those in whichthe assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretionof the investigator) do not require registration.Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.
5. Identification of Patients in Descriptions,Photographs and PedigreesA signed statement of informed consent to publish (in printand online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigreesshould be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardiansfor minors) who can be identified (including by the subjectsthemselves) in such written descriptions, photographsor pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscriptbefore its submission. Omitting data or making data less specificto de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing anysuch data is not acceptable.
6. Previous Publication or Duplicate SubmissionSubmitted manuscripts are considered with the understandingthat they have not been published previously in print orelectronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and arenot under consideration in totality or in part by another publicationor electronic medium.
7. Basic CriteriaArticles should be written in English (using American Englishspelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the materialis original, the information is important, the writing is clearand concise, the study methods are appropriate, the dataare valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supportedby the data.
8. Article Categories8.1. Review Articles
Reviews of contemporary topics of regional interest may besubmitted. These should aim to provide the reader with abalanced overview of an important and current subject inthe field, and should be systematic and critical assessmentsof literature and data sources. They should cover aspects ofa topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspectsthat remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientificresearch. All articles and data sources reviewedshould include information about the specific type of studyor analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests oroutcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematicallyfor inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.Personal views not based on documented evidence arediscouraged.
Typical length: 2000-4000 words, 50-100 references.
8.2. Original ArticlesThese may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studiesof screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animalstudies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, casecontrolstudies, and surveys with high response rates, whichrepresent new and significant contributions to the field.Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction,Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable),Conflicts of Interest (if any), and References.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to thesubject of the paper, explain the importance of the study,and state a precise study question or purpose.The Methods section should describe the study design andmethods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or datasources and how these were selected for the study, patientsamples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratorymethods followed), and state the statistical procedures employedin the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presentedin a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/orfigures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that arepresented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarizethe essential features of any interventions, the mainoutcome measures, and the main results.The Discussion section should be used to emphasize thenew and important aspects of the study, placing the resultsin context with published literature, the implications of thefindings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.Hypotheses and impressions should be stated as suchand only if supported by available facts. Patient groups andapplicable conditions must be carefully defined wheneverrecommendations for treatment are made.
Typical length: 2000-3000 words, 40-80 references.
8.3. Case ReportsThe Introduction should describe the purpose of thepresent report, the significance of the disease and its specificity,and briefly review the relevant literature.
These are short discussions of a case or case series withunique features not previously described that make an importantteaching point or scientific observation. They maydescribe novel techniques, novel use of equipment, or newinformation on diseases of importance. Section headingsshould be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion,Acknowledgments (if applicable), Conflicts of Interest (ifany), and References.
The Case Report should include the general data of thecase, medical history, family history, chief complaint,present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosisand treatment, and outcome.The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss thesimilarities and differences between the reported case andsimilar cases reported in other published articles. The importanceor specificity of the case should be restated when discussingthe differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis ofthe disease and possibility of prevention.
Typical length: 800-1000 words, 20-30 references.
8.4. Letters to the EditorThese are short comments on previously published articles inthe Journal; it must be accompanied by a Cover Letter. Thetext should not exceed 500 words with no more than 5 references.One table or one figure may be included. The Editorsreserve the right to edit any letter received.
9. Manuscript preparationText should be typed double-spaced on one side of whiteA4 (297 x 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm.The manuscript should include a title page, abstract,text, acknowledgments (if any), conflicts of intereststatement (if any), references, and figures and tables asappropriate. Each section of the manuscript shouldbegin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively,beginning with the title page.
9.1. Title Page*The name of each author should be written with thefamily name last, e.g., Jing-Lin Chang. Authorship is restrictedonly to direct participants who have contributedsignificantly to the work.
The title page should contain the following information(in order, from the top to bottom of the page):
• category of paper
• article title
• names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and theinstitutions with which they are affiliated; indicateall affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letterafter the author's name and in front of theappropriate affiliation
• running title not exceeding 50 characters
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailingaddress, telephone and fax numbers)
9.2. Abstract and Keywords9.3. Main Text
Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length.Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, withthe section headings: Background/Objective, Methods,Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured,but should include the significance and purposeof the case presentation, the diagnostic methodsof the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestionswith regard to the case. Abstracts for ReviewArticles are also unstructured. For all article categories(except Letters to the Editor), 3-5 relevant keywordsshould be provided in alphabetical order.
