Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Recommended Maximums for Articles Submitted to Arthroscopy
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Human and animal rights
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Author Warranties
    • Authorship
    • Changes to authorship
    • Registration of Clinical Trials
    • Copyright
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Text Style
    • Blinded Manuscript
    • Article structure
    • Essential Title Page Information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Abbreviations
    • Units
    • Math formulae
    • Artwork
    • Permissions
    • Illustration services
    • Figure Captions
    • Tables
    • References
    • Submitting Videos
    • Submitting a Cover Image with Video
    • Submission Checklist
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints

    Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery provides readers with current information by publishing the best papers on clinical and basic research, review articles, technical notes, case reports, and editorials about the latest developments in arthroscopic surgery and orthopaedic sports surgery. All articles are subject to peer review. Letters to the Editor and comments on the Journal's content or policies are always welcome.

    Recommended Maximums for Articles Submitted to Arthroscopy

    Type of Article Number of Wordsa References Figures (Figure Parts) Tables
    Original Article 4,000 35 7 (15) 4
    Concise Reviewb 1,700 10 1 (2) 1
    Level V Evidenceb 1,600 4 0 0
    Current Conceptsb 4,000 75 10 (24) 4
    Systematic Review 4,500 50 7 (15) 4
    Meta-analysis 4,000 50 7 (15) 4
    Technical Note 1,500c 8 3 (6)c 1
    Case Reportd 1,000 5 2 (4) 0
    Letter to Editor & Reply 500 4 2 (2) 0

    a Maximum number of words is exclusive of the title page, blind title page, references, and figure legends.
    b Please note that Concise Review, Level V Evidence, and Current Concepts articles are submitted at the invitation of the Editor-in-Chief or Assistant Editor-in-Chief.
    c Technical Notes exceeding these recommendations are sometimes allowed when the subject is broad enough to require more data to convey the message adequately; however, brevity remains a key goal.
    d Only a very limited number of Case Reports are accepted by the Journal.

    Please note:
    Levels of Evidence for Primary Research

    Authors are encouraged to e-mail the Editorial office ( with ideas for Concise Reviews, Level V Evidence, and Current Concepts.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

    Human and animal rights

    If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

    Studies should be in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations at the authors' institutions and also in compliance with Food and Drug Administration guidelines.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

    Arthroscopy uses the ICMJE disclosure for authors. Each author of a manuscript must complete the form and save it using his or her name. The corresponding author will upload all the authors' completed forms at the time of submission. Access the Arthroscopy ICMJE form here.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Author Warranties

    • Any manuscript or any data within a manuscript to be submitted to the Arthroscopy Journal for peer review is original work, has been written by the stated authors, and has not been published elsewhere. Likewise, a similar manuscript has not been submitted to or published by any other journal, either by you or any of your coauthors.
    • Any manuscript to be submitted to the Arthroscopy Journal is not currently being considered for publication by any other journal and will not be submitted for such review while under review by this Journal.
    • If there is any possibility, because of its content, that a manuscript to be submitted might be construed as duplicating in whole or in part another actual or pending publication by you or any of your coauthors, it is the corresponding author's responsibility to advise the editors of the Arthroscopy Journal of this possibility and fully disclose the particulars of this potential conflict for the purpose of determining the propriety of this Journal's reviewing the proposed submission.


    Arthroscopy generally limits the number of authors to 7. If there are more than 7 authors, we ask the corresponding author to justify each author’s participation using the ICMJE criteria for authorship:

    1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
    2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
    3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
    4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Registration of Clinical Trials

    Clinical trial registration (prospective publication of clinical research study authors, title, purpose, hypothesis, methods including statistical methods, and confirmation of Institutional Review Board approval) mitigates against bias resulting from selective reporting of results. Clinical trials beginning patient enrollment after January 1, 2012 will not be accepted for publication in Arthroscopy without prospective registration of the trial (i.e., before enrollment of the first patient). Trials may be registered in any national or international registry. Include details on the "separate title page" only.

    Except in rare circumstances where the temporal effect of the outcome being measured is brief, clinical trials will not be accepted for publication in Arthroscopy without 24 months minimum follow-up for all subjects who are enrolled and reported. The Journal strongly encourages the use of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Guidelines when designing and reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The criteria outlined by the CONSORT group is meant to assist in improving the overall quality of RCTs, and provides a minimum set of recommendations for reporting on RCTs. There is a 25-item checklist that is designed to facilitate study setup, reporting, and interpretation. The overall goal of utilizing the CONSORT criteria would be to facilitate the study design from the outset, and provide for a high-quality and prudently conceived RCT. The guidelines can be found at


    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to:

    Copyright to all published articles will be held by the Arthroscopy Association of North America. In view of the present United States copyright law, each coauthor of a submitted manuscript must sign a form expressly transferring copyright in the event that a paper is accepted for publication in the Journal. Copyright forms for manuscripts submitted online are handled by the production department of the publisher once the manuscript is accepted and scheduled for publication.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good American English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop,, or visit our customer support site,, for more information.


    After registering as an author through the Arthroscopy online submission and review system Web site, you will be guided step by step through the uploading of your own files and your approving of the single PDF that will be created from them. Through our Web site, you can track the progress of your manuscript. Communications about a manuscript will be handled through e-mail. Please access the Web site for more specifics about online submission, including a Tutorial for Authors, artwork guidelines, and a link to Author Support by e-mail that is monitored around the clock.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via

    Text Style

    • Double space your manuscript.
    • Use continuous line numbering.
    • Type text flush left. Do not justify the right margin of your manuscript.
    • Enter only one space after punctuation.
    • Use two hard returns at the end of each paragraph (i.e., one blank line should appear between paragraphs).
    • Use two hard returns between headings and text.

    Blinded Manuscript

    The first page of Blinded Manuscript should list only the title because all manuscripts are blinded to reviewers. Likewise, do not include any identifying information in the text, e.g., an author's initials or the names of institutions where the study was done, or a phrase such as "our study" that, when followed by a citation, reveals authorship of the present manuscript in the reference list.

    Article structure

    The introduction of an Original Article should consist of: Succinctly state the problem that led to your undertaking the study, including a concise review of only the most relevant literature. Conclude the introduction by stating the purpose of the study and then stating your hypothesis.

    Describe the study design (prospective or retrospective, inclusion and exclusion criteria, duration) and the study population (demographics, length of follow-up) if retrospective.

    The statistics that you have used to analyze the data should be described in detail. You cannot make the statement, "We found no significant difference between the two groups" unless a power study was done and you include in the text the value of alpha, beta, and standard deviation. Use of the word significant requires your reporting a P value. Confidence intervals of 95% are required whenever the results of survivorship analysis are given in the text, tables, or figures. Use of the word correlation requires you to report the correlation coefficient.

    Arthroscopy encourages the use of validated outcome instruments. The use of both a generic (general) health outcome measure and a joint-specific, limb-specific, or condition- specific measure is encouraged. If an outcome instrument leads to a categorical ranking (e.g., excellent or good or poor), the aggregate outcome score for each patient should be provided.

    Describe in detail the data obtained during the study following the order of the Methods. Using prospective methods, study population demographics must be reported in the results section of the manuscript. As a reminder, the overall final patient follow-up should be 80% or greater (less than 20% drop-out) in order to minimize follow-up bias. In general, scientific studies will not be accepted for publication without meeting this criterion. Results obtained after less than two years of follow-up are rarely accepted for publication by the Journal. All data in the text must be consistent with the rest of the manuscript, including data in tables, figures, and legends. Present comparison data in tables and present as mean ± standard error of the mean with confidence intervals.

    Be concise. What does your study show? Is your hypothesis affirmed or refuted? Compare and contrast your study with others in the most relevant world literature, particularly the recent literature. A complete literature review is unnecessary.

    Analyze your data and discuss the limitations of your study.