The text for Original Articles should be organized intosections as follows: Introduction, Methods, Results,Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction,Case Report, Discussion. The text for Review Articlesshould be divided into logical sections with appropriateheadings. Each section should begin on a new page.
9.3.1. Abbreviations9.3.2. Units
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to,it must be written in full when it first appears in thetext, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses.Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. Anabbreviation should not be first defined in any sectionheading; if an abbreviation has previously been definedin the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequentsection heading. Restrict the number of abbreviationsto those that are absolutely necessary.
Système International (SI) units must be used, with theexception of blood pressure values which are to be reportedin mmHg. Please use the metric system for theexpression of length, area, mass, and volume.Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.
9.3.3. Names of drugs, devices and other products9.3.4. Statistical requirements
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietaryName for medicinal substances, unless the specifictrade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion.For devices and other products, the genericterm should be used, unless the specific trade name isdirectly relevant to the discussion. If the trade nameis given, then the manufacturer name and the city,state and country location of the manufacturer mustbe provided the first time it is mentioned in the text,for example, "...SPSS version 11 was used (SPSS Inc.,Chicago, IL, USA)."
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papersexcept case reports. Use correct nomenclature forstatistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpairedt test). Descriptive statistics should follow thescales used in data description. Inferential statisticsare important for interpreting results and should bedescribed in detail.
All p values should be expressed to 2 digits to theright of the decimal point, unless p < 0.01, in whichcase the p value should be expressed to 3 digits to theright of the decimal point. The smallest p value thatshould be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zerosdo not convey useful information; the largest p valuethat should be expressed is p > 0.99.
9.3.5. Personal communications and unpublished data9.4. Acknowledgments and Conflicts of InterestStatement
These sources cannot be included in the references listbut may be described in the text. The author(s) mustgive the full name and highest academic degree of theperson, the date of the communication, and indicatewhether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail)form. A signed statement of permission should be includedfrom each person identified as a source of informationin a personal communication or as a source forunpublished data.
General acknowledgments for consultations, statisticalanalysis, etc., should be listed concisely at the end ofthe text, including the names of the individuals whowere directly involved. Consent should be obtainedfrom those individuals before their names are listed inthis section. All financial and material support for theresearch and work from internal or external agencies,including commercial companies, should be clearly andcompletely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest(financial and/or non-financial) are explicitlydeclared.
9.5. References9.5.2. In the references list
9.5.1. In the main text, tables, figure legends
• References should be identified using superscriptednumbers, and numbered consecutively in order ofappearance in the text; the numbers should beplaced after periods and commas and before colonsand semicolons.
• References cited in tables or figure legends shouldbe included in sequence at the point where thetable or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has notyet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublishedobservation", "personal communication") asreferences (also see Section 9.3.5.).
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only availablereference to an important concept.
• References should be limited to those cited in thetext and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabeticalorder.
• References should include, in order, authors' surnamesand initials, article title, abbreviated journalname, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.The last names and initials of all the authors up to6 should be included, but when authors number 7or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by"et al". Abbreviations for journal names shouldconform to those used in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information,article title, website address and the date youaccessed the information.
• Reference to an article that is in press must statethe journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completenessof their references and for correct text citation.Examples are given below.
Standard journal articlesQuintini C, D'Amico G, Brown C, et al. Splenic arteryembolization for the treatment of refractory ascitesafter liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2011;17:668-673.
Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A,Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donorand recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. IntAngiol. 2011;30:247-255.
Journal supplementJournal article not in English but with English abstract
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor andtherapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? JCardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(suppl 3):S78-80.
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient withcerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka.2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]
BookBook chapter in book with editor and edition
Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management.Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982:72-95.
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In:Underwood JCE, ed. General and Systematic Pathology.4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004:615-672.