    Here you must briefly state your new (or verified) view of the problem you outlined in the Introduction. Take special care to draw your conclusions only from your results. Check that your conclusions are firmly supported by your data. And, most importantly, do not make concluding statements that lie beyond the scope of your study, or unnecessary statements such as "further studies are warranted." The conclusions in the text must match those in the abstract.

    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential Title Page Information

    The title page (Separate Title Page) of each manuscript should include:
    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author's full names, degrees, and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
    In Addition. Include the IRB and RCT information, as well as a short running title (maximum of 45 characters and spaces). Indicate the specific affiliations of each author.

    Disclosure: After the Separate Title Page, you will upload each author's completed Arthroscopy ICMJE form.


    Original Articles, abstracts should be a maximum of 300 words and structured to include the following sections: Purpose: One or 2 sentences that simply state purpose with no background information. Methods: Provide, with sufficient detail, the methods of the study. Results: Provide results, with data, P values, and standard deviation of mean (or standard deviation). Present most important findings first. Please provide P values and numbers to support your methods findings. Conclusions: State only what your study identified and what it demonstrated. Do not include extraneous information not backed up by the data of your study. Level of Evidence (for human studies) or Clinical relevance (basic science or in vitro study: why is this study important from a clinical standpoint?)

    Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, the abstract and text should be structured as an Original Article.

    Technical Notes or Case Reports, the abstract should be an unstructured summary (maximum length, 200 words). The body of these manuscripts should consist of: Introduction, Technique or Case Report, and Discussion, plus References and figure legends and video legend (if applicable).

    Current Concepts and Level V Evidence articles, the abstract should be an unstructured summary (maximum length, 300 words)

    Concise Reviews, the abstract should be an unstructured summary (maximum length, 200 words).

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


    Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


    Follow the American Medical Association Manual of Style (available from online booksellers). Include an expansion after three mentions within the article text. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Include any acknowledgments at the end of the title page. List those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Additional information
    Art published as commercial advertising or other commercial material may not be submitted as a figure. In addition, commercial financial or technical support in preparation of original figures or videos must be disclosed in figure and video legends and video opening title. Remove from figures any identifying features such as authors' names or institutions. Graphs and drawings are to be of professional quality. Radiographs or clinical photographs: Remove all markings (such as patients' initials, dates, names of institutions) from imaging. Any labels (e.g., arrows or lettering) must be of professional quality. These identifying labels must be large enough to be legible if the figure must be reduced in size. Sequences of radiographs should be of identical magnification. The subject should be centered in clinical photographs. Crop extraneous material and background before capturing the image electronically.

    Images should be in EPS or TIF format. Graphics software such as Photoshop or Illustrator can be used to create your illustrations. Do not use presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics. Color images must be RGB, of at least 300 DPI resolution. Gray scale images must have at least 300 DPI resolution. Combinations of gray scale and line art must be at least 500 DPI resolution. Line art (black-and-white or color) must be at least 1,000 DPI resolution.


    Photographs in which a person's face is recognizable must be accompanied by a letter of release from that person explicitly granting permission for publication in the Journal. For any previously published material, written permission for both print and electronic reprint rights must be obtained from the copyright holder. Contact the publisher of the original work. Authors are also responsible for paying any fees required by copyright holders to reprint material. Please forward e-mailed permissions to the editorial office ( or fax to 336-716-8448.

    Note that the online submission system will provide feedback to you on the quality of your figures; please take a minute to look at those results. Although the artwork quality-check tool will not prevent your submitting substandard artwork, this may become a point of discussion with you should we be interested in your paper.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure Captions

    Ensure that each illustration and each part of a multipart illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. Figure captions must "stand alone" (i.e., contain a complete, take-home, educational message, as if a reader viewed only that Figure without looking at any others or without reading the text). Labels are always helpful. Please be sure to mention patient position, side, and viewing portal or MRI orientation as appropriate. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them according to the symbol hierarchy (i.e., asterisk, dagger, double dagger, etc). Avoid vertical rules. Include a short descriptive title above the tabular data and any notes below. Define all abbreviations. Do not give the same information in tables that you give in the text or in figures.