World Health Organization. World Health Report 2002:Reducing Risk, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva,Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, eds.Stress: Current Neuroendocrine and GeneticApproaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines andOther Neurotransmitters in Stress, June 28-July 3, 2003,Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New YorkAcademy of Sciences; 2004.
ThesisWebsiteWisdom Teeth. American Association of Oral andMaxillofacial Surgeons Web site. http://www.aaoms.org/wisdom_teeth.php. Accessed November 15, 2008.
Ayers AJ. Retention of Resin Restorations by Means ofEnamel Etching and by Pins [MSD thesis]. Indianapolis,IN: Indiana University; 1971.
Company/manufacturer publication/pamphletEastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals.Catalog No. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977:2-3.
9.6. TablesTables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. Theyshould have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory,and numbered consecutively in the order of theircitation in the text. Information requiring explanatoryfootnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercaseletters in alphabetical order (a, b, c, etc.).Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probabilitylevel of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in thetable must be defined and placed after the footnotes. Ifyou include a block of data or table from anothersource, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledgethe original source.
9.7. Figures9.7.1. General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimumnecessary to support the textual material. Theyshould have an informative figure legend and be numberedin the order of their citation in the text. All symbolsand abbreviations should be defined in the legend.Patient identification should be obscured. All letteringshould be done professionally and should be in proportionto the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographsmust include an internal scale marker, and the legendshould state the type of specimen, original magnificationand stain.
Figures must be submitted as separate picture filesat the correct resolution (see Section 9.7.2. below). Thefiles should be named according to the figure number,e.g., "Manuscript1_Fig1", "Manuscript1_Fig2".9.7.2. Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronicartwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the imagesto one of the following formats (note the resolutionrequirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
• EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save thetext as "graphics".
• TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones):always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
• TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of1000 dpi.
• TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone(color or grayscale): a minimum of 600 dpi isrequired.
• DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is createdin any of these Microsoft Office applications,please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (likeGIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately largefor the content.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.10. The Editorial and Peer Review Process
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will beacknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authorswill be provided with a manuscript referencenumber for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgmentis not received in a reasonable period of time,the author should contact the Editorial Office.Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office toensure that it contains all parts. The Editorial Office willnot accept a submission if the author has not suppliedall parts of the manuscript and supporting documents asoutlined in these instructions.
Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscriptdoes not appear to be of sufficient merit or isnot appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscriptwill be rejected without review. Rejected manuscriptswill not be returned to authors unless requested.Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriatefor the Journal are reviewed by at least two EditorialBoard members or expert consultants assigned by theEditor-in-Chief. The results of the peer reviews are thendiscussed in a committee meeting with the AssociateEditors. Authors are usually notified within 10 weeks ofwhether the submitted article is accepted for publication,rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance.However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.
11. Preparation for PublicationOnce a manuscript has been accepted for publication,the authors should submit the final version of the manuscriptin MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable,to the Editorial Office at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to theJournal's style and PDF page proofs are e-mailed by thePublisher to the corresponding author for final approval.Authors are responsible for all statements made in theirwork, including changes made by the copy editor.
12. ReprintsAuthors receive 10 stapled offprints of their articles freeof charge, which will be sent by the Editorial Office tothe corresponding author. Professional reprints (whichinclude a cover page for the article) may be orderedfrom the Publisher at prices based on the cost of production.A reprint order form can be downloaded fromthe Journal's website at www.e-asianjournalsurgery.com.
13. CopyrightManuscripts published in the Asian Journal of Surgerybecome the permanent property of the Asian SurgicalAssociation, Taipei, Taiwan, and may not be publishedelsewhere in any form without written permission. Allarticles published in the Journal are protected by copyright,which covers the exclusive rights to reproduceand distribute the article, as well as translation rights.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored inany retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or byany means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without prior written permissionfrom the Asian Surgical Association.
14. NoticesAnnouncements of forthcoming regional conferencesand meetings are published free of charge. Please specifythe title of the meeting, the dates and venue, organizersand correspondence or secretariat address. Noticesshould be e-mailed to the Editorial Office at email@example.com.
Forms• Publication Checklist Authorship Statement • Conflict of Interest Statement