    Citation in Text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see

    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

    Journal-specific information
    The Journal follows the reference style in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (see the New England Journal of Medicine 1997;336:309-315 or References must be cited in the text by number and be numbered in order of citation. Do not include unpublished material or personal communications in your reference list. If essential to your message, you may include unpublished material in the body of the text and end the statement with the appropriate information in parentheses. For example: (J. Karlsson, M.D., personal communication, [month and year of communication]).

    Your reference list should be typed double-spaced and appear after the text and before figure legends and tables. Provide all authors' names when six or fewer; when seven or more, list the first three and add et al. For abbreviations of journal names, refer to the National Library of Medicine's List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus ( Also, provide article titles and inclusive page numbers (321-328, not 321-8). The accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of all authors.

    Use these examples when formatting your references:

    1. Byrd JWT, Jones KS. Arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement: Minimum 2-year follow-up. Arthroscopy 2011;27:1379-1388.

    Chapter in a book
    2. Ruch DS, Poehling GG. Operative arthroscopy of the wrist. In: Andrews JR, Timmerman LA, eds. Diagnostic and operative arthroscopy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1997;199-205.

    3. Burkhart SS, Lo IK, Brady PC. Burkhart's view of the shoulder: The cowboy's guide to advanced shoulder arthroscopy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Williams, 2006.

    Article in Press
    4. Shin S-J. A comparison of 2 repair techniques for partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Arthroscopy in press, available on 17 October 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2011.07.005 (available at

    Please do not use End Notes or automatic list numbering for references because these features are lost during production by the publisher; instead, type reference numbers in parentheses in the text and type the reference list that appears at the end of the text.

    The reference list, figure legends, and tables must appear at the end of the manuscript.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the list of title word abbreviations:

    Submitting Videos

    Arthroscopy encourages authors to submit a video to be published on the Journal's web site at as an illustration incorporated in an article that the author is submitting for publication or as video paired with a journal cover illustration. All videos are subject to peer review. We expect professional quality and narration, regardless of method of production. A sound track is highly desirable and is requested.

    These formats for video will be accepted:

    • MP4 (.mp4)
    • QuickTime (.mov)
    • MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 (.mpg)

    Arthroscopy will not edit any video, but a reviewer may suggest that the author make changes.


    • Each video must begin with a slide listing the authors' conflicts of interest.
    • Submit a single video per manuscript, not multi-part videos.
    • Maximum length of videos is 4.5 minutes.
    • Video file may not exceed 100 MB.
    • Please ZIP the file and upload the zipped file to hasten the upload time.
    • A complete legend for the video must be included in the manuscript.
    • Video must be cited in the text of your manuscript just like a figure.
    • Sound narration is highly desirable and is requested.

    Submitting a Cover Image with Video

    Authors are invited to submit interesting images to be published on the cover of the Journal along with an accompanying video. Please include a caption of approximately 100 words that fully describes the story behind the picture and leads readers to see what you want them to see. Submission of a video to accompany the image is now required. Please see instructions for videos below.

    Video legends
    Legends for videos should contain enough detail to guide viewers in seeing the most important points to be learned.

    Submission Checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at

    Submitting a revision online
    Speedy publication requires prompt revision. Revised manuscripts are to be returned within 30 days from the date of the e-mail requesting revision will be guaranteed priority for publication. Revised manuscripts not returned in 60 days' time may be withdrawn from consideration.

    When preparing a revision, use the "Track Changes" option in Microsoft Word. Also, use the line numbering function of Word, and be sure to choose "continuous" numbering.

    Author inquiries about online manuscript submissions
    The corresponding author may access the Journal's online submission Web site (, log in, and view the progress of a manuscript as it moves from one stage to the next.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author, or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:

    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. Please check text, references, tables, figures, and legends carefully. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.


